Official Website of Communist Party of India, Marxist - Leninist (ML) Redstar - News & Reports

Protesting against the SC order calling for forcible eviction of millions of adivasi families from their habitats, the leading Adivasi organizations called for Bharat Bandh on 5th March joined by the Adivasi Bharat Mahasabha (ABM). Under the banner of the ABM at Ganjam in Odisha, Kodagu in Karnataka, Palamau in Jharkhand, Mahasamund in Chhattisgarh hundreds of adivasis and progressive forces organized rasta rook and other programs. In Odisha about 50 comrades were arrested while they were staging Rasta Roko movement. Many adivasi and dalits organisation participated in the bandh. Supporting the bandh call, president of Adivasi Bharat Mahasabha, comrade Bhojlal Netam issued following Statement.

Adivasi Bharat Mahasabha (ABM) Declares Solidarity with the Bharat Bandh on March 5. The Adivasi Bharat Mahasabha (ABM) upholds the genuine demands raised by various Adivasi organizations and whole-heartedly supports the Bharat Bandh called by them on March 5.

In spite of the temporary stay issued by Supreme Court against the eviction of Adivasis from their habitat, there is every possibility that it can be overturned. What is required is an appropriate law to protect the habitat and livelihood of the tribal people in accordance with the Forest Right Act. The double-speak of the Modi regime in this regard needs to be exposed.

In this context, the ABM calls upon all progressive democratic forces to join hands with the struggling adivasi organizations and make the March 5th Bharat Bandh a success. n

The Mazdoor Adhikar Sangharsh Abhiyan (MASA), an umbrella organisation of workers’ unions, took out a rally in the national capital on Sunday demanding better working conditions and social security for the unorganised sector.

New Delhi: The Mazdoor Adhikar Sangharsh Abhiyan (MASA), an umbrella organisation of workers’ unions, took out a rally in the national capital on Sunday demanding better working conditions and social security for the unorganised sector. The rally was to protest and resist the increasing attacks on working-class rights, living wages, division of labour, state repression and the unjust distribution of resources.

The massive rally was also organised against the Narendra Modi-led Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government’s attempts to weaken the labour laws and privatise the public sector. The rally began at Ramlila Maidan and ended at Sansad Marg. It was attended by workers from around 20 states across the country.

Some of the biggest labour representations came from organized sectors like automobile, electronics, garment, pharmaceuticals and related sectors from the core industrial regions in Gurgaon-Manesar (Haryana), Neemrana-Jaipur (Rajasthan), Rudrapur-Haridwar (Uttarakhand), Ahmedabad-Sanand (Gujarat), Pune-Mumbai-Goa, Chennai Sri Perumbudur. Tea garden Workers were also present which included Chai Bagan Sangram Samiti (CBSS) in Darjeeling Hills-Terai-Dooars and Chah Mukti Sangram Samiti, Assam. Workers of Coal mines from Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bengal and Jharkhand also came to represent their voices. Rural workers from across the country, like MNREGA Mazdoor Union and Construction Workers Union from Haryana, were also present. Workers from unorganized sectors were also there in strength, like the Safai Karamcharis from Gujarat and Rajasthan, Rickshaw and Thela Pullers, Jari makers, Bidi Workers Union, Construction Workers Union, Anganwadi Workers and Domestic Workers Union from West Bengal.

 ”Today, neoliberalism, and especially the present regime backed by fascist forces, is wreaking total havoc on the toilers of the country. We see increased exploitation, repression and criminalisation of workers, intensifying contractualisation and unemployment, falling real wages and standards of living. But in the current context, where war hysteria peaks before the election, the issues of workers and farmers are completely absent from discourse. Hence, there was a need for the rally,” a volunteer of MASA said in a report by The New Indian Express.

Among other demands, the MASA has demanded the abolition of the contract system, creation of permanent jobs, Rs. 25,000 as minimum wage, halting the privatisation of public sector undertakings, and Rs15,000 pension, the right to unionise, including all social security benefits, for all unorganised workers.

The MASA constitutes organisations like All India Workers Council, Grameen Mazdoor Union (Bihar), Indian Centre of Trade Unions, Indian Federation of Trade Unions, IFTU Sarwahara, Inqlabi Kendra Punjab, Inqlabi Mazdoor Kendra, Jan Sangharsh Manch (Haryana), Shramikshakthi (Karnataka), Socialist Workers Centre (Tamil Nadu), Struggling Workers Co-ordination Committee (West Bengal), Trade Union Centre of India, Workers Solidarity Centre (Gurugram), and Workers Solidary Centre (Uttarakhand).

“A country runs on workers’ toil. But the country’s working class neither gets respect for their labour nor do they make their ends meet with their wage,” the organisers said.

MASA is a joint platform of struggling workers’ organisations and trade unions from across the country. Over 13 such bodies, including Indian Center of Trade Unions, All India Workers’ Council, Federation of Trade Unions, participated in the “Chalo Delhi” rally.

It is a broad coalition of working-class forces from across the country rooted in labour struggles. They have come together in the last three years to get their 17-point Charter of Demands approved.

Two and a half years back, on 26 August 2016, 14 workers’ organisations came together to form MASA in a Convention in Delhi and started with focusing initially on these central issues of a workers’ movement – against anti-worker labour law reforms, demanding a minimum wage of Rs. 22,000 (calculations based on the price level on 1st January 2016), abolishing the contract labour system, calling for permanent workers for jobs that are permanent in nature, attending to the demands of unorganized sector workers, and to build an uncompromising struggle against anti-worker neoliberal policies, a report said.

At the end of public meeting, comrade Sanjay Singhvi of TUCI presented following resolution against war hysteria created by ruling class, which was unanimiously accepted by workers: "MASA calls upon the people of India to come out on the streets in opposition to war-mongering and the threat of war. War mongering is being provoked by the Modi Government’s brinkmanship. War will harm everybody but mostly the toiling masses of workers and peasantry who mostly belong to the SC, ST and OBC castes.

War and war-mongering will benefit only the military-industrial complex, whether in the USA, Israel or in India. It will help the big corporate who will make a killing. It will help some political parties to build political capital in the name of “patriotism” during the coming elections.

We call upon the workers and all toiling masses to fight – fight for peace – on the streets all over India. We can already see that the workers and toiling masses of Pakistan are with us in this fight." n

The CPI(ML) Red Star organized a seminar on 2nd March at Ambedkar Bhavan, New Delhi on the occasion of the centenary of formation of the Communist International (CI) at Moscow under the leadership of Lenin. Highlighting the significance of observing this occasion a paper by com. KN Ramachandran was published (see February issue of Red Star) “Uphold Proletarian Internationalism; Intensify efforts to Rebuild Communist International”. A booklet was also published with important contributions of Lenin on the preparation and launching of the International, the statement dissolving the International in 1943, Chou Enlai’s 1961 article explaining the CPC’s view on rebuilding the International along with the article by KN.

The seminar was presided by com. Sanjay Singh, CC member of the party and Deputy Coordinator of the ICOR. Com. Vimal, secretary of Delhi-NCR committee welcomed the gathering. Presenting his key-note paper com. KN briefly explained the history of the First and Second Internationals, the situation under which the CI was formed, its contributions, criticisms against it and its dissolution, before delving on the critic of the post-Stalin years when no effort was made for the reorganization of the International platform of the communist parties in any form by the leadership of the CPSU as well as the CPC.

He explained that as the Krushchovian leadership in the Soviet Union was abandoning the socialist path itself, it was naturally not interested in the concept of proletarian internationalism. But, in spite of putting forward an in the main valuable document, the General Line of the International Communist Movement (ICM) as part of the Great Debate against the Soviet revisionist line, what is baffling is why the CPC refused to even convene a meeting of the Marxist-Leninist forces opposed to Soviet revisionism including the ML forces emerging during the 1960s. On the contrary, the Chou Enlai article and those who uphold it are putting forward the strange argument that all revolutions took place when there was no International! It amounts to abandoning the very concept of proletarian internationalism itself. He pointed out our continuous efforts to establish relations with fraternal parties and its role in the formation of ICOR which is a coordination of a good number of organizations taking up various international developments seriously. We are not for building a Communist International of the old type, but an International rectifying the mistakes of the past and according to the concrete conditions of today.

Comrade KN Ramachandran concluded by asserting that when in spite of contention for world hegemony, the imperialist powers are colluding to perpetuate the all round domination of the capitalist system in all fields, making the world people’s plight increasingly miserable and leading the world towards an ecological catastrophe, this is the time when the unity of the revolutionary forces at international level is needed more than ever. With this understanding the debate on this question shall be continued.

Though invitations were sent to all organizations and groups left of CPI(M) and papers were invited, only com. Pravin Nadkar had sent a paper which is published in this issue. Comrade Arjun Prasad Singh and Vijay Singh along with progressive intellectual, com Sachin, in addition to com. Pravin who presented his paper spoke in the seminar. Com. Pavin’s paper emphasizes the importance of proletarian internationalism and supported all efforts for international unity efforts according to present conditions. It was a positive approach.

While com. Vijay Singh did not go beyond underlining the contributions of Stalin in this field, com. Arjun Prasad tried to defend the arguments of Chou Enlai which virtually rules out any efforts towards reorganizing the International in any form. Com Sachin dealt with some of the recent trends at the theoretical realm which calls for attention at the international level. Comrades PJ James and Sankar highlighted the importance of strengthening the spirit of proletarian internationalism and called for active steps to strengthen the ICOR and further steps to deepen the international unity of the revolutionary parties to combat imperialist onslaughts.

In his presidential speech com. Sanjay pointed out that we are initiating this discussion which should be continued vigorously in coming days as present challenges before the working class and humankind in general call for strengthening the spirit of proletarian internationalism and step by step moves towards a new International. n

The Huttti Gold Mines which is located in Lingsugur Taluk of Raichur district (North Karnataka) is one of the  public enterprises undertaken by the Government of Karnataka which was started in 1947 by Brtitish-Nizam regime in the name of Deccan (Hyderabad) Gold Mines. Out of 37 major Public Enterprises, Hutti Gold mines is the only Gold producer in India which is awarded as the number one Gold Producer by the World Gold Council in 2001. This Gold Mines has three shafts including Mallappa shaft which is operating 3000 feet in depth under the ground.

Out of its 4054 employees,2223 people are working under the ground in a rotational shift of 8 hrs per day; remaining 1831 people are engaged in plant, mill, engineering and administrative departments. So overall 25000(employees and their family) people directly and in-directly, one lakh people including small businessmen around the company are earning their bread and butter from this mining industry.

Production and Profit Statements

With all the risky circumstances and working conditions, more than 2000 metric tons of ore is extracted from the ground and 5 to 7 kgs of gold is produced out of it every day. The workers are engaged in deep hole drilling, blasting and stone crushing under the ground who are supplied with the oxygen from the surface outside. And there is no electricity supplied under the ground and they work with the help of their headlight lamp.

According to mining condition, the ore is very rare in reefs. For 2.5 gms of gold produced they have to crush 1000 metric tons of rock under the ground to get 100 tons of ore. With all these conditions, they have produced a very good amount of gold in the last ten years as follows:

2007-08 —>2808.38 kg, 2008-09 —>2420.38 kg, 2009-10 —>2068.80 kg, 2010-11 —>2219.24 kg, 2011-12 —>2180.70 kg, 2012-13 —>1582.57 kg, 2013-14 —>1556.46 kg, 2014-15 —>1429.59 kg, 2015-16 —>1310.29 kg, 2016-17 —>1579.22 kg, 2017-18 —>1639.52 kg

It is showing decrease in production, but it is not true. As per the company policy: When the rate of the gold is increasing in the market, the workers are advised to collect lower grade ore and reserve the higher grade ore for future. In the above period mentioned, the lower grade ore was extracted more due to the increasing rate of gold day by day with respect to the rate of Dollar. Out of 5308.10 crores of gross income during last 10 yrs, expenditure rate is 4303.30 crores and net profit rate is 100.79 crores. It shows yearly profit of more than 100 crores and workmen share of 1.32 crores per person. But still, the state capitalism is not satisfied and wants more production and profit. One surprising thing is that without any budgetary support from state government, the Hutti Gold mines has paid 434 crores to the state government as tax and donation in last ten years.

Why Are We Struggling?

With above details, Hutti Gold Mines Staff and Employees Union affiliated to TUCI demanding for 33% of increment in wages for five years (2016-21) through different forms of protest as mentioned below. Workers struggle is going on from last 4 months starting with indefinite Dharna and hunger strike for 43 days, Mass Dharna held in front of Belagavi Mini Vidhana soudha during winter assembly session, and at 4th stage held a highway bandh in January and other forms of agitations. 2000 workers are directly involved in the struggle and more than 300 cadres are working regularly for running the struggle successfully.

There were 13 rounds of discussions happened for negotiations between the union and the company management during the struggle so far. But board of directors of the company are not ready make the increment in wages as per our demand and sticking to only 25% hike in basic salary, 2.5% hike in plot waitage and also they are refusing to pay even night shift, fuel and electricity allowances. Once again it shows anti-working class attitude of government and discouragement and divestment in public sector according to their neoliberal policies.

The challenge before us is to expose state government’s anti-labour policies and the attitude of reformist unions like AITUC, CITU and INTUC who are openly supporting the management. And in this situation there is no doubt about even going for the full pledged strike in the coming days which will be led by our union. n

The mass rally at Parliament Street followed by the people’s parliament at Ambedkar Bhavan organized by the All India Forum for Right to Education on 18th February in which hundreds of students, youth, teachers and other democratic forces participated was a militant demonstration of the demand for equal, free and compulsory education for all in their mother tongue from KG to PG. At a time the Modi government is not only intensifying privatization and commercialization of education, but also its saffronization, and when along with the central government the state governments are also competing to open education for the control of international agencies also, when education is made more and more elitist, this mobilization was an important step forward.

Addressing the rally, com KN Ramachandrn, General Secretary of CPI(ML) Red Star welcomed all participants and assured that Red Star will include all demands of the AIFRTE in its election manifesto and campaign for it, but also will whole heartedly join all struggles against privatization and commercialization of education. The AIRSO and RYFI activists who participated in the rally declared that they will initiate all out movements for equal, free and compulsory education for all. n

Resolution ratified by the Conference held at Town Hall, Sultan Batheri, Wynad, Kerala, on January 6, 2019 : Declaration of Right to Farm Land & Housing

Land Reform programmes after the formation of Kerala State in 1956, did not help the poor landless peasants to obtain farm land or housing. This led the toiling dalits, adivasis and the landless peasants who depend only the agricultural Iabour for survival, who are deprived of farmland ownership for all time, slave like workers of plantations, landless farmers & farm labourers, including all these,  lakhs of landless people were forced to lead an inferno-like life in 4-cent colonies, tribal colonies, wastelands etc., These people were deserted even from agricultural labour because of the policies that serve corporate interests in agricultural field & anti-people corporate development agendas. This endangers their limited means to survive and they are subjected to unbearable living conditions. But all consecutive governments were indifferent to the plight of the landless and poor peasants. The Forest Right Act 2006, Transfer of Lands and (Restoration of Alienated Lands) Act 1975 and the projects like “Ashikkum Bhoomi Adivasikku Swantham” (means - the land will be Adivasi’s if he wishes to buy it), “Bhoorahithar IIIatha Keralam” (Kerala with no landless people), betrayed the dalit-adivasi people & on account of these the ruling class  looted crores of rupees.

 When the downtrodden & the poor peasants lead an unchanged miserable life because of  landlessness, foreign plantation business groups and their binamees  (Cognomen) possess lakhs of acres with them. The commissions appointed by the governments like, ‘Justice Manoharan Committee, Nivedita P. Haran Committee, and finally Dr. S. Rajamanikkam Commission advised the respective  governments in their report that the companies like Harison Malayalam Plantations Ltd. (RP Goyanke), Kannan Devan (Tata), Travancore Rubber & Tea Co. illegally keep 5.25 lakhs acres of land since 1947 which was supposed to be attached to the govt. since independence. All these commissions’ reports undoubtedly reveal that govt. can take over all these land by passing a law in the Legislative Assembly. But setting aside all the recommendations of these commissions, and knowingly losing all the cases in the court, the consecutive govts. Have shown that they are not with the landless people, but with the forces who snatched lakhs of acres of land & suppressed all the land struggle movements. And thus the govt favours the illegitimate holding of lands by these so called Landlords, in lieu of protecting the livelihood of the under waged plantation workers, who are an exception to the proclaimed media hype ‘Kerala Model’. Fictitious  trusts, land mafias &  godmens who illegally own lands by toppling Land Reforms Act, Land Use & Land protection Acts.

Apart from these, it is a growing trend of illegitimate land accumulation by corporate agro giants. Not only that the govts. Have totally failed to take over the surplus land vested with the govt. by the enforcement of land ceiling rules, but also it failed to distribute the 8 lakh acres of surplus land to the landless. (The 1957 govt. had already declared the total area of the surplus land vested with the govt. was 12 lakh acres). In these circumstances we are forced to launch land struggle linking with all the land struggles coming up across India. The State govt. must pass law in the Legislative Assembly to confiscate all the 5.25 acres of land illegitimately retained by foreign plantation companies and their binamees (cognomen). Re-organise all the plantations by empowering all the plantation workers as the joint owners of the plantation companies. By raising the above slogans & under the banner “FROM THE COLONIES TO FARM LAND”, we decide to commence Iand occupation struggle. We expect support of all progressive democratic forces.

Bhoosamara Samiti (Land Struggle Committee),

AIKKS (All India Krantikari Kisan Sabha),

ABM (Adivasi Bharat Mahasabha)

The United States government must cease interfering in Venezuela’s internal politics, especially for the purpose of overthrowing the country’s government. Actions by the Trump administration and its allies in the hemisphere are almost certain to make the situation in Venezuela worse, leading to unnecessary human suffering, violence, and instability.

Venezuela’s political polarization is not new; the country has long been divided along racial and socioeconomic lines. But the polarization has deepened in recent years. This is partly due to US support for an opposition strategy aimed at removing the government of Nicolás Maduro through extra-electoral means. While the opposition has been divided on this strategy, US support has backed hardline opposition sectors in their goal of ousting the Maduro government through often violent protests, a military coup d’etat, or other avenues that sidestep the ballot box.

Under the Trump administration, aggressive rhetoric against the Venezuelan government has ratcheted up to a more extreme and threatening level, with Trump administration officials talking of “military action” and condemning Venezuela, along with Cuba and Nicaragua, as part of a “troika of tyranny.” Problems resulting from Venezuelan government policy have been worsened  by US economic sanctions, illegal under the Organization of American States and the United Nations ¯ as well as US law and other international treaties and conventions. These sanctions have cut off the means by which the Venezuelan government could escape from its economic recession, while causing a dramatic falloff in oil production and worsening the economic crisis, and causing many people to die because they can’t get access to life-saving medicines. Meanwhile, the US and other governments continue to blame the Venezuelan government ¯ solely ¯ for the economic damage, even that caused by the US sanctions.

Now the US and its allies, including OAS Secretary General Luis Almagro and Brazil’s far-right president, Jair Bolsonaro, have pushed Venezuela to the precipice. By recognizing National Assembly President Juan Guaido as the new president of Venezuela ¯ something illegal under the OAS Charter ¯ the Trump administration has sharply accelerated Venezuela’s political crisis in the hopes of dividing the Venezuelan military and further polarizing the populace, forcing them to choose sides. The obvious, and sometimes stated goal, is to force Maduro out via a coup d’etat.

The reality is that despite hyperinflation, shortages, and a deep depression, Venezuela remains a politically polarized country. The US and its allies must cease encouraging violence by pushing for violent, extralegal regime change. If the Trump administration and its allies continue to pursue their reckless course in Venezuela, the most likely result will be bloodshed, chaos, and instability. The US should have learned something from its regime change ventures in Iraq, Syria, Libya, and its long, violent history of sponsoring regime change in Latin America.

Neither side in Venezuela can simply vanquish the other. The military, for example, has at least 235,000 frontline members, and there are at least 1.6 million in militias. Many of these people will fight, not only on the basis of a belief in national sovereignty that is widely held in Latin America ¯ in the face of what increasingly appears to be a US-led intervention ¯ but also to protect themselves from likely repression if the opposition topples the government by force.

In such situations, the only solution is a negotiated settlement, as has happened in the past in Latin American countries when politically polarized societies were unable to resolve their differences through elections. There have been efforts, such as those led by the Vatican in the fall of 2016, that had potential, but they received no support from Washington and its allies who favoured regime change. This strategy must change if there is to be any viable solution to the ongoing crisis in Venezuela.

For the sake of the Venezuelan people, the region, and for the principle of national sovereignty, these international actors should instead support negotiations between the Venezuelan government and its opponents that will allow the country to finally emerge from its political and economic crisis.

Signed: Noam Chomsky, Professor Emeritus, MIT and Laureate Professor, University of Arizona and other well known intellectuals


At the call of JJBPRC (Jomi Jibika Bastutantro O Poribesh Raksha Committee/ Committee for Protection of Land, Livelihood, Ecology and Environment) the second Martyr’s Day was observed on 17th January of this year at Tapoban Maidan in Bhangar, West Bengal. Thousands of committee members worked day and night for over a month to make the day successful. According to the decision of the Central Council of JJBPRC three martyr’s columns were erected across the vast stretch of the struggle area. The first column was erected at Shyamnagar, the place in the northern side of the stretch where Alamgir became a martyr. The second column was erected in Kamarbari where Mafizul became a martyr and the third column was erected in Natunhat where Hafizul was murdered by the goons led by the notorious Trinamool leader Arabul Islam. The Martyr’s Day programme started at 10 ’o clock in the morning with the unveiling of the martyr’s column at Shyamnagar by Comrade Pradip Singh Thakur, veteran central committee member of CPIML (Red Star). Com. Thakur had taken an active role in initiating the Bhangar movement and consequently been arrested in the night of 25th January, 2017 by the state police. He was slapped with UAPA along with comrade Sharmistha Choudhury, another leader of Bhangar movement.

Several thousand people gathered in Shyamnagar. Comrade Alik Chakraborty, the leader of Bhangar movement and spokesperson of JJBPRC, made the introductory speech. Amidst slogans and songs the leaders of the movement, the family members of the martyrs, the central and state leadership of CPIML (Red Star) including Comrade K.N. Ramachandran, the General Secretary of the party and Comrade R. Mansaiyya and Comrade Tuhin Dev, the Politburo members, offered garlands and flowers in the column. Students from Presidency and Jadavpur universities and other institutions offered homage to the martyrs. All the participants vowed to continue the struggle to retain the achievements of the movement.

Then, a huge rally started to proceed towards Kamarbari where the second martyr’s column was unveiled by Comrade Abdul Aziz Mallick, president of JJBPRC. Comrade Sharmistha Choudhury addressed the gathering. Mr Jalaluddin Ahmed, leader of the Welfare Party, addressed the gathering. Next, the giant rally proceeded to Natunhat where the third column was unveiled by Comrade K.N. Ramachandran. The students, Comrade Bandana and her team sang spirited songs. Comrade Biswajit Hazra, leader of MKP and one of the committee members, joined the programme and paid homage. Comrade Alik Chakraborty addressed the gathering. The leaders of some of the associated organizations were also present in the programme.

After a short lunch break a huge public meeting began. Several left leaders like Comrades Sumit Bhattacharya, advocate Bharati Mutsuddi, Dipali Bhattacharya, senior advocate Bikash Ranjan Bhattacharya and others attended and spoke in the meeting. They emphasized on the importance of Bhangar movement and the task to continue the struggle through the zigzags of the movement. They criticized the sundry efforts to belittle the Bhangar movement. Eminent writer Kinnar Roy attended and addressed the meeting. Veteran trade unionist and communist leader Comrade Kushal Debnath, one of the conveners of Sanhati Committee, attended the meeting. Comrade Sankar Das, another convener of Sanhati Committee, also spoke in the meeting. Comrade Biswajit Hazra addressed the meeting. He said, Bhangar is a piece of land where the people control the developmental works. It is like a free land of the people. Comrade Basudev Nag Choudhury, the convener of People’s Brigade, addressed the gathering. Comrade Abu, state secretary of Revolutionary Youth Federation of India, Comrade Fatema Bibi, the state committee member of the Party and leader of All India Revolutionary Women’s Organization, Comrade Pradip Singh Thakur from All India Krantikari Kisan Sabha and Comrade R. Manasaiya from Trade Union Centre of India addressed the meeting. JJBPRC leaders like Ahad Ali Mollah, Asura Bibi, Jahanara Bibi, Sattar Molla and many others made speeches reiterating the pledge to hold high the banner of resistance and continue the fight for people’s democracy so that the sacrifice of the martyrs would not be in vain.

Comrade KNR said in his speech that the Bhangar movement had created history by challenging the neoliberal system and put forward an alternative model. He stressed upon the importance to develop a country-wide people’s alternative from the inspiration of Bhangar movement. Comrade Alik coordinated the session while Comrade Sharmistha Choudhury was the last speaker. 

At 7.30 pm the cultural programme began with songs presented by famous mass singer Comrade Asim Giri. Several singers sang and the show was led by Comrade Asim Giri and Comrade Lida Chakraborty. Lida sang some of the mass songs of legendary Hemanga Biswas. Finally, a drama – ‘Adab’ – based on the subject of communal harmony and written by famous communist writer Samaresh Basu was staged by the cultural troop of People’s Brigade. n

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The Communist movement in India has a history of almost a century after the salvos of October Revolution in Russia brought Marxism-Leninism to the people of India who were engaged in the national liberation struggle against the British colonialists. It is a complex and chequered history.