Official Website of Communist Party of India, Marxist - Leninist (ML) Redstar - Statements
A MEMORANDUM submitted by the Adivasi Ekta Parishad (Bhumi Sena) to central and state governments and concerned departments, protesting against the proposed: Delhi–Mumbai industrial Corridor, Mumbai–Ahmedabad High Speed Railway Corridor (Bullet Train), Port at Vadhavan, Power Grids constructed devastating people’s livelihood and environment, Mumbai-Vadodara Express Highway and Musari Dam on Surya river is reproduced below. The above mentioned projects are totally useless, non-scientific, non-essential, inhuman, irrelevant and also anti-environmental, anti-forest, anti-farming land and anti-agriculture. It will not only destroy the livelihood of the indigenous people of the area, as well as of millions of families living in the area affected by these. These projects are clear invitation to the natural disasters as earth quacks, Tsunamis, cyclones, floods, famine etc.

On 9th August, the 75th anniversary of "Quit India" movement and "World Adivasis Day", at Thalassery in Palghar district a massive mobilization of tens of thousands of adivasis, fisher people and other oppressed classes and sections, who are affected by these projects severely, took place under the initiative of a number of struggling organizations of Maharashtra, Dadra-Nagar Haveli and Gujarat, demanding that MNCs quit India and corporate houses curbed so that against the anti-people ruling system a people’s alternative can be realized — Red Star


The Japan International Consultants for Transportation Co. Ltd., Oriental Consultants Co. Ltd. and Nippon Koil Co. Ltd appointed to the TARU Leading Edge Pvt. Limited to prepare an Indigenous People Plan (IPP) for the affected tribal area / people in the Mumbai – Ahmedabad High Speed Railway Corridor. The Report prepared by the TARU Leading Edge Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi on Mumbai – Ahmedabad High Speed Railway Corridor (Bullet Train) under HSR: Indigenous People Plan (April 2015) has also raised many points of negative impacts going to be faced to the indigenous people of the decided area due to said projects

As per the descriptions on the Project; The Indigenous Peoples Planning (IPP) provides guidance in formulating Indigenous Peoples Plans (IPPs) and to ensure that if indigenous populations are affected by the HSPR, they: (1) are adequately and fully consulted, (ii) receive benefits and compensation equal to that of the mainstream population, (iii) are provided with special assistance as per laws and policies because of their vulnerabilities vis-a-vis the mainstream population, and (iv) receive adequate protection against project adverse impacts on their culture identities.

The proposed IPP should be prepared in consultation with the tribal families / peoples of district Palghar (Maharashtra) and Valsad (Gujrat). The villages located within the project influence district have Schedule Tribe population varying in a range of 70 percent to 80 percent of the total population. In order to have a more focused indigenous plan, these issues have been grouped into (i) issues that are directly related to the project development for which measures will have to be taken up under the project to address them and (ii) issues which are outside the scope of the project but institutional collaboration could help the tribal in their development.

(Used the term indigenous peoples to refer to a distinct, vulnerable, social and cultural group possessing the following characteristics in varying degrees: (i) self-identification as members of a distinct indigenous cultural group and recognition of this identify bythe others; (ii) collective attachment to geographically distinct habitats or ancestral territories in the project area and to the natural resources in these habitats and territories: (iii) customary cultural, social, economic, social or political institutions that are separate from those of the dominant society and culture: and (iv) an indigenous language, often different from the official language of the country or region, Other terms used in different countries to refer to these groups include “indigenous ethnic minorities,” “aboriginals, “hill tribes,” “minority nationalities,” “scheduled tribes,” and “Tribal Groups”)

The baseline data is to be collected through pre-tested structured taking the scheduled tribes in to consideration. The most important component of IPP has been to assess the type and magnitude of impacts, both positive and negative on the tribal communities. The IPP recognizes the distinct circumstances that expose Indigenous Peoples to different types of risks and impacts from the HSPR project. As social groups with identities that are often distinct from dominant groups in their national societies, Indigenous Peoples are frequently among the most marginalized and vulnerable segments of the population. As a result , their economic, social and legal status often limit their capacity to defend their rights to lands, territories, and other productive resources, and restricts their ability to participate in and benefit from development. At the same time, the policy, together with the Involuntary Resettlement policy, recognizes that Indigenous Peoples play a vital role unsustainable development and emphasizes that the need for conservation should be combined with the need to benefit Indigenous Peoples in order to ensure long-term sustainable management of critical ecosystems

The implementation of HSPR and other projects mentioned above entails a number of activities that will have a bearing on the existing socio-economic sector of the rail corridor and its inhabitants. Among these activities are structure acquisition and rail construction related activities. In the RAP context implementation of the HSPR will have both positive and negative impacts.

Provision of secondary employment should ensure opportunities for the local population, and substantial increases of income-generating activities. This will lead to diversification of some household economies. For example a number of people will be employed during the construction phase across the villages. Local people will also have the opportunity to establish small scale food service to cater for the needs of the construction workers. The additional work force on the construction activities will boost albeit in the short-term local community economy within the corridor. The increased income generation activities will provide specially for women additional income which in the existing cultural context implies improved household socio-economic statuses. The project is anticipated to have some negative impacts which however can be mitigated. These include:

Loss of property with negative impacts on the livelihoods of the people. Vulnerable groups will be affected more. Inability to find equal productive land. Inability to find equally prime business area. These are the major areas of potential impacts to be considered for this study.

The following acts should be taken in to consideration at the time of starting the project:

Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 National Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy (NRRP), 2007 United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples The Scheduled tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, which is popularly known as Forest Rights Act (FRA) The Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act (LARR), 2013 Annual Reports of selected districts for coverage of sample villages

The above is only one aspects of the matter, the following aspects also pertinent to study in the regard of said projects:

Study on Environmental impacts Study on Agriculture Land damages impacts Study on Pollution increase impacts Study on Natural disasters due to felling trees etc. Study on temperature hicks due to damages of forest Study on Mountain damages Study on bad impacts on Drinking Water resources Study on following disasters; Cyclone, Earthquakes, Floods, Famine, Tsunami etc.

Reasons of the Protest of the Projects

No requirement of the proposed Projects to the Nation and majority population indigenous and tribles of the area and country as well. Intentionally and deliberately concealed and ignored the negative impacts on the environment, forest, agriculture, farming, mountains, water resources, whether and also ignored the negative effect on the livelihood of the majority population of indigenous and tribles of the area and country as well by the proposed project and also due to the projects the invitation to the natural disasters as Cyclone, Earthquakes, Floods, Famine, Tsunami etc.

iii. Total ignorance and violations of the Constitutional, Democratic, legal and human rights of the majority of population of indigenous and tribles of the area and country arrived by the related Government-Non Government officials, departments etc. in the favour of the proposed project.

Not secured and not insured the equal rights, benefits and involvements (participation) of the majority of population of indigenous and tribles of the area and country in the proposed project. The Social, Economic, Human, Natural and Environment basic interests and requirement of the majority of population of indigenous and tribles of the area and country are not protected. It is also come to know that the British Govt. brought the guidelines to protect 33%forest of the total area of the country, but after independence of the country the Indian Govt.’s proposed around the 20% forest of the total area of the country.

vii. Due to so-called developments by the proposed projects the majority population of the indigenous and tribles of the area would be become bounded labour in future by the reason of unemployment due to the destroy their traditional employments in agricultural and forests etc.

To protest against the wastage of public funds for unnecessary developments. To protest against the development to become the country as sales man (Commission taking Country), to selling the materials, goods and products of the European and developed countries and total employment, profits and benefits also will go to the said countries, because the India is not a production making country, therefore, if only Govt. deciding to proposed the Vadhavan Port to receive the readymade products and goods from the developed countries and said readymade material will be sale in the Malls, Big Bazars, High Profile Markets than the ratio of the employment generation will be zero. To protest against the damage / wastage of agriculture lands for the purposes of so-called projects and the huge employments will be crush / abolish and majority population will become un-employment those are totally depends on the agriculture and getting food, medicine, employment and dignity to the entire family members.

xii. To protest against the more Loan burden on the country from the World Bank and other countries to establish so-called projects, whereby, the country already suffering from the previous loans, even though the interest of the previous loans are difficult to pay as per the financial report of the country.

Though India has more than 70 to 80 % agriculture land and forest, due to anti-farmer, pro-corporate policies adopted by the previous and present governments we have continuously losing agriculture land and forests. The government pursues an industrial and ‘Green Revolution’ based development policy, ignoring the interests of the crores of farmers including the indigenous people depending on agriculture. The government do not take in to consideration the ecological catastrophe and the damage caused to people’s long term interests I the so-called developed countries due to this development paradigm promoted by the international finance capital and MNCs while mechanically copying them in our country of 125 crores of people, vast majority of whom are still deprived of basic amenities like food, housing, education, healthcare and livelihood.

We appeal to the government through you to reject the above projects which are anti-people, which violates even existing laws and which shall destroy the livelihood of tens of millions of people besides causing unimaginable ecological destruction.

With regards

Kaka Kalu Ram Dhodade,

Raju Kashinath Dadoda

Adivasi Ekta Parishad
DURING mid night of 2nd July the police of US/NATO backed regime in Kabul attacked on the protesters tent near the presidential palace in Kabul. Once again police directly shot the protesters and drove military tanks on the crowd that killed and crushed at least two teenagers and injured 27 other seriously.

Following the truck bomb explosion near German embassy in Kabul that resulted around 100 dead and 500 injured, the civilians, students and youth came to the streets condemned the bloody tragedy and demanded the resignation of president Ghani and executive director Abdullah for their repeated failure to maintain security at least in Kabul city.

On June 2, 2017 thousands of youth and students held a peacefully rally in Kabul and asked the govt. for reforms in security sectors and call on government to dismiss the Bilateral Security Agreement with USA. However, the puppet regime not only did not respond to the demands of the protesters but also shamefully opened fire on demonstrators and killed 7 and injured 20 others. The police of the government blocked all the roads led to the center of the city by trucks and containers and arrested tens of the demonstrators to stop them to join the rally in the center of the city.

The demonstration was harshly repressed by the police but the protesters and the youth and students vowed to continue their struggle until meet their demands. They installed a big protest tent near the truck bomb explosion site and erected several others in different parts of the Kabul city. Since 2 June 2017, the protest that gained the support of the youth around the country was known by the name of Uprising for Change. It succeeded to formulize its demands and began talking with government for considerable reforms in security sectors. The government of Afghanistan to show that, it accepted the demand of the protesters, only suspended the duty of Commander of Kabul Garrison and Kabul police chief.

The government warned the protestors to end their protest and collect their tents including the big one near the presidential palace. A delegate from the parliament of Afghanistan also mediated between government and protesters but failed to convince the protesters to end the protest or persuade the government to listen to the demands of the youth and students.

The US/NATO backed regime in Kabul is completely unsuccessful to meet the basic demands of the citizens. The youth on the streets addressed the govt: “we don’t expect you to provide us food, health and educational services; we don’t ask you to provide us job and shelter but, we do ask you security, not every day explosion, killing, abduction, violence and corruption”. They emphasized that those authorities who failed to do their jobs properly, who opened fire on demonstrators, who drove military tanks and vehicles on protestors, have to be accountable to the people and the govt. must not support them anymore.

But, the puppet regime treated the civilians like ISIS. Since the appearance of Daesh in 2014 in Afghanistan they have been mostly targeting the civilians on the streets, high ways and even in the mosques and their homes. For the first time they started their Jihad in Zabul province by beheading 7 civilians including a nine year old girl. Similarly, the Kabul Garrison with military tanks and weapons attacked on protesters at late nights to forcibly collect their tent, but the police faced with resistance by the brave protesters. As result of the barbaric action of the police at least two young men were killed, 27 were seriously injured and 11 of them were beaten and detained.

Left Radical of Afghanistan strongly condemns this ISIS type action of the puppet regime and also denounces the silence of the so-called international community and UNAMA over the violence of govt. against peaceful protestors. We believe, the puppet regime and their bosses such as US/NATO with their fake democracy and human rights, showed their real face to the people and the people of Afghanistan will not be deceived anymore by their false promises.

We call on our brothers and sisters all around the world to express their solidarity with the youth and students in Kabul and tell their governments to put pressure on Ghani-Abdullah government in Kabul to stop the repression, pay a proper compensation to the victims and release all the detainees.

Left Radical of Afghanistan (LRA) 
ALL India Forum for Right to Education (AIFRTE) strongly condemns the unprovoked threats and vicious attack by Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh (RSS) and Hindutva supporters on students who had attended a meeting on 28th May 2017 for a discussion on the Central government’s notification imposing a ban on sale of cattle for slaughter all over the country. As a mark of protest the 80 students gathered for the meeting also ate cooked beef which was distributed at Himalaya lawns in IIT-Madras. They were threatened that very night and by lunch time the next day Manish Kumar, an RSS activist, warned that that those students who had attended the meeting would be chopped into pieces and killed. Manish then attacked two students outside the mess. One of them, Sooraj, suffered a severe eye injury and had to be admitted to hospital.

Although the threatened students had immediately complained to the Dean, no action was taken against Manish Kumar. He has already faced a disciplinary committee and been severely reprimanded some months earlier for creating a riotous situation in a Students Legislative Council meeting by attacking progressive students.

The student protest meeting was a legitimate democratic protest against a reckless policy. The restrictions sought to be imposed by the central government on the sale of cattle for slaughter is a serious attack on the economic interests and livelihood of dairy and other farmers. They will not be free to sell their cattle even when it becomes uneconomical to maintain them. These restrictions if enforced will devastate the rural economy and throw large sections of the population into joblessness and an uncertain future.

The truth is that the Central government has allowed 100% FDI in March 2017 through automated route in e-commerce for food production and food-processing, to encourage easy access of foreign corporates in agri and horticultural production, in dairy farming, the meat export sector, and in the tanning and leather manufacturing activity in India. A delegation headed by a special secretary of Ministry of Food Processing Industries has already invited agric- and food corporates of the USA to participate in a World Food Forum to be held in November 2017 in India. The much advertised ‘Make in India’ and ‘Digital India’ policies are aimed at the ruin of Indian farmers, cattle breeders, producers and retailers of milk, meat and leather goods in order to “open up” a market for multi-national corporate giants.

The RSS-BJP claim that the move is intended to protect indigenous cow breeds is a fraud. This is used only to conceal their true aim by taking cover under Directive Principle (article 48) of the Constitution which recommends, but does not make justifiable, “organizing agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall in particular take steps for preserving and improving breeds and prohibiting the slaughter of cows and calves and other milch and draft cattle.”

Constitutionally, however, agriculture and preservation of stock come under the exclusive purview of the state legislatures. Therefore, the Central government had to take recourse to the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act (1960) because rules for this Act can be framed by executive order. But this Act in no way prevents slaughter of any animal for food purposes. Still less does it ban “sale for the purpose of slaughter” of selected animals. Therefore the Central government’s rules violate both the 1960 Act, and more dangerously, the federal structure of the Constitution itself.

The fascist politics of the ban on cattle slaughter lies in the hindutva ideology and the majoritarianism of the concept of ‘Hindu Rashtra’ which is a complete denial of the democratic pluralism of India’s republican Constitution. The Constitution makes no mention of religious sentiments either in Article 48 or in the 1960 Act. Still less does it seek to impose dietary preferences of a section of the population on other communities or individuals.

The so-called “beef ban” is nothing but an outright attack on the individual and cultural rights of the people to eat the food of their choice, and an assault on the constitutional principles of secularism and federalism in India.

At the end of three years of the Modi government, when economic growth figures have slumped to 6%, when jobs for the youth are nowhere to be found, when the foolhardy demonetization has dealt a severe blow to the informal sector which provided employment to over 80% of the working population, the incompetent Central govt. is cynically utilizing religious prejudice to polarize the people for its petty political gains.

The attack on the students of IIT-Madras is part of this anti-national and anti-constitutional politics of the RSS and its Hindutva brigades which are in control of the current ruling party, the BJP, and its governments.

AIFRTE condemns such attacks which are part of the “gaurakshak” / cow vigilante murderous assaults targeting particularly the Muslim community and Dalit and tribal groups across the country.

AIFRTE demands that the Central and State governments immediately take action against such lawless hoodlums instead of letting them run riot with impunity.

AIFRTE demands that the Central and State governments fulfill their constitutional responsibility to protect the democratic rights of the people as guarantee.

AIFRTE Presidium 


THE attack on students of IIT Chennai for organizing ‘beef festival’ against Modi govt’s moves to practically ban the existing methods of popular sale and utilization of cattle by vigilante forces of RSS parivar calls for severe condemnation. The resistance to these criminal acts should be intensified by organizing students and all other sections of people in ever larger numbers against the restrictions imposed by the Modi govt on cattle sale and use.

On 28th May Sunday evening, around 60-70 students have come together for a discussion on beef ban issue where cooked beef was also distributed at Himalaya lawns in IIT Madras. The same night one of the students who had attended the event was threatened by right-wing students. The next day (Monday) at lunch time, another student who came to the event was threatened by Manish Kumar, a student and strong Hindutva supporter, that all those students who attended will be chopped into pieces and killed. Both the students have immediately complained to the Dean. But on Tuesday during lunch, two other students who have attended were heavily attacked in front of the mess by Manish. One of the two students, Sooraj, who also got a severe eye injury had to be admitted to an eye hospital.

In this regard the AMBEDKAR PERIYAR STUDY CIRCLE has appealed for the moral support of students, youth and intellectuals in this struggle to uphold students’ rights and democracy in higher education institutions like IITs and everywhere.
THE CPI(ML) Red Star severely condemns and appeals to the people of India to totally reject Modi government’s notification banning the sale at animal markets of several types of cattle for slaughter. This fascistic order, if implemented, will lead to the total destruction of the highly decentralized livestock and beef industry In India composed of thousands of small and medium businesses which are giving jobs to lakhs of people. It will deny the cheapest accessible form of protein to the millions of workers and toiling masses, oppressed and marginalized people including dalits, adivasis and minorities. Modi’s diktat will also hit lakhs of dairy farmers who usually buy new cattle by selling old, non-lactating cows for slaughter. By this move Hindutva regime is imposing still more burdens on the farmers. This arbitrary decision which is super-imposed in gross disregard of the country’s diversities and in violation of people’s fundamental right to food and against federal principles should be opposed tooth nail by all those democratic forces in the country.

It is already well known that the true agenda behind this ban is to dismantle the decentralized beef industry in India in favour of giant beef manufacturing and export houses and highly mechanized monopoly slaughter firms like Al Kabeer which are connected with Sangh Parivar, that too at a time when under the Modi regime, corporatization has reached unprecedented levels already. By this ban order, once again Modi is using religion as a cover for serving corporate interests.

The Central Committee of CPI (ML) appeals to the people to come to the streets joining with all like-minded forces to defeat this fascistic offensive by Modi.
THE West Bengal state committee of the party strongly condemns the heinous tactics of the Mamta led West Bengal Govt of unlawfully arresting our party comrades one after another. In the early hours of 8th June, our State Committee member Com. Sunil Pal has been abducted by police from the Harowa khal while he was returning from Bhangar. Com. Sunil Pal went to Bhangar to meet the people who have been living under an economic blockade since a couple of months imposed by armed goons of the ruling TMC party with tacit support of the police administration. He is also a trade union leader associated with TUCI and also had contested in the parliamentary election of 2009. On his way back from that area, Com. Pal was forcibly lifted by police without any intimation to any of his comrades or friends, nor even relatives. We later came to know that he was taken to Rajarhat P. S. and later shifted to Kashipur P.S.

People in Bhangar, especially in the area adjacent to Power Grid sub-station, are suffering from crisis of food and other necessary items due to the economic blockade imposed on them. People who find no other way but to come out from their villages to earn their daily meals are being indiscriminately abducted by the goons and arrested by the police.

We, the state committee, strongly condemn the nefarious tactics of the West Bengal Govt, hatching conspiracy against democratic movements and unleashing terror in the entire State by arresting the people’s leaders and workers of different democratic organisations and political parties who are just exercising their democratic and constitutional rights.

We request all the democratic forces all over the country to come forward and register their protests against the fascistic terror unleashed by Mamta Government.

We demand that the State Government restrain from such vile activities and restore democratic atmosphere in the state immediately and arrange for dialogue with the Struggling people of the State.

Murari Chatterjee

CPI(ML) Red Star, WBSC

Date: 8 June 2017


THE West Bengal state government with its high-handedness and through brutal suppression of the hill people’s aspirations has aggravated the condition of Darjeeling region to an alarming level. As is the general practice of the TMC government, by refusing to deal the question as a political one, it is turned in to a law and order problem. All democratic rights are suppressed. The whole region is handed over to paramilitary forces. The central government stands by the chief minister enthusiastically, while BJP has its own agenda for utilizing the issue. People are being shot indiscriminately. The leaders of GJM are being hunted down including the chief executive of GTA Mr. Bimal Gurung who officially enjoys the status of a cabinet minister. Their offices and residences are being raided and “weapons” are discovered. The situation is alarming.

There is a popular emotion in Darjeeling for a separate state. To hoodwink people’s aspiration for a separate state of Gorkhaland, the Chief Minister struck an accord, for forming Gorkhaland Territorial Authority, whereby she herself also had, in principle accepted the demand for the separate state, as it was pronounced in the accord that the GTA is the first step towards Gorkhaland. At the same time, while signing the pact as the first step to GTA on the one hand, on the other hand she was shouting that she will resist bifurcation of Bengal to her last breath. It was sheer duplicity. Instead of respecting this agreement she went on hurting that popular emotion of the people of hills convening cabinet meeting of West Bengal Government in Darjeeling. To add insult to the injury, the CM had suddenly imposed her language policy unilaterally to impose Bengali on the hill people though revoked later. It is due to these policies the trouble started afresh.

People have every right to raise their demand for a separate state. Anybody can accept this or object to this. But the resolution of this question cannot be through arms. It should be resolved through peaceful dialogue or referendum.

But Mamata Banerjee’s autocratic and corrupt rule is only suppressing people’s movements which are coming up everywhere when problems of the toiling masses are shooting higher every day. Democratic rights are snatched away ruthlessly. No opposition is allowed in the state, whether at Bhangar or in the hills. The way the situation in Darjeeling is being dealt with by the government bears every mark of turning it in to a war like situation as in Kashmir and the North East.

We demand immediate withdrawal of armed forces from the whole of the civilian area of Darjeeling. We also demand restoring normal condition and a democratic atmosphere in the hills and demand that the state government should take initiative for peaceful resolution of the problems of the hills.

West Bengal State Committee

CPI(ML) Red Star
The State Government is playing with fire. In resolving any contentious issue, the government lead by its chief minister is taking the path of suppression. Instead of negotiations with the people, the CM is showing tooth and nail to the people who are demanding anything anywhere. Her only intention is to crush people’s unity and suppress the people’s demand. She wants to make people beggars only to expect some alms from her.

This attitude has set fire in the hills. Her reckless, undemocratic and authoritarian attitude has created dangerous situation there. Everybody knows that there is a popular emotion for a separate state. The Chief Minister had also in principle accepted this demand when she signed the GTA agreement where it was written that the GTA is the first step to Gorkhaland. Instead of respecting this agreement she went to hit that popular emotion of the people of hills convening cabinet meeting of West Bengal Government in Darjeeling. People have every right to raise their demand for separate state. Anybody can accept this or object to this. But the resolution of this question cannot be through arms. It should be resolved through dialogue or referendum.

Now the Chief Minister is saying that by hook or by crook she will resist bifurcation of Bengal. The question is, if she is opposed to Gorkhaland, why had she signed the GTA pact and thereby agreed that this was the first step to Gorkhaland? In that way she has actually deceived the people of Hills and heaped fuel for setting fire. Now she is taking measures to suppress the people of hills and violating all democratic norms. Even the leaders of that movement are being arrested. This might create a permanently war like situation there like that in the North East and Kashmir.

Everywhere the State Government is creating such oppressive condition. It may be in Bhangar, it may be in Hills--wherever people wants to protect their democratic rights, they are facing severe suppression by the government.

We are demanding immediate withdrawal of armed force from the civilian area of the entire hills and peaceful resolution of the problems of hills through peaceful dialogue.

Murari Chatterjee

On behalf ofWest Bengal State Committee,

CPI ML (Red Star).

The Communist movement in India has a history of almost a century after the salvos of October Revolution in Russia brought Marxism-Leninism to the people of India who were engaged in the national liberation struggle against the British colonialists. It is a complex and chequered history.