Seventy Years ago, on 1st October, 1949, led by Mao Tsetung, the Chinese people achieved a great historic victory by overthrowing the reactionary Koumintang government of Chiang Kaishek backed by US and other imperialists and establishing the People’s Republic of China. The revolutionary forces all over the world observe this day as a source of great inspiration. At the same time, they also recognize that after the completion of the anti-feudal, anti-imperialist tasks of the Democratic Revolution, when the CPC took up the tasks of socialist revolution, the capitalist roaders in the party intensified their counter revolutionary offensive, and in spite of Mao’s fierce struggle against them including the launching of the Cultural Revolution, aided by the brief left adventurist intervention of the camp of Lin Biao, they succeeded to usurp power following Mao’s death in 1976, suppressing the revolutionary forces through a military coup.
As a result, though Mao is still shown as an icon, the capitalist roaders led by Deng Tsiaoping have turned socialist China in to a social imperialist super power, colluding and contesting with US imperialism for world hegemony. The revolutionary forces should not be confused by the way the imperialists and the camp of reaction along with the social democrats are still parading China as a socialist or even a communist country to defame the revolutionary Marxism.
During the 8th Congress of the CPC in 1956 itself, emboldened by the usurpation of power by the capitalist roaders led by Krushchev in the Soviet Union soon after the death of Stalin, the Liu Shaochi- Deng led capitalist roaders had succeeded in getting their ‘theory of productive forces’, that is once the democratic tasks are completed the party should give primary importance to develop productive forces by any means (whether the cat is black or white, it should catch mice), adopted by the Congress. But, undaunted by it, Mao called for “Grasp revolution, promote production”, and counter attacked by launching the movements for socialist rectification, Backyard furnace (self reliant path of development), and People’s Communes, for transferring power to the people. In 1966 he launched the Cultural Revolution and called on the people to attack the revisionist headquarters of Liu and Deng.
Though the socialist roaders succeeded to remove them from positions of power, the CR took an unexpected turn, with the defense minister Lin Biao led left adventurist group (left in form, right in essence) hijacking the CR to sectarian lines, and dominating the 9th Congress of the CPC in 1969, putting forward himself as Mao’s successor, and theorizing that the human society has reached a new era of total collapse of imperialism and worldwide victory of socialism, with Mao’s thought as the Marxism-Leninism of this era. Once again, in this Congress also Mao was reduced to manority. But soon, this trend collapsed under rightist offensive, and the right opportunists and centrists led by Chou Enlai came to dominance as reflected in the Nixon’s visit to China, and the Dengists putting forward the class collaborationist Theory of three worlds, targeting social imperialist super power Soviet Union as main enemy! Though the fierce struggle against the capitalist roaders continued, and though the socialist roaders succeeded to remove Deng from all positions of power once again in the beginning of 1976, the balance of power was turning in their favour, and soon after Mao’s death, they could usurp power and launch capitalist transformation under the banner of “four modernizations”.
It shows that though the communists have succeeded to capture political power in a number of countries, all of them have fumbled during socialist transformation and degenerated to capitalist restoration, in one form or other under bureaucratic state! These bitter experiences show that during the period of struggling for political power itself, the communist parties have to continuously develop Marxist theory and practice according to concrete situation, strive for advancing towards people’s political power transcending bourgeois democracy, and evolve a people oriented and sustainable development paradigm rejecting the capitalist imperialist models.
While upholding the positive aspects of Chinese revolution, we should take lessons from the negative experiences also, so that future revolutions can traverse a more developed path, both in theory and in practice.
CPI(ML) Red Star
October 01, 2019 n