CPI(ML) Redstar - Basic Documents

1.1)     The Eleventh Congress of the CPI (ML) Red Star was convened by the Central Committee from 27th November to 1st December, 2018, when the ultra rightist and communal fascist BJP led NDA rule is intensifying the corporate raj at maddening pace. It has further intensified all the major contradictions in the country. As the Ninth Congress held in 2011 had evaluated, the UPA rule led by Congress from 2004, instead of providing relief to the people from six years of BJP led NDA rule, continued to impoverish the masses and devastate the country by increasing corporate loot. The price rise, unemployment, corruption, and attacks on the toiling masses increased as the neo-liberal policies imposed from 1991 were further accelerated. During the last phase of UPA rule, all these reactionary policies went on intensifying, alienating and angering the people. Neither the regional, caste based, reformist parties, nor the CPI(M) led Left Front could challenge the Congress-led UPA rule and the danger posed by the BJP at all India level. Instead they were compromising with the Congress at various levels.

1.2)     It was by utilizing this situation and all out support extended by corporate forces including their media, the ultra rightist BJP guided by Sangh Parivar could capture majority in the 16th Lok Sabha elections under Modi’s leadership, replacing the rightist Congress led UPA rule. As evaluated in the Tenth Congress in 2015, what happened under Modi rule was further speeding up of the neo-liberal policies and implementation of the RSS agenda of communal-ization. During the last four years, condition of the vast masses of people and the country was like ‘getting thrown from frying pan to fire’. Under Modi government all basic contradictions in the country have further sharpened, intensifying the corporate raj along with saffron fascism. It calls for an all out offensive by the struggling left and democratic forces along with the growing people’s movements to resist the reactionary BJP rule, to overthrow it and to build people’s alternative at all India level. .…

2.b) Our (International) Tasks

2.b.1)  After the Tenth Party Congress our Party continued to play a major role in developing the activities of the International Coordination of Revolutionary Parties and Organizations (ICOR) As a leading member of the International Coordination Committee (ICC) of the ICOR, the Party delegation actively participated in its Third World Conference in October, 2017. We also actively participated in the International Theoretical Seminar focussing on the centenary of October Revolution.

2.b.2)  Following the founding of ICOR steps towards organizing programmes of the International Workers’ Conferences in different fields, World Agricultural Conference, World Women’s Conference, ecological and anti-nuclear movements etc. are taken up. Our delegations actively participated in the World Miners’ Conference at Ramgundam, Telengana, held in India, and in the World Agricultural Conference and World Women’s Conference at Kathmandu. AIRWO successfully hosted the Theoretical Seminar organized by the WWC at Bengaluru on 2 to 4 December, 2018.

2.b.3)  At the same time, though our International Department has coped up with the responsibilities satisfactorily so far, we have to prepare it to take up more responsibilities in coming days. We have to contribute much more to develop ICOR as a vibrant international platform. We have to make it capable of reacting readily to significant international issues that require immediate reaction, and to organize frequent international solidarity campaigns. We have to contribute more to increase the participation of more communist parties, especially from Asia, in the ICOR. We also have to actively participate in the theoretical struggle focussing on the cardinal challenges before the ICM. ......

4)    Campaigns and Agitations

  1. a) Significance of Bhangar Movement, Its Future Perspectives and Overview of Other Struggles

4.a.1)  The 10th Party Congress had called on the Party committees to develop mass movements at all levels. The Bhangar movement in South 24 Parganas district of W. Bengal marks the peak of the Party’s efforts so far to launch and sustain people’s resistance movements. It mobilized the masses against annexation of their agricultural land, opposing the imposition of the Power Grid Project which destroys their environment and livelihood. It started with the formation of the Committee for Protection of Land, Livelihood, Ecology and Environment by the end of November. 2016. The overwhelming majority of the people got organized under this Committee. It made repeated efforts for discussion with the state government, the governor and the Power Grid Corporation. Instead of initiating negotiations, police forces were deployed in large numbers and TMC goons started attacking the people with bombs and guns. As the state terror intensified and two comrades became martyrs in the police firing on 17th January 2017, the people were forced to raise barricades and launch a resistance struggle, demanding the return of the 13 acres of land forcefully annexed, cancellation of the Power Grid Project, withdrawal of all cases charged implicating large number of villagers and activists, and compensation for the loses to the villagers including the martyrs’ families. In this movement women played a very significant role. Our Party General Secretary Com KN Ramachandran was abducted on his way to Bhangor by the State Police machinery. The abduction news was widely covered by media and peoples protests followed all over the nation, which forced the state machinery to release Com KNR after 24 hours. In fact the abduction made the Bhangor struggle better known at the national level As the central authorities and state government refused to accept people’s demands, the struggle continued and expanded to more areas, inspiring many such movements inside and outside the state. The Committee sought new avenues of offensive to break out of the stalemate and to win the struggle. In this atmosphere of protracted people’s resistance, finally the CPGC and the state government signed the agreement on 11th August with the Committee agreeing to all its demands, marking successful culmination of the two year long struggle.

4.a.2)  Bhangar movement cannot be seen in isolation.  It should be seen as a continuation of the Singur and Nandigram movements which played significant role in throwing out the 34 years long Left Front rule. Though the TMC succeeded to come to power in 2011 and got re-elected in 2016 utilizing fall out of these movements, it is pursuing the very same LF’s path of ‘development,  imposing Bhangar like projects over the people. But contrary to its expectations, if it could demolish the mass base of the CPI(M) through criminal attacks by TMC goons and using state terror, the people of Bhangar have so far successfully resisted these. It is creating a new political situation in the state. Except TMC and BJP, all parties, even Congress, were compelled to support this movement.

4.a.3)  Evaluating the situation, the Committee decided to contest the local bodies elections at Bhangar and nearby villages under its banner. In the district, it planned to make tactical adjustments with all those who supported the struggle to defeat TMC and BJP. At the state level, the Party state committee planned to organize People’s Alternative based on People’s Manifesto to contest these elections. But under state terror unleashed by TMC government, it became difficult to put these plans in to action. Even the filing of nominations itself turned out as a major struggle as TMC goons with support of police and administration launched criminal attacks to prevent opposition nominations. Finally after facing many attacks and imprisonment of many comrades, the Committee could field 8 candidates at Bhangar and in a nearby panchayat, that also through WhattsApp with special permission from the High Court. During the campaign one more comrade became martyr as the rally was fired upon by TMC goons. Out of these, TMC goons captured three booths, and the remaining 5 seats were won by the Committee with overwhelming majority. It was another step forward. It proved people’s support to the resistance movement against the Power Grid. It was another rebuff to TMC government.

4.a.4)  It was at this important stage com. Alik who was leading the movement from the beginning was arrested on 31st May from Bhubaneswar, where he had gone for urgent medical treatment. The people’s response and media attention of his arrest and the continuing protest actions reveal the political importance of Bhangar movement not only in Bengal, but all over the country. Contrary to the expectations of the enemy forces, in spite of the arrest of Alik, which was a great loss at this juncture, the Committee and the people were so well politicized and organized that with the help of party comrades and fraternal forces in the state the movement shall advanced. While the TMC and BJP were engaged in a war of attrition for hegemony, Bhangar became the focal point of people’s alternative in the state leading to the signing of the agreement on 11th August. It is the important task before the Party to unite all fraternal forces to further develop and consolidate the Mass Political Movement.

..... (after presenting an overview of the political organizational developments in other states, Kerala, TN, Karnataka, AP, Telengana, Maharashtra, Gujarat, MP, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand, UP, Punjab, Delhi-NCR and Overseas Committee also where state level party committees are functioning, this part concludes as follows) 4.a.9. In other states also party committees have played important role in the mass movements and struggles against neoliberal projects like the nuclear power plants in MP, Haryana and Gujarat, in the peasant movements highlighting the plight of the peasantry, in the housing right movements of slum dwellers in different states, in Himalaya Bachao like movements focussing on the problems of people in Terai region of UP etc, in most of the places making issue based unity with large array of organizations and individuals. Though the objective conditions and possibilities for launching and leading forward numerous mass people’s movements in all states, and possibilities for joining many of the ongoing movements and providing them correct orientation exist, due to lack of developed cadres and overall organizational limitations, we are facing many obstacles in this important field.

The consistent efforts for expansion and consolidation of these activities shall help to develop mass upsurges at numerous places based on the orientation of our Party line. On the strategic line of the People’s Democratic Revolution our Party Program states: “Rejecting the line of parliamentary cretinism and the line of sectarianism and individual terrorism, upholding path of revolutionary mass line, it (our Party) resolves to utilize all forms of struggle and organizations to mobilize the working class and all revolutionary classes and sections for a massive countrywide people’s uprising to overthrow the Indian state and to seize political power”.

  1. b) Centenary of October Revolution

4.b.1)  The centenary of October Revolution was observed for a year. It was very significant both ideologically and politically as the international communist movement still has not overcome  the  severe setbacks it is confronting from the second half of 1950s. It was also important to expose the anti-communist campaign of imperialists and their lackeys. The centenary programs helped to evaluate and take lessons from the contributions of Marxism as a whole and Lenin in particular which made the October Revolution possible; to evaluate the Soviet experience in socialist transformation, and the experience of the Communist International. On the whole, this campaign which started with a mobilization at Jantar Mantar on 7th November, 2016, helped the ideological and political strengthening of the Party. It concluded with important state level mobilizations and many seminars and propaganda campaigns.

4.b.2)  On the whole this campaign was successfully organized, But due to  weaknesses of some of the state committees, and as lot of attention had to be diverted for organizing solidarity campaigns for the Bhangar movement, some of the programs planned in the beginning could not be fulfilled.  The party committees can overcome such weaknesses only by further strengthening themselves, both politically and organizationally.

4.b.3)  The international level programs under the initiative of ICOR gave a good fillip to it. Our Party actively participated in it.

  1. c) 50 Years of Naxalbari Uprising

4.c.1)  The Central Committee called for observing the 50 years of Naxalbari Uprising from 25th May 2016 to 25th May 2017 at an important juncture in our country, when attempts are made to dilute the historic significance of the Uprising from within the movement as well as by the revisionists of all hues and the reactionary forces. The outbreak of Bhangar movement gave new significance to the programs taken up during this period, culminating with the rally and public meeting at Naxalbari on 25th May 2017.

4.c.2)  The Naxalbari Uprising took place when usurpation of power by revisionists had degenerated Soviet Union to capitalist path and weakened the international communist movement. Under its influence, the CPI and soon the CPI(M) leaderships embraced revisionism. Both started pursuing path of  parliamentarism, abandoning path of class struggle. The Naxalbari Uprising brought revolution back to the agenda of the communists. The campaign organized by the Party focussed on these cardinal questions extending to struggle against all hues of right opportunism. Similarly, the campaign also focussed on the ideological struggle against the left sectarian line which refuses to make concrete analysis of the conditions of our country and to develop Marxist theory and practice accordingly. Campaigns were organized explaining basic documents of the Party, emphasising significance of the theoretical offensive against all alien trends.

4.c.3)  Though a much more vigorous campaign was needed, due to organizational limitations and as major section of the W. Bengal committee had to concentrate on Bhangar movement, it could not be taken to such levels. Overcoming these weaknesses, party has to make all out efforts to continue theoretical offensive focussing on Naxalbari Uprising, later developments and on developing Bhangar like movements in more places leading to strengthening of the people’s alternative against the ruling class alternatives.

  1. d) Other Major Campaigns and Agitations

4.d.1)  Against the neoliberal policies speeded up by the Modi government including demonetisation, imposition of the GST and against the latest budget which further accelerated liberalization policies under the cover of populism, the Central Committee has brought out studies and handbills and called for countrywide campaigns. These campaigns were  linked to propagation of an alternate development path based on all round democratization of the society, combating the neoliberal raj and saffron fascist onslaught carried forward by the Modi rule.

4.d.2)  In the working class front, TUCI in alliance with like-minded organizations took up many campaigns focussing on the increasing attacks on them. There is an expansion of the work in this field. But much more is needed. Resisting the increasing attacks by the vested interests, many spontaneous struggles are breaking out. Conscious efforts to politicize and bring them nearer to organized movements are required.

4.d.3)  In the agrarian sector, under neo-liberal policies, In many states increasing number of peasants are committing suicide. At the same time, refusing to surrender, the peasantry is waging numerous struggles.. The condition of the agricultural workers and poor peasants is becoming worse. The AIKKS is participating in many joint campaigns. At the same time, it waged many struggles against displacement on the one hand, and struggles for land on the other in few areas. Considering the magnitude of the challenges in this field we have to overcome present organizational limitations and expand the movement to more areas mobilizing millions of the peasantry as well as the agricultural workers and landless peasants, the most oppressed sections like dalits, adivasis etc.

4.d.4)  In some of the states women’s committees took up  campaigns against attacks on them and children. Youth and student organizations also took up some campaigns in few states.  AIRSO is active in the movement against commercialization of education as part of AIFRTE. The cultural and caste annihilation movements took local level campaigns focussing on burning issues in these fields and oppression of dalits by saffron fascist forces. Party committees and the mass organizations joined hands with like mind forces in numerous movements against attacks and murder of leading democrats, institutional murder of Rohit Vemula, communal riot in Muzafarnagar and other places, RSS parivar’s attacks on educational and cultural institutions etc. Wherever the Party and class/mass organizations are active they have actively participated n the movement against Sangh Parivar’s communal fascist attacks. Party committees actively participated in the All India Bandh Call by dalit organizations on 2nd April.

4.d.5)  During these years Party comrades actively participated in numerous environmental movements including the anti-nuclear power movements, Save Western Ghats movement, Terai Bachao Movement (UP), anti- Bullet Train, Industrial corridor movements etc. The anti- POSCO like movements became successful during this period. The slum/housing right movement was also active in this period, extending its activities to new areas. On the whole, along with Bhangar movement, the Party, class/mass organizations and various people’s movements were actively engaged in numerous campaigns and agitations.

4.d.6)  During these years Party comrades actively participated in numerous Digital Media Campaigns and proved our Party Website and Social Media page as one of the important organizer of our party now. With comparatively limited resources of our party, we could achieve wide level of peoples reach through digital media campaign for various major struggles including Bhangor movement and many political campaigns. During last one year, our Party Website and Party Social media Pages collectively attracted larger number of people. We need to intensify our digital campaigns further in systematically organized and collective manner by developing effective Digital Media Cell as explained in the Party Letter on Social Media

5)    On Party Building

  1. a) Significance of Theoretical Offensive

5.a.1)  “The Resolution on Theoretical Offensive for Communist Resurgence” adopted by the Tenth Party Congress, after explaining the communist advances following the October Revolution, and the severe setbacks suffered by the movement following the 1956 Twentieth Congress of the CPSU which advocated the Theory of Peaceful Transition, it pointed out: “This (experience) clearly outlines the need for a theoretical offensive. At the international level we are one of the few parties which are now willing to see the real concrete situation. We are willing to make a self-criticism of our past and are also willing to make an attempt to rectify these mistakes. We are therefore in a stronger and more advantageous situation for undertaking such a theoretical offensive. What does such an offensive entail? a) We have to undertake a thorough study and analysis to identify the causes of the collapse of the erstwhile socialist countries, especially Soviet Union and China; b) We have to launch a vigorous ideological struggle to establish across society the superiority of communism over the present ruling system as well as over various alien trends; c) We have to develop Marxism-Leninism on the basis of a concrete analysis of the concrete situation…” The Tenth Congress had called for serious study of The Resolution and the implementation of the conclusions put forward by it at all levels.

5.a.2)  Adoption of this Resolution by the Tenth Party Congress was a bold step forward. Based on this we further developed our analysis of present day imperialism and discussed it in the Party Schools. When the MLPD came up with the interpretation of New Imperialist Countries, trying to explain India also as a new imperialist country, we came forward with critic of this erroneous concept. We have taken up the environmental movements emphatically, joining hands with like minded forces. Bhangar movement has shown how to resist the annexation of the land, livelihood and environmental aggression by mobilizing the masses. The successful anti nuclear power movements also gave new insight in to the struggle against imperialist development perspective which is leading to environmental catastrophe. The Caste Annihilation Movement has initiated moves to build movements for social change as a continuation and development of the Renaissance movement. The Cultural Movement has put forward the significance of the protracted Cultural Revolution for continuous transformation of the superstructure.

5.a.3)  But while considering the magnitude of the theoretical challenges confronting the communist movement, as explained in The Resolution, what we could do in this field so far is still very little. The Central Committee self critically view this. In spite of many initiatives taken through the pages of The Marxist-Leninist, our theoretical organ, of the Red Star, our central organ, and through the website: ecopolitiks.org, very little contributions have come forward to carry forward the debate. There are three reasons for it: firstly, the large gap between what we try to achieve and the real theoretical level of our party cadres and ranks; secondly, still we have failed to raise the intellectual level inside the Party, to recruit revolutionary intellectuals in to the Party and to involve intellectuals from outside the Party to participate in the debate; and thirdly, due to the objective reality that powerful influence of right opportunism and sectarianism prevent most of the organizations outside our party from taking such initiatives. A serious effort is required to overcome these weaknesses and obstacles.

5.a.4)  Through the various environmental movements and initiative, the Caste Annihilation Movement, the Revolutionary Cultural Forum etc many initiatives were suggested on the theoretical offensive. But what we could achieve so far is minimal. Here again, both in developing the theoretical level of our activists and cadres, and in attracting the involvement of revolutionary intellectuals from outside, our efforts are still unsatisfactory. A major effort is needed in this sphere. Similar is the case of the development of the class/mass organizations and the various people’s movements initiated with the help of the Party. Though the challenges before them are enormous, very little advances could be made to overcome them by equipping these movements theoretically and practically. In this the Party Working Groups have to work hard to fulfill these tasks. The Party Central Committee and the state committees should overcome the present weaknesses in this field.

5.a.5)  In a country where 60% of the population is below 35 years old, and when this new generation is systematically kept ignorant about socialism and of Marxist thought, the Tenth Congress also had highlighted the significance of organizing the youth and students and of politicizing them. But during last three years only negligible advances could be made in these fields.

5.a.6)  The Party publications including the central and state organs have to play a leading role in raising the ideological and political level of the movement as a whole. Though the central organs are trying to take up these tasks to some extent and are published regularly, their readership has increased only marginally. As far as the state organs are concerned, except in Kerala, no other state committee is publishing them regularly. Though a Party Letter to streamline the utilization of the New Social Media was discussed in the CC and send for discussion at all levels, no considerable progress is visible in this field also. Once again a more developed note is sent for discussion. At all levels these questions should be taken up and seriously discussed during the Party Congress process for necessary rectification.

5.a.7)  Deepening the theoretical studies and preparing the party members for ideological political offensive demands party study classes and party schools. After the Ninth Congress the process of conducting regular study classes from top to bottom level was started. But hitherto experience shows that though regular arrangement for preparing materials for studies and organizing central study classes are started, except in few states, organizing regular party schools from state to area level is not taking place. The papers for the study classes are not translated and distributed. It is a big challenge before the whole Party. All these weaknesses should be self critically evaluated in the reports of the concerned committees, in-depth discussion should be held and methods to over come them should be evolved.

5.a.8)  In the Tenth Party Congress an amendment to the Constitution was adopted calling on the comrades working in higher level committees to participate in the meeting of the grass root level committees when they go to native places. It is not at all implemented. Condition of our grass root level committees are very bad. Even where they exist, most of them are inactive or do not take part in day to day problems of the people. There is no supervision from above to overcome this serious weakness.

5.a.9)  Our Party Constitution demands from every member, and it is repeatedly reminded by the CC Circulars, that levy collection from members should be regularized, party fund collection streamlined and account system maintained at all levels. But in spite of reminders our weakness in this field continues. It calls for immediate rectification. A dedicated sub-committee team or a responsible comrade from each / concerned committees to be assigned for monthly levy collection from part-timers and close sympathizers. The proper materialization of levy will enable our party committees to provide uninterrupted allowance to full timers.

5.a.10) Pointing out many of the weaknesses in the Party organization, after the Varanasi CC meeting a call for rectifying various influences of liberalism in the party was issued. The latest developments in some of the party committees reveal that this rectification is not taken up by many of the state committees. The state committees were asked that the POR of the state committees should evaluate its implementation and future plans to fight influence of liberalism within the party.

5.b) Overview of the Party Organization     in the States ….

5.c) Unification of Communist Revolutionaries

5.c.1)  The present situation, more than ever, demands the unity of the communist revolutionary (CR) forces to defeat the ruling class forces and to advance towards people’s democracy and socialism, in continuation to the Naxalbari Uprising, which was a revolt against the revisionist CPI and neo-revisionist CPI (M). After last five decades’ practice of parliamentary cretinism, the CPI(M) led Left Front has degenerated to Indian Mensheviks. At the same time, on the other extreme, the CPI(Maoist) has degenerated to Indian Narodniks. In this situation, the unity of the communist revolutionaries can be achieved only by linking it with the ideological-political struggle against these deviations and based on developing Marxist-Leninist theory and practice according to the concrete analysis of present international and Indian situation.

5.c.2)  Based on this understanding, during the last one decade after the Bhopal Special Conference in 2009, many sections/organizations of communist revolutionaries have merged with Red Star. This process is still continuing. Presently, when almost all the parties/organizations within the broad “left spectrum” are undergoing a major churning due to many reasons, there are good possibilities for a new polarization, including merger of many of them with us. After Tenth Party Congress, we have patiently continued ideological political discussions and efforts to win over them, always stressing the urgency of this question.

5.c.3)  The experience of the Bhangar people’s resistance struggle has created more favourable conditions for advancing unity talks with the communist revolutionary forces. These efforts should be energetically pursued at all levels.

6)    Evaluation of experience of building class/mass organizations, people’s movements

It was following the First All India Conference of the CRC-CPI(ML) in 1982 the process  of building class/mass organizations was started. Firstly the TUCI was formed. Later other class/mass organizations were formed, first at state level and then united at all India level. Initially there were problems as there was absence of enough experienced cadres to lead this process. During this decade to some extent these problems are resolved, they continue to affect their development.

  1. a) Mobilizing Working Class as Leader of People’s Democratic Revolution

6.a.1)  Compared to the situation in the countries where revolutions had taken place in the past like Russia, China or other countries, under neo-liberal policies and consequent changes in the mode of production, the strength of the working class in India is much more since the end of Second World War. Including the very large number in the unorganized sector, their strength is growing every year.  The working class and other oppressed classes and sections including dalits, adivasis, women etc constitute overwhelming majority of the population. So the question of establishing the working class leadership in the PDR is not just a question of theoretical importance. Without establishing their physical leadership in practice in all fields the PDR cannot advance. So the Party should give cardinal importance to mobilize the working class and to politicize them along with establishing its closest relations with other oppressed classes and sections, including establishing worker-peasant alliance.

6.a.2)  But in spite of their increasing numbers, attacks on them are intensifying, snatching away almost all the wage and democratic rights they had won in the past. Under contract system, hire and fire etc their condition is worsening fast. But, the response of the major trade union centres to these attacks do not go beyond occasional token hartals. They do not take up any movement to reverse the anti-working class policies pursued by the central and state governments under globalization-liberalization-privatization policies. Though the leaderships of major trade union centres claim to oppose neo-liberal policies, their leaders are linked to political parties leading the central or state governments which are  implementing these policies. After Modi government coming to power, Sangh Parivar’s saffronization has divided the working class and weakened them further.

6.a.3)  The TUCI has led some important struggles and achieved organizational gains during last three years.  It has brought together various trade union centres committed to fighting the neo-liberal policies under the banner of MASA. The party has to play an important role in building up the TU movement

6.a.4)  The work of mobilizing the working class as the leader of the PDR should be undertaken by the Party with all the importance it deserves. It has to concentrate on organizing the working class as a class in itself to elevate it to the position of leader of the revolution. All out efforts including organizing Party fractions at all levels in the working class front including in the unions in the core sectors are needed. Politicization of the working class through ceaseless agitations and propaganda, along with organization of study classes has to be taken up in planned manner. Our party members working in the trade unions should strive to lead struggles of the working class, not only for better remuneration, but also for politicizing them to take up the task of abolishing the existing social system. For this we have to overcome present organizational and political weaknesses in this field. The Party as a whole and the party cadres deputed to working class field should strive hard for this.

  1. b) Building Revolutionary Peasant Movement

6.b.1)  Still more than half of the population in the country has their subsistence linked with the agrarian sector. So, advancing the agrarian revolution according to the specific features of the neo-colonial phase is a cardinal task in front of the party. The All India Krantikari Kisan Sabha (AIKKS) which held its first All India Conference in August 2011 had adopted an immediate action plan. During the last seven years, it has waged many mass movements against the anti-peasant state policies, against the corporate houses and MNCs, landlord classes and land mafias to resist land confiscation for neo-liberal projects, for capture and distribution of land for the landless tillers etc. The Bhangar movement in W, Bengal against land confiscation and the Power Grid Project, and waging people’s resistance to defend it against state terror has provided an orientation to take these movements to a higher level.

6.b.2)  After the last Party Congress, during the last three years advances are made in the activities of the AIKKS in a number of states. Still the overall membership is as low as 15,000. The experience during the period was evaluated and a new Program and Constitution were adopted in its Second Conference in March 2018. The Conference has worked out plans to increase the membership, to strengthen the organization and to intensify the agrarian programs more actively. Overcoming present organizational weaknesses, this task should be carried forward.

 

 

6.c) Women’s Movement

6.c.1)  Attacks on women are intensifying under the neo-liberal regime. Recognizing the significance of organizing the Women’s movement to lead the struggles for women’s liberation, the first all India Women’s Conference was held at Kolkata in December, 2010. It called for building a broad based revolutionary women’s movement, and the All India Revolutionary Women’s Organization (AIRWO) was launched. Evaluating the hitherto experience a new Program and Organizational Principles were drafted and its fourth All India Conference was planned at Delhi on 4-5 June 2018. But the major challenge confronting its expansion is the lack of cadres capable of providing central and state level leadership. This is a major question to be addressed urgently and party committees should give attention to it.

6.c.2)  As its GS com. Sharmistha could not participate due to her involvement in Bhangar movement, during the last minute the the Fourth Conference was postponed. The comrades who reached Delhi from Odisha, Chhatthisdarh, MP, Kerala, Karnataka, Rajasthan and Delhi decided to hold it as a leading activists meeting which decided to start membership drive and conening of conferences up to state level by 31st August and to convene the Fourth Conference at an appropriate time.

6.c.3)  An AIRWO delegate participated in the international conference of women held at Caracas, Venezuela, in 2011. Its delegation attended the Second Women’s World Conference at Kathmandu also. These international contacts are maintained and an international theoretical seminar of women is proposed to be held in India by the end of this year. In order to take up the challenges confronting women’s movement and fulfill the national and international tasks a serious effort is needed overcoming present weaknesses.

  1. d) Youth Movement

6.d.1)  Organizing the youth for their immediate demands and politicizing them to play major role in the struggle for social change are important tasks before the party. Under neo-colonization intensified though neo-liberal policies and corporatization the unemployment, under employment, and socio-cultural attacks confronted by youth have intensified many times.  It has led to alienation and criminalization of increasing number of youth. With the coming to power of BJP led NDA government and the reactionary offensive unleashed by the Sangh Parivar using state power the challenges faced by the youth who constitute almost half the population, have aggravated. Under saffron fascist onslaughts unleashed by the Brahminical forces, all renaissance, democratic, secular and egalitarian values are under attack. Communal, caste-based, chauvinist divisions are intensified.  Youth have come under the increasing influence of consumerism and capitalist values. To liberate youth from the clutches of these forces, to win them over and politicize them for social change, is a major task.

6.d.2)  It was after prolonged deliberations, the party took initiative in helping the founding of the Revolutionary Youth Federation of India (RYFI) at Bangalore in February, 2010. This first Conference adopted the Program and Constitution and defined the tasks before it. But, after the Second All India Conference at Bhopal in October, 2012, in evaluating the objective situation, in   defining the tasks before the youth and in developing struggles in different fields, and in politicization of the youth, it faced serious problems. It also faced serious problems in developing cadres at central and state levels, capable of building RYFI as a struggling and broad based youth movement. An effective central functioning could not be developed. As the central functioning became weaker, the coordination of state level functioning  with all India activities and publication of its organ Rebel were also affected. The central question was to attract the tens of millions of youth who are getting increasingly dissatisfied with the present social system but are at the same time getting alienated from the ideals of Bhagat Singh like revolutionaries.

6.d.3)  Though the Third Conference at Varanasi tried to evaluate these problems and to find answers, the central functioning became further weakened. The Fourth Conference at Ranchi in February 2018 has made an evaluation of the situation, adopted amended Program and Organizational Principles, and elected a new All India Committee. At state level also there are some advances. More attention is needed to face the challenges in building a powerful youth movement. At central and state level more attention should be paid by the party to overcome these present problems.

6.e) Revolutionary Student Movement

6.e.1)  The number of students in the country, an important section of the society, is increasing very fast. Organizing and politicizing them is an important task before the party. It is with this understanding the All India Revolutionary Student Organization (AIRSO) was organized as the mass organization of the students.  Its first Conference held at Mumbai, in May, 2010, adopted the Program and Organizational Principles.  Under the neo-liberal policies the education right from the KG level is increasingly privatized and commercialized.. The religious - casteist organizations, ruling class institutions and imperialist agencies are concentrating their efforts to destroy the revolutionary potential of this most vibrant section of the society and to impose the hegemony of the ruling system over them. In the name of job oriented education, reactionary, consumerist, elitist ideas and concepts are imposed. With the ascendance to power of Modi government, along with commercialization, communalization and saffronization of education is intensified further. In this situation, the tasks faced by the AIRSO is a challenging one. Uncompromisingly struggling against these reactionary, reformist, revisionist and decadent values, progressive, democratic and secular orientation has to be developed among them through campaigns and struggles.

6.e.2)  The serious problem faced by AIRSO is that it has very little mass base and organizational leadership still in many states, while where it is having mass contacts as in Karnataka its organization is weak. One positive development is that during the last few years a leading nucleus could be developed. Under its initiative strenuous efforts were made to strengthen it including launching a website, utilization of new social media etc. A Special Conference was held at Nagpur in December, 2017, which adopted a Political Resolution explaining urgent asks and has developed the Program and Organizational Principles. A website of the AIRSO is also launched.

6.e.3)  On the whole the AIRSO is still very weak while considering the fast increasing number of students, the challenges faced by them and the tasks to be undertaken to realize secular democratic and universal education at all levels. The entire Party has to give more importance to this task by selecting schools and colleges in areas where the party and class/mass organizations have mass base, by organizing nuclei of students in them and helping them to organize membership campaigns during the time the educational institutions are opening, by taking up organizational work and campaigns focusing on student issues etc, and continuing this process during every academic year.

  1. f) Cultural Movement

6.f.1)   Imperialism and its lackeys along with the Indian ruling system, religious fundamentalists, Brahminical-Manuvadi forces, and caste-communal forces use culture as an effective tool to beat back secular democratic ideas and democratic forces in general. This reactionary offensive has further intensified after the severe setbacks suffered by the international communist movement. To re-capture the democratic offensive in continuation of the values of the renaissance movement, anti-imperialist movement and the experience of the Cultural Revolution, and to develop the people’s cultural movement in theory and practice, the party has to play a major role in developing the revolutionary cultural activists capable of leading the movement according to present challenges and needs. Also, the party should appreciate such cultural activity from any part of the society which opposes the caste system, religious fundamentalism and racism, and which promotes secular and democratic culture, and to unite them in a platform.

6.f.2)   In the 1980s itself, starting with the People’s Cultural Forum in Kerala, initiative was taken in this direction. Following series of meetings of cultural activists, artists and writers from different states during 1990s and later, a Coordination Committee of Cultural Activists was formed to carry forward this initiative in as many states as possible. Its Thrissur, Kerala, meeting decided to launch the Revolutionary Cultural Forum (RCF) or Krantikari Sanskritik  Manch (Kasam). During the last few years it has succeeded to hold all India conferences, to develop state level activities and to develop a few cadres with all India perspective. . Second All India Conference of  RCF and Cultural Fest at Humpi (Karnataka) in December 2015, in which Prof. K S Bhagawan attended as Chief Guest,  was a remarkable national level initiative to resist Sangh Parivar Fascist death threat to progressive intellectuals all over the nation, especially after the killing of Dr. Kalburgi. Based on the evaluation of the present challenges in this field and it’s hitherto experience, a new Program and amendments to its Organiational Principles were drafted. For adopting these and to consolidate the organization and activities at all India level, the Fourth All India Conference was held at Bhopal. To take up the important tasks confronting it, the party should extend all possible help to the RCF, including facilitating more effective organization of state level activities winning over progressive forces in to it.

  1. g) On Building the Adivasi Movement

6.g.1)  In 2010 an attempt was made to coordinate our activities among the Adivasis who constitute more than 12% of India population, by organizing the All India Krantikari Adivasi Mahasabha. Though the state level activities continued, the all India coordination did not function as its leading cadres left our ranks. Evaluating this experience, and establishing relations with like minded Adivasi organizations, a meeting of representatives of these organizations and leading Party cadres active n this field was held at Bhopal in September, 2017. It drafted a Program and Organizational Principles for this coordination and launched the Adivasi Bharat Mahasabha.

6.g.2)  The First All India Conference of ABM was held at Raipur on 2-3 February which adopted the Program and Organizational Principles, and resolutions on immediate demands of the Adivasi people. It decided to launch continuous movements for Adivasis’ rights over Land, Forest and Environment. It condemned the oppression of Adivasis in the name of ‘Maoist’ activities and demanded the withdrawal of para military forces from Adivasi habitats and the release of all Adivasis from jails, including withdrawal of false cases charges against them. A 17 member All India Coodination Council and a seven member Central Secretariat were formed to carry forward the activities. It is another important step taken by the Party which should be carried forward actively to mobilize the Adivasi masses for their rights..  To make this coordination to function effectively firstly, wherever party has already influence among the adivasis, they shuld be organized under the banner of Krantikari Adivasis Mahasabha and made part of ABM; secondly all state committees should try to establish contacts with already functioning adivasi organizations and win over them to coordinate with the ABM. Initiative should be taken at both levels.

  1. h) On Developing Caste Annihilation Movement

6.h.1)  In line with the imperialists and their lackeys who are utilizing caste-race-chauvinist divisions and religious fundamentalists of all hues to perpetuate their counter revolutionary domination, with the coming to power of Modi government, it has further intensified the attack on secular values in the county; it has intensified Manuvadi caste based oppression. In the neo-colonial phase, the imperialists and their lackeys had started the utilization of religion, race, caste like institutions in more frenzied manner to degenerate the state as an institution to serve communal appeasement and rabid fundamentalist positions. Religious fundamentalists are promoted to beat back progressive movements and democratic values. Presently, when the crisis faced by the global imperialist system is intensifying in all spheres, in order to transfer this burden to the international proletariat and people of the neo-colonially dependent countries, the imperialists and all forces of reaction are promoting all hues of religious fundamentalists and ultra rightist regimes led by them. What is happening in India cannot be seen in isolation to these. So, the importance of developing an active secular and caste annihilation movement has intensified manifold.

6.h.2)  One of the basic weaknesses of the communist movement in our country right from the beginning was that, though it claimed to uphold the renaissance movement, it refused to accept genuine secular values of treating religion as a private affair and the caste annihilation movement as a part of class struggle. So, along with its other basic weaknesses, they also played major roles in its failure to establish the leadership of the working class movement in the socio-cultural and political fields. Once the movement started surrendering to parliamentarism, like the ruling class parties the revisionists also started utilizing communal-caste vote bank politics.

6.h.3)  Caste system continues as a distinctive inhuman unique feature of Indian society. In spite of capitalist relations coming to dominance in the agrarian sector also under neo-colonization, the ferociousness of this plague has not reduced. On the other hand it has taken barbarous new forms. It is by recognizing the weakness of the communist movement to realize the importance of caste annihilation to develop the class unity of the exploited classes, the Party took the initiative to launch the ‘Caste Annihilation Movement’ in 2011 by joining hands with a broad spectrum of like minded forces.

6.h.4)  After the last Party Congress many efforts were made to advance its activities and to develop it at all India level. Calling for enhancing the coordination of its activities at all India level the Third Conference was held at Raipur. But in the absence of leading cadres capable of advancing the movement theoretically and in practice, it faced many obstacles. In the context of Sangh Parivar blatantly advancing Brahminical offensive and caste system, there are many sections who are increasingly recognizing for secularism and resistance to caste oppression. But what is lacking is the will to advance this movement as a continuation of the great renaissance movement according to the concrete conditions of today, defeating imperialist promoted ‘identity politics’ like post-modernist ideas.

6.h.5)  The Fourth All India Conference of the CAM held at Nagpur in January, 2018, tried to address these problems. The participation of many leading comrades from the dalit organizations and progressive intellectuals helped to take up a serious discussion on how to take up the struggle for caste annihilation. Following it an All India Coordination Committee is also elected with an all India perspective and action program. Party should give continuous attention to this field deploying cadres who can be active in this field.

  1. i) On Building the Environmental Movement

6.i.1)   Plunder of nature is inseparable from the mainstream development paradigm. It has reached the level of a global environmental catastrophe today. Industrial revolution had already done irreparable damages to global environment. It got further momentum in the post- Second World War neocolonial phase when rapid technological advances provided new avenues to corporate capital for intensified exploitation of world people and nature leading to the contradiction between capital and nature becoming one of the major contradictions under neoliberal corporatization. Internationalization of production and global market expansion led by monopoly finance capital leading to change in the life styles and growth in the conspicuous consumption and wastage of energy by the superrich financial elite have directly contributed to ecological damages everywhere. Today, this damage is exemplified through unpredictable climate change, loss of biodiversity, desertification, melting of the glaciers, problems of river protection, ocean acidification, drinking water scarcity, global warming, chemical pollution, deforestation, conversion of food agriculture to bio-fuels, alarming extinction of species, and above all the threat of radioactive contamination from nuclear industry.  The repercussions of these transformations on climatic patterns have resulted in loss of livelihood, food shortages, massive displacement  and migration of people, all leading to the worsening of already existing poverty, unemployment, hunger, oppression and  inequalities.  Meanwhile, in response to people’s ever-growing ecological consciousness and consequent worldwide environmental struggles and emergence of worldwide movements against environmental destruction, discussion on ecology has come to the centre-stage today.

6.i.2)   It is in this context the Ninth Party Congress adopted the contradiction between capital and nature as one of the major contradictions at international and national level in the Party Program. Based on this understanding Party committees at various levels have taken up many ecological issues as part of the class struggle. The Election Manifesto put forward by the party for the 16th Lok Sabha elections had given the call for sustainable and people oriented development paradigm against the imperialist promoted neo-liberal development which leads to devastation, and campaigned for it. When all the so-called main stream parties are practicing imperialist dictated neo-libeal policies wherever and whenever they come to power, and when the revisionists of all hues refuse to recognize the fundamental importance of the struggle against ecological catastrophe, the theoretical stand and the various movements taken up by the Party at all India level has contributed much to strengthen the environmental movement.

6.i.3)   Formation of the People’s Initiative against Nuclear Power and the campaigns organized joining with like minded forces scored great success in blocking the ten major nuclear projects including the ‘nuclear hub’ planned at Jaitapur in Maharashtra by the UPA government. This movement is continuing to resist and defeat the large number of nuclear power projects planned by the Modi government.  Following Fukushima nuclear disaster, ICOR has launched an international campaign against nuclear power. This movement has already scored significant victory with many of the imperialist countries already starting to dismantle their nuclear power plants. This movement has to be carried forward vigorously.

6.i.4)   The Save Western Ghats Movement demanding the implementation of Gadgil Report to save Western Ghats from the loot of mining, plantations and real estate mafias in Kerala, Tami Nadu, Karnataka, Goa and Maharashtra with formation of state level coordination committees which are launching campaigns. joining hands with many like-minded forces. Following the Uttarakhand catastrophe in 2013, recurring huge landslides in Himalayas and yearly floods in Terai region, a macro level study of the ecological challenges is initiated with the objective of organizing Save Himalayas Movement. At local level in some parts of the Terai region of UP an attempt was made to launch such campaigns. A major initiative is require to take up this macro project affecting about 200 millions of people in the  Himalayan region.

6.i.5)   The Bhangar Movement against confiscation of agricultural land and for throwing out the Power Grid Project has given a new dimension to the movement for protection of environment. The broad based movement for protection of environment initiated by the Party or joined by it along with the scientists, environmentalists and various groups engaged in this field is increasingly challenging the devastating neoliberal development paradigm imposed by the forces of reaction. Various initiatives are taken by the Party and class/mass organizations to intensify the resistance against it. It is as a part of it a website is launched to help the coordination of the campaigns for it. As early as possible initiative is to be taken to launch a countrywide coordination, People’s Forum for Environmental Protection, as an umbrella forum of all these movements with the website: www.ecoplitiks.org as its publicity organ.

6.j)       Strengthen Slum/Housing Right Movement

6.j.1)   Under neo-liberal/corporatization policies, the process of migration and urbanization has intensified. The internal migration to urban centres has led to proliferation of slum clusters with tens of millions of people living in sub-human conditions. Though most of the contract workers live in them, the central and state governments and the city administrations do not provide housing rights and civic facilities to them.

6.j.2)   The Basti Suraksha Manch of Bhubaneswar has organised continuous resistance struggles to beat back the government’s move to forcefully throw out the more than four lakh slum dwellers in the city. In these resistance struggles the women and children play a major role. The slum movement of Bhubaneswar is a very good example of urban resistance movement mobilizing the masses. Taking lessons from this, at many urban centers in Odisha and in other states also movements of slum dwellers and houseless people are becoming active under the initiative of our party committees. In Odisha state level coordination of the slum movements has started functioning.

6.j.3)   The initiative taken for All India Coordination of these movements based on a Charter of Demands had led to meetings at Bhubaneswar followed by Bengaluru. In continuation to the coordination efforts so far made, an all India convention of the activists of this movement was held on 28-29 May at Delhi. Delegates from eleven organizations from different parts of the country participated. At the culmination of two days of discussion All India Coordination of Slum Dwellers and Housing Rights Movements was formed with Stop All Forcible Eviction and Ensure Housing for All at Work Place as central slogans. It adopted a 10 point Charter of Demands, and elected a seven member All India Committee for coordination Work with com. Sivaram as convener. This is another important area of work which calls for more attention. All state committees should take initiative in this field also.

6.k) Democratic Rights Movement

6.k.1)  Under neo-liberal policies, even existing democratic rights are taken away and state terror is intensifying. With the coming of Modi government saffron fascism is let loose with the Sangh Parivar playing aggressive role. In this situation it is the task of the Party to assist democratic right activists to launch a broad based democratic rights movement. Though many organizations for the protection of democratic and human rights were formed in different centers especially after the emergency declaration in 1970s and they have taken many democratic rights issues, the experience so far is that most of these activities were confined to the release of political prisoners linked to the Communist Revolutionaries. By and large they have failed to take up the democratic rights of the toiling and oppressed masses in general. So, following the merger of leading comrades, who were organizing the OPDR for decades, in the party, it was resolved to activize OPDR as a broad based organization which shall take up all questions concerning the democratic rights of all oppressed classes and sections. Based on this concept the Program and Organizational Principle of the OPDR were developed, and they were adopted in a Conference attended by delegates from eight states. A leading committee was also elected. Following this its organizational work and activities have spread to AP, Telengana, TN, Karnataka, Odisha and UP.

6.k.2)  It is an important field where Party comrades have taken initiative joining hands with democratic right activists and progressive intellectuals. All possible assistance should be provided to make it active and to spread its activities at all India level.

7)    On Developing United Front Activities

7.1)     From the time the party reorganization process was taken up after the 1982 First All India Conference, the CRC-CPI (ML) had taken up a number of joint activities with like-minded forces and gained experience in it. After the Bhopal Special Conference in 2009, in continuation to many bi-lateral discussions, the Democratic People’s Forum was formed based on a Common Minimum Program. The DPF took up many programs at Delhi and a big rally at Ahmedabad in November, 2012,and many other joint programs. On 7th November, 2016, a mass mobilization launching the year long centenary programs of October Revolution was organized at Delhi. In spite of all these efforts and appeal to CR forces as well as democratic organizations, no positive response was forthcoming from them. Besides, the existing constituents of DPF were organizationally weak. They could not mobilize for any program. They were local based and were reluctant to participate in all India programs. In this situation the DPF has become inactive.

7.2)     The new situation demands a new initiative to unite the struggling left and democratic forces along with the various people’s movements to build Mass Political Platforms based on common manifesto at state level as the first step., At all India level they can be united as a broad coordination of the Party with other struggling left organizations, struggling mass platforms like the Bhangar committee (Committee for Protection of Land, Livelihood, Ecology and Environment), organizations of oppressed classes and sections like dalits, adivasis, women, minorities etc based on a People’s Manifesto. In the coming days this initiative has to be taken energetically.

8)    Tasks Before the Party

8.1)     The Resolution on Theoretical Offensive adopted by the 10th Party Congress pointed out: “We have already made certain theoretical gains. We have a deeper understanding today of the neo-colonial system. We have found that in India and in many other countries under neo-colonial domination, there has been an ever more capitalistic system being introduced in agriculture. We have understood the importance of the environmental question and given it the importance it deserves. Many more questions still face us, such as further studies on the nature of imperialism today, the meaning of a new paradigm of development and the building of socialism with greater democracy. We have to face such questions fearlessly and study them. ……

“The task before us is to take up the building of the communist movement in India and to play an active role in doing so in the rest of the world. …We must boldly seize the real questions faced by the people in today’s situation and must scientifically search out the solutions. We must unsparingly lay bare our own history, the history of the communists in India and all over the world. We must make a base for combining with all sections of the people who are fighting against the injustice caused by the present capitalist imperialist system – whether in intensifying human exploitation, in all forms of environmental damage, gender injustice, caste and racial injustice, persecution of minorities, etc. We must fervently organize the workers and peasants to face the new situation. Students, youth etc. must be rallied on the basis of the new understanding. It is precisely if we develop the correct theory, that we will not have to go behind the workers, peasants, youth, women, etc. – they will be drawn forward to the correct theory. This true measure of the theoretical offensive has to be grasped and carried forward”.

8.2)     The main tasks before the Party starts with energetic party building, intensifying the building of class/mass organizations and people’s movements, developing class struggle with a comprehensive understanding, launching people’s struggles vigorously focusing on urgent issues, utilizing all forms of struggle to intensify class struggle, and build up People’s Alternative based on People’s Manifesto to develop both non-parliamentary and parliamentary struggles. All out initiative for advancing these tasks should be taken up with the perspective of creating revolutionary upsurge.

9)         Political Organisational Report Part II (In this part a summary of the PORs adopted by the state committees, of the overseas committee and the Party Centre was given)

10)       Conclusion

10.1)   The successful convening of the Eleventh Party Congress marked an important step forward not only for our Party, but for all the Marxist-Leninist forces and progressive forces who look forward to the emergence of a unified Party with all India influence, capable of leading the PDR to victory and advancing to socialist revolution. During the period following the Tenth Congress the neo-colonial/corporate plunder became more pernicious. As the capitalist-imperialist system is facing  further crises, its burden is increasingly shifted to the working class and world people through intensification of the neo- liberal policies utilizing the religious fundamentalist, casteist-racist like forces and corporate fascist offensive. The absence of Marxist-Leninist forces capable of effectively challenging this ultra rightist corporate offensive is the major challenge before the world people. To overcome this, launching of relentless theoretical offensive against wrong ideas prevalent within the revolutionary camp, as also against all anti- socialist ideas and tendencies propagated by the bourgeois theorists in the wider society as a whole, are of paramount importance. This situation demands revolutionary initiative on the part of the Marxist-Leninist forces to free themselves from the old shackles binding them, daringness to find answers for past weaknesses, and to find solutions for future revolutionary advances. It demands intensification of class struggle in all fields

10.2)   As the obstacle for the development of the people’s upsurges coming up is the absence of Marxist- Leninist parties capable of leading them  towards social change, it can be overcome by developing the theoretical understanding according to the present concrete condition and through intensification of class struggle everywhere. This is also the situation in our country. We have made advances during the last four decades after we took up the theoretical studies, developed theory and practice utilizing all forms of organizations and struggles. In spite of the counter revolutionary fascist offensive by the RSS Parivar, a favourable situation for the revolutionary forces to advance is emerging by daring to challenge this by mobilizing the masses as at Bhangar . Let us seize the day, seize the hour, march forward uniting all oppressed classes and sections, and wage relentless struggles to overthrow the reactionary ruling system in a mighty wave of people’s uprisings with the working class and its Party in the vanguard.

Long Live Marxism-Leninism-Mao Thought !

Long Live Proletarian Internationalism !

Long Live ICOR !

Long Live CPI (ML) Red Star ! Advance Along the Path of People’s Democratic Revolution as Part of World Proletarian Socialist Revolution ! n

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1-3    fdUrq O;kikfjd iwathokn ds vkjfEHkd fnuksa esa gh mifuos'koknh rkdrksa ds mHkkj ds lkFk mlus fodkl ds bl jkLrs esa n[ky nsuk vkSj mls cyiwoZd cnyuk 'kq: dj fn;k A bl miegk}hi esa mRiknd 'kfDr;ksa dk tks ns”kt fodkl gks jgk Fkk mls fgUld rjhds ls dqpy fn;k x;k A mifuos'khdj.k ds bl fu"Bqj izfØ;k dh vkSipkfjd “kq:vkr 1757 dh Iyklh dh yM+kbZ ls gqbZ Fkh tks ,d lkS lky ls T;knk le; rd pyh A bl izfØ;k ds tfj, 1857 ds izFke Lora=rk laxzke dks f”kdLr nsus ds ckn fczfV”k lkezkT;okn vUrr% Hkkjr dks vkSipkfjd :i ls viuk mifuos'k cukus esa dke;kc gks x;k A fczfV'k mifuos'kokfn;ksa us tehUnkjh izFkk vkSj jS;rokjh izFkk ykxw dj ,dne “kq: ls gh d`f"k lEcU/kksa dks cnyuk 'kq: dj fn;k Fkk A bu dneksa ds tfj, mifuosf'kd izHkqRo ds lkekftd vk/kkj ds :i esa mldh lsok djus ds fy, lkeUrh] v)Z&lkeUrh lEcU/kksa dks lqn`<+ fd;k x;k Fkk A ;gka ds vikj lalk/kuksa ds ywV dh jkg lqxe cukus ds fy, rFkk iwathoknh lap; esa enn ds fy, fcpkSfy;s ds :i eas ,d O;kikjh oxZ dks izksRlkgu fn;k x;k Fkk tks vkxs pydj nyky iwathifr oxZ esa rCnhy gks x;k vkSj ftlus fczfV'k mifuosf'kd O;oLFkk ds lkFk Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk ds ,dhdj.k dk dke fd;k A mifuosf'kd jkT; ra= dh lsok ds fy, vaxszth f'k{kk iz.kkyh dh 'kq:vkr dj ,d nyky ukSdj'kkgh oxZ dks Hkh fodflr fd;k x;k Fkk A blds lkFk&lkFk] gkykafd mifuos”koknh uhfr;ksa ds pyrs dqN {ks=ksa esa tkfr O;oLFkk ds dBksj pfj= dk de&ls&de lrgh rkSj ij {kj.k gqvk Fkk] rFkkfi mifuosf”kd 'kklu dks Fkkedj j[kus okys leFkZu vk/kkj ds :i esa bldk bLrseky djus ds fy, mlus bls c<+kok gh fn;k Fkk A mifuosf'kd 'kklu dks lqjf{kr j[kus ds fy, lkEiznkf;d >xM+ksa dks HkM+dk dj ^QwV Mkyks vkSj jkt djks* dh uhfr dks Hkh c<+kok fn;k x;k Fkk A

1-4    fczfV'k lkezkT;okn us tc ls vius mifuosf”kd izHkqRo dks LFkkfir djuk 'kq: fd;k rc ls gh turk ds fofHkUu rcdksa us muds fo:) la?k’kZ NsM+ fn;k Fkk ftldh “kq:vkr dbZ lkjs bykdksa esa vkfnoklh fonzksgksa ls gqbZ Fkh A vyx&vyx vapyksa ds lkekftd fodkl ds Lrj vkSj ogka dh Bksl ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds vuq:i] ,d rjQ uo&tkxj.k dh fofHkUu /kkjkvksa us vkSj nwljh rjQ iwathoknh yksdra= ds izHkko us mifuosf'kd 'kklu ds fo:) lkekftd o jktuhfrd psruk iSnk djus esa viuh Hkwfedk fuHkkuk “kq: dj fn;k Fkk A 1857 dk izFke Lora=rk laxzke Hkkjrh; turk dk mifuosf'kd 'kklu ds f[kykQ igyk laxfBr ns'kHkfDriw.kZ fonzksg Fkk A gkykafd turk dks lkEiznkf;d vk/kkj ij ckaVus lesr fofHkUu ?k`f.kr rjhds viukdj bls fueZerk ds lkFk dqpy fn;k x;k Fkk] fQj Hkh fofHkUu vapyksa esa mifuosf”kd “kklu dks yxkrkj pqukSrh nsrs gq, ,d ds ckn ,d tumHkkj gksrs jgs A bl ifjfLFkfr esa] mifuos”kokfn;ksa dh lfØ; Hkkxhnkjh ls] mifuosf”kd “kklu ds fo:) tu vkØks”k dks dkcw esa j[kus ds fy, lqj{kk VksVh ¼ls¶Vh okYo½ ds :i esa Hkkjrh; jk’Vªh; dkaxszl dk xBu fd;k x;k Fkk A dkaxszl ij mHkjrs nyky iwathifr;ksa] cM+s HkwLokeh oxZ vkSj ukSdj'kkgh rcdksa dk ncnck Fkk] rks ij Hkh og mifuosf”kd “kklu ds fo:) jk’Vªh; vkUnksyu dk ,d eap cu x;k Fkk A QyLo:i] dkaxszl iwjs ns”k esa vius izHkko dk foLrkj djus yxh Fkh A ysfdu vius oxZ pfj= ds dkj.k mlus mifuosf”kd “kkldksa ds f[kykQ tu leqnk; ds ØkfUrdkjh tks”k dks mUeqDr ugha fd;k A og fczfV”k jk’VªeaMy ds vUnj vf/kjkT; dk ntkZ ¼dominion status½ ekax dj gh larq"V Fkh A

1-5    fofHkUu dsUnzkas esa gks jgs vkS|ksfxd fodkl ds pyrs etnwj oxZ dh la[;k c<+us yxh vkSj mUuhloha lnh ds vfUre n'kd esa VsªM ;wfu;u vkUnksyu fodflr gksus yxk A mUgksaus tYn gh jktuhfrd {ks= esa Hkh dne j[kuk 'kq: dj fn;k A 1917 dh vDVwcj ØkfUr us nqfu;k Hkj esa jk"Vªh; eqfDr vkUnksyuksa dks ,d u;k vkosx iznku fd;k A dE;qfuLV vkUnksyu dk tUe gqvk vkSj bldh igy ij iw.kZ vktknh dh ekax xksycUnh dk dsUnz cu xbZ] ftls dkaxszl dks Hkh Lohdkj djuk iM+k A 1920 ds n'kd esa fofHkUu ØkfUrdkjh rkdrksa dk mHkkj Hkh ns[kk x;k] tSls fd og /kkjk ftldk usr`Ro Hkxr flag dj jgs Fks A etnwj oxZ ds la?k"kksZa vkSj lkeUrokn&fojks/kh vkUnksyuksa dk foLQksV Hkh bu n”kdksa dh ,d [kkl igpku cuus yxh Fkh A dE;qfuLV vUrjkZ"Vªh; us etnwj oxZ ds usr`Ro esa turk dh tuoknh ØkfUr dk ekxZn”kZd fl)kUr is'k fd;k Fkk ftldk Hkkjr tSls ns”kksa mu ns”kksa dks vuqikyu djuk Fkk tks fofHkUu :iksa esa mifuosf”kd izHkqRo ds ekrgr Fks A rst gksrs lkearokn&fojks/kh vkSj mifuos”kokn&fojks/kh la?k’kksZa us Økafrdkjh rkdrksa ds fodkl dh ifjfLFkfr;ka fufeZr dj nh Fkh A bu lcds ckotwn] Hkkdik dk usr`Ro mHkj jgs cM+s iwathifr;ksa ds nyky pfj= vkSj dkaxzsl ij mlds izHkko dk Bksl fo'ys"k.k dj ikus esa rFkk Hkkjr dh Bksl ifjfLFkfr dk fo”ys’k.k djrs gq, ØkfUrdkjh fn”kk dk fodkl dj ikus esa vlQy jgk A og vktknh dh yM+kbZ eas etnwj oxZ dk usr`Ro LFkkfir dj ikus esa vlQy jgk A mYVs] mlus jk’Vªh; vkUnksyu dk usr`Ro] dekscs'k] dkaxzsl vkSj eqfLye yhx dks lkSai fn;k Fkk A f}rh; fo'o ;q) esa lksfo;r la?k dh vxqokbZ esa Qklhokn&fojks/kh rkdrksa dh egku fot; ds ckotwn] jk"Vªh; eqfDr vkUnksyu dh fo'kky ygj rFkk ukS lsuk fonzksg] rsyaxkuk o rsHkkxk vkUnksyu vkSj etnwj oxZ ds 'kfDr'kkyh la?k"kksZa ds QwV iM+us ds ckotwn Hkkdik dk usr`Ro viuh xyr fn'kk dks lq/kkj ikus esa vlQy jgk A

1-6    f}rh; fo'o ;q) ds ckn dh vof/k esa fo”o Lrj ij Hkkjh cnyko vk;k Fkk A lksfor; la?k ds usr`Ro esa lektoknh [ksek vkSj jk"Vªh; eqfDr vkUnksyu ,d cy'kkyh rkdr ds :i esa mHkj dj lkeus vk;k Fkk A nwljh rjQ fczfV'k lkezkT;okn detksj gks x;k Fkk vkSj lkezkT;oknh [kses ds usrk ds :i esa vesfjdk mHkjdj lkeus vk;k Fkk A bl ifjfLFkfr eas] lektoknh [kses dh vksj ls fey jgh pqukSrh dk eqdkcyk djus ds fy, vkSj fo'o Lrj ij vius izHkqRo dk foLrkj djus ds fy, vesfjdh usr`Ro okys lkezkT;oknh [kses us ywV vkSj izHkqRo ds mifuosf'kd Lo:iksa dks uo&mifuosf'kd Lo:iksa esa rCnhy djuk 'kq: fd;k A blds fy, vko';d vkStkjksa dks x<+k x;k vkSj mifuos'kksa esa nyky ukSdj”kkgh iwathifr vkSj HkwLokeh oxksZa ds izfrfuf/k;ksa dks lÙkk dk gLrkarj.k fd;k x;k A fczfV'k lkezkT;okn us bl uhfr dks ykxw djrs gq, ns'k dk lkEiznkf;d vk/kkj ij foHkktu fd;k rFkk dkaxszl vkSj eqfLye yhx dks lÙkk dk gLrkarj.k fd;k tks Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku esa nyky iwathifr&cMs+ HkwLokeh ds oxZ fgrksa dk izfrfuf/kRo dj jgs Fks A

[k.M  nks

uo&mifuos'khdj.k ds rgr rhoz gksrk ladV vkSj ubZ pqukSfr;ka

2-1    f}rh; fo'o ;q) ds ckn dh vof/k esa] gkykafd ;g ;qx vc Hkh lkezkT;okn vkSj loZgkjk ØkfUr dk ;qx gh gS] rFkkfi lkezkT;oknh O;oLFkk ds uo&mifuosf'kd pj.k esa vUrjjk"Vªh; Lrj ij fuEu vUrfoZjks/k vc Hkh izeq[k vUrfoZjks/k cus gq, gSa  lkezkT;okn vkSj nqfu;k ds mRihfM+r jk"Vªksa ,oa turk ds chp vUrfoZjks/k] iwath vkSj Je ds chp vUrfoZjks/k] lkezkT;oknh ns'kksa dk vkSj btkjsnkj lewgksa dk vkil esa vUrfoZjks/k] rFkk lkezkT;oknh O;oLFkk vkSj lektoknh rkdrksa ds chp vUrfoZjks/k A blds lkFk gh] bl vof/k ds nkSjku] [kkldj 1970 ds n'kd esa vk;s ladV ds ckn] fodkl ds izfr lkezkT;oknh utfj, ds rgr cstksM+ rduhdh mUufÙk dk bLrseky djrs gq, izkd`frd ,oa ekuo lalk/kuksa ds nksgu dh ikxy nkSM+ ds pyrs i;kZoj.k dk fouk'k yxkrkj rhoz gksrk x;k gS tks vUrjjk"Vªh; ,oa jk"Vªh; nksuksa Lrjksa ij ,d izeq[k fo’k; curk x;k gS A blus] vUrjjk"Vªh; ,oa jk"Vªh; nksuksa Lrjksa ij] pkj vU; izeq[k vUrfoZjks/kksa ds lkFk&lkFk ,d u;s] ikaposa izeq[k vUrfoZjks/k dks] iwath vkSj izd`fr ds chp vUrfoZjks/k dks tUe fn;k gS A vUrjjk’Vªh; Lrj ij bu ikap eq[; vUrfoZjks/kksa esa ls lkezkT;okn vkSj mRihfM+r turk ,oa jk’Vªksa ds chp vUrfoZjks/k vc Hkh iz/kku vUrfoZjks/k cuk gqvk gS A

2-2    1947 esa lÙkk gLrkarj.k ds i'pkr] lkezkT;okn dh lsok dj jgs nyky ukSdj'kkgh iwathifr&cM+s HkwLoeh oxksZa ds fgrksa dh lsok djrs gq, dkaxszl ljdkj us ns”k ds njokts dks lHkh lkezkT;oknh ns'kksa ls cM+s iSekus ij fons'kh iwath dh ?kqliSB ds fy, [kksy fn;k A Þtksrus okys dks tehuß ds vk/kkj ij Hkwfe lq/kkj ykxw djus ls bUdkj djrs gq,] ftldk vktknh dh yM+kbZ ds le; ok;nk fd;k x;k Fkk] blus Hkwfe gncUnh dkuwu ¼yS.M flfyax ,DV½ vkfn ds uke ij ÞÅij ls Hkwfe lq/kkjß ykxw fd;k vkSj bl izdkj iqjkus lkeUrh Hkwfe lEcU/kksa dks izfrLFkkfir djuk “kq: fd;k A ifj.kke Lo:i] ,d u;s fdLe dk HkwLokeh oxZ mHkjus yxk vkSj izHkqRo esa vkus yxk ftlus ^gfjr ØkfUr* tSlh uhfr;ksa ds rgr d`f"k {ks= dks iwath o cktkj dh rkdrksa vkSj u;s rduhdh vfo’dkjksa ds fy, [kksyuk 'kq: fd;k A

2-3    Hkkjr tks fd ,d mifuosf'kd vkSj v)Z&lkeUrh ns'k Fkk] og lÙkk gLrkarj.k ds lkFk uo&mifuosf'kd izHkqRo ds rgr ,d vkfJr ns'k esa rCnhy gks x;k A blds lkFk gh d`f"k lEcU/kksa esa rsth ls cnyko yk;s x;s D;ksafd lkezkT;okn us vius lkekftd vk/kkj ds :i esa lkeUrokn dk bLrseky djus dh viuh mifuosf”kd uhfr dks R;kx fn;k Fkk A ns”k esa mifuosf'kd dky ds nkSjku fuEu pkj izeq[k vUrfoZjks/k Fks  lkezkT;okn vkSj jk"Vª ds chp vUrfoZjks/k] lkeUrokn vkSj O;kid tu leqnk;ksa ds chp vUrfoZjks/k] iwath vkSj Je ds chp vUrfoZjks/k rFkk 'kkld oxksaZ dk vkil esa vUrfoZjks/k A blesa lkezkT;okn vkSj jk"Vª ds chp vUrfoZjks/k iz/kku Fkk A uo&mifuos'khdj.k ds rgr ;s vUrfoZjks/k cnydj bl rjg gks x;s gSa  lkezkT;okn vkSj turk ds chp vUrfoZjks/k] iwath vkSj Je ds chp vUrfoZjks/k] HkwLokeh oxksZa vkSj fdlkuksa ds O;kid tu leqnk;ksa ds chp vUrfoZjks/k rFkk 'kkld oxksZa dk vkil esa vUrfoZjks/k A blds vykok] tSlk fd Åij O;k[;k dh xbZ gS] gky ds le; esa iwath vkSj izd`fr ds chp vUrfoZjks/k ikaposa izeq[k vUrfoZjks/k ds :i esa mHkjk gS A vkSj iz/kku vUrfoZjks/k ,d rjQ lkezkT;okn] nyky ukSdj'kkgh iwathifr ,oa HkwLokeh oxksZa ds xBtksM+ vkSj nwljh rjQ O;kid tu leqnk;ksa ds chp vUrfoZjks/k eas rCnhy gks x;k gS A

2-4    lkezkT;oknh O;oLFkk }kjk uo&mifuos'khdj.k ds rgr ykxw dh xbZ dhUloknh uhfr;ksa ds rgr rFkk 1940 ds n'kd esa vfLrRo esa vk;s cy'kkyh lektoknh [kses vkSj rkdroj jk"Vªh; eqfDr vkUnksyuksa ,oa etnwj oxZ ds c<+rs la?k"kksZa ds izHkko ds pyrs] 1947 ds ckn ds o"kksZa esa Hkkjrh; “kkld oxksZa ds fgrksa dk izfrfuf/kRo djrs gq, dkaxszl ljdkj us vusd dY;k.kdkjh uhfr;ksa dh “kq:vkr dh Fkh] dksj mRiknd {ks=ksa dk jk"Vªh;dj.k fd;k Fkk vkSj ,d 'kfDr'kkyh lkoZtfud {ks= dk fuekZ.k fd;k Fkk A ysfdu 1970 ds n'kd esa BgjkLQhfr ¼mRiknu esa Bgjko vkSj eqnzkLQhfr½ loZizeq[k ifj?kVuk cu xbZ Fkh vkSj lkezkT;oknh O;oLFkk xaHkhj ladV dk lkeuk djus yxh Fkh A blfy, vesfjdk dh vxqokbZ esa lkezkT;oknh ns'kksa us vc rd dh dhUloknh uhfr;ksa dh txg vkbZ-,e-,Q-&fo'o cSad&MCY;w-Vh-vks- dh frdM+h] cgqjk’Vªh; dEifu;ksa ,oa vU; dbZ lkezkT;oknh ,tsfUl;ksa dk bLrseky djrs gq, cgq&izpkfjr Hkwe.Myhdj.k&mnkjhdj.k& futhdj.k jkt ds ek/;e ls uo&mnkjoknh uhfr;ksa dks ykxw djuk 'kq: fd;k A Hkkjr esa 1991 esa bu cnykoksa dks vkSipkfjd :i ls Fkksi fn;s tkus ds lkFk iwoZorhZ uhfr;ksa dks rsth ls myVuk 'kq: dj fn;k x;k A blls foÙkh; {ks= esa rFkk vU; lHkh lkekftd] vkfFkZd ,oa lkaLd`frd {ks=ksa esa Hkkjh cnyko vk;k gS A

2-5    bu uo&mnkjoknh uhfr;ksa ds rgr] lkoZtfud {ks= ds lHkh miØeksa dk futhdj.k fd;k tk pqdk gS ;k os bl izfØ;k esa gSa A cSad] chek vkfn {ks=ksa ds rFkk ifjogu] lapkj ,oa ÅtkZ vkfn lesr vU; lsok {ks=ksa ds lHkh lkoZtfud ,oa ljdkjh miØeksa dk Hkh rsth xfr ls futhdj.k fd;k tk jgk gS A bl izfØ;k esa jktdh; fu;a=.k okys miØeksa }kjk cgqjk’Vªh; fuxeksa ds lkFk la;qDr m|e LFkkfir fd;s tk jgs gSa A dkjiksjsV ?kjkuksa vkSj cgqjk"Vªh; fuxeksa dks izkd`frd ,oa ekuo lalk/kuksa ds va/kk/kaq/k ywV dh btktr nsrs gq, mUgsa ty] taxy] tehu] [kfut bR;kfn ij fu;a=.k lfgr lHkh {ks=ksa esa ,dkf/kdkj lkSai fn;k x;k gS A

2-6    bu ubZ vkfFkZd uhfr;ksa ds rgr etnwj oxZ ds dBhu la?k’kksZa ls izkIr lHkh vf/kdkjksa dks Nhu fy;k x;k gS A Bsdsnkjh izFkk] vLFkkbZ Je izFkk rFkk ^dke djkvks vkSj fudky nks* ¼gk;j ,.M Qk;j½ vkt fu;e&lk cu x;k gS A ;gka rd fd mUgsa vkB ?k.Vs dk dk;Zfnol] U;wure osru ,oa vU; tuoknh vf/kdkjksa ls Hkh oafpr dj fn;k x;k gS A tgka ,d rjQ nfyrksa] vkfnokfl;ksa ,oa vU; fiNM+s rcdksas dks tehu ugha nh xbZ gS] tks okLro esa tehu dks tksrus okys gSa] ogha nwljh rjQ xjhc ,oa lhekUr fdlkuksa ds ikl tks FkksM+h&cgqr tehu gS mls Hkh fofHkUu uo&mnkjoknh ifj;kstukvksa ds fy, vkSj Hkw&ekfQ;k }kjk Nhuk tk jgk gS A dkjiksjsV ?kjkuksa vkSj cgqjk"Vªh; fuxeksa dks d`f"k {ks= esa iwjh rjg izos'k dh vuqefr ns nsus ls d`f"k dk dkjiksjsVhdj.k c<+ jgk gS A ;g yk[k+ksa fdlkuksa dks vkRegR;k djus rFkk djksM+ksa xjhc fdlkuksa ,oa [ksr etnwjksa dks 'kgjksa dh vksj iyk;u djus ds fy, etcwj dj jgk gS A tu forj.k iz.kkyh] eq¶r f'k{kk] vkokl] fpfdRlk] ikuh] fctyh] ifjogu vkSj jkstxkj ds vf/kdkj ls tu leqnk;ksa dks oafpr dj fn;k x;k gS A va/kk/kqa/k tek[kksjh vkSj dkykcktkjh ds lkFk&lkFk] ^ok;nk dkjksckj* ¼¶;qpj VsªfMax½] dkjiksjsV ?kjkuksa vkSj cgqjk"Vªh; fuxeksa ds izos'k rFkk [kjhn ,oa forj.k ds {ks= ls jkT; ds ihNs gV tkus dh otg ls egaxkbZ vkleku Nwus yxh gS A urhts esa djksM+ksa [kqnjk O;kikjh nfjnz gks x;s gSa A bu lcus tu leqnk; dks vf}rh; nfjnzrk dh vksj /kdsy fn;k gS A

[k.M  rhu

uo&mifuos'khdj.k ds rgr rhoz gksrs lHkh izeq[k vUrfoZjks/k

3-1    vDVwcj ØkfUr ds ckn mHkj jgs oxZ lEcU/kksa dk fo'ys"k.k djrs gq, dE;qfuLV vUrjkZ"Vªh; ¼dksfeUVuZ½ us dgk Fkk fd igyk] iwathoknh ns'kksa esa iwathifr oxZ dk iwoZ esa tks Hkh izxfr'khy pfj= Fkk og btkjsnkj iwathokn ;k lkezkT;okn ds pj.k esa foyqIr gksus yxk Fkk] vkSj nwljk] ,f'k;k] vÝhdk o nf{k.k vesfjdk ds ns'kksa esa mifuos'khdj.k ds ekrgr tks iwathifr oxZ mHkjdj lkeus vk;k Fkk og cqfu;knh rkSj ij lkezkT;okn ds lkFk lg;ksx dj jgk gS vkSj og jk"Vªh; o tuoknh ØkfUr ds dk;ZHkkjksa dks lEiUu dj ikus esa v{ke gS A uo&mifuosf'kd nkSj esa] gkykafd ;g iwathifr oxZ] tks uo&mifuos'kksa esa 'kkld oxZ dk lcls izHkko'kkyh fgLlk cu pqdk gS] ftl gn rd mldk fodkl gqvk gS mlds vuq:i og [kqn dks le`) cukus ds fy, lkezkT;oknh 'kfDr;ksa ds lkFk dqN gn rd Vdjko eksy ysrk gS] rFkkfi og cqfu;knh rkSj ij lkezkT;okn ds lkFk lg;ksx dj jgk gS A nyky iwathifr u dsoy lkezkT;okn ds ,tsUV gSa] cfYd ,dkf/kdkjh iwath ds lpsr fgLlk Hkh gSa tks ,dkf/kdkj iwath ds fgr esa fu.kZ; ysrs jgrs gSa A bl vFkZ esa mls vc Hkh nyky pfj= okyk dgk tk ldrk gS A nyky ukSdj'kkgh iwathifr vkSj cM+s HkwLokeh oxZ Hkkjr ds 'kkld oxZ gSa A

3-2    fczfV'k mifuos'kokfn;ksa us vius mifuosf'kd jktdh; ra= dks lqn`<+ djus ds fy, Åap tkfr ds fgUnqvksa dks vkxs c<+k;k A lkFk gh] os fgUnqvksa vkSj eqlyekuksa ds chp lkEiznkf;d nq”euh dks gok nsdj ^QwV Mkyks vkSj jkt djks* dh uhfr ij vey dj jgs Fks A lkEiznkf;d tulagkj ds chp Hkkjr dk lkEiznkf;d vk/kkj ij caVokjk rFkk ,dne “kq: ls gh dkaxszl ljdkj dh lkEiznkf;d rq"Vhdj.k dh uhfr ds pyrs lkEiznkf;d dyg c<+rs x;k A blus fgUnw dêjiaFkh rkdrksa dks Qyus&Qwyus ds fy, mitkÅ tehu iznku fd;k ftldh vxqokbZ eq[;r% vkj-,l-,l- }kjk vius jktuhfrd cktw igys tula?k vkSj orZeku esa Hkktik ds ek/;e ls dh tkrh jgh gS A bldh izfrfØ;k esa eqfLye lkEiznkf;d rkdrsa Hkh etcwr gqbZ gSa A 1989 ds vke pqukoksa ds nkSjku Hkktik ds lkFk&lkFk ekdik dh vxqokbZ okys nyksa }kjk turk ny ds usr`Ro okys xBca/ku esa fuHkkbZ xbZ Hkwfedk us Hkh la?k ifjokj dks etcwr djus enn dh A 1992 esa dkaxzsl ljdkj dh ?k`f.kr vkSj [krjukd uhfr ds rgr lkezkT;oknh Hkwwe.Myhdj.k dks Fkksis tkus ls turk dk /;ku vyx gVkus ds fy, vkj-,l-,l- ifjokj dks ckcjh efLtn <gkus fn;k x;k Fkk A blls u dsoy lkEiznkf;d Qklhoknh Hkktik dks 1998 esa dsUnz dh lÙkk esa vkus vkSj dqN jkT;ksa esa viuh idM+ etcwr djus dk ekSdk feyk] cfYd lHkh rjg ds /kkfeZd dêjiaFkh rkdrksa] [kkldj fgUnw dêjiaFkh rkdrksa dks iuius dk ekSdk Hkh feyk A bu uhfr;ksa ds pyrs lekt dk dkQh gn rd lEiznk;hdj.k gks x;k gS A Hkkjrh; lafo/kku esa /keZ fujis{k ds :i esa O;k[;k fd;s tkus ds ckotwn] Hkkjrh; jktlÙkk lHkh vFkksZa ,oa O;ogkj esa Øe”k% fgUnw jk’Vª cu xbZ gS] tgka /kkfeZd vYila[;dksa ds vf/kdkjksa vkSj mudh lqj{kk ij yxkrkj [krjk eaMjk jgk gS A dkaxzsl ds usr`Ro okys laizx ds nl lky yEcs “kklu ds nkSjku uo&mnkjoknh uhfr;ksa ij rsth ls vey ds pyrs turk dh yxkrkj c<+rh nfjnzrk us Hkh dêjiaFkh rkdrksa dks Qyus&Qwyus ds fy, mitkÅ tehu iznku fd;k gS tks turk ds vlarks’k vkSj vkØks”k dks iFkHkz’V dj jgs gSa A 2014 ds yksd lHkk pqukoksa esa Hkktik ljdkj ds lÙkklhu gksus ls dkaxzsl ds usr`Ro okys laizx ds nf{k.kiaFkh “kklu dh txg ?kksj&nf{k.kiaFkh “kklu us ys fy;k gS tks dkjiksjsV jkt vkSj lkEiznkf;d Qklhokn dks vf}rh; :i ls rst dj jgk gS A

3-3    lkekftd ifjorZu dks jksdus ds iz;kl ds fgLls ds :i esa] uo&tkxj.k vkUnksyu vkSj Lora=rk laxzke ds nkSjku iuis tkfr izFkk ds mUewyu dh Hkkouk ds fojks/k esa tkrs gq,] dkaxzsl ,oa “kkld oxZ dh lHkh ikfVZ;ksa us tkfr vk/kkfjr oksV cSad dh jktuhfr dk bLrseky fd;k A “kkld oxZ dh ikfVZ;ksa us oksV cSad dh jktuhfr ds eÌsutj tkfr O;oLFkk dks cuk;s j[kus dk iz;kl dj vkj{k.k uhfr ds mÌs”; ij gh ikuh Qsj fn;k A QyLo:i] tkfr&fojks/kh eqfge vkSj tkfr mUewyu dh ekax detksj iM+ xbZ A gkykafd e.My vk;ksx dh fjiksVZ us fiNM+s rcdksa dks viuk gd ekaxus ds fy, u;k tks'k iznku fd;k Fkk] ysfdu Hkwfe lq/kkjksa vkSj lkekftd U;k; lqfuf”pr djus tSlh bldh dsUnzh; vuq”kalkvksa ls /;ku vyx gVkus ds fy, izHkqRo”kkyh tkfroknh rkdrksa vkSj [kki iapk;r tSls cps gq, lkeUrh lkekftd xBuksa us tkfrxr >xM+ksa dks rhoz dj vf}rh; Lrj ij igqapk fn;k A urhts esa] tkfr O;oLFkk tks fd izHkqRo”kkyh fgUnw /keZ dk ,d fof”k’V y{k.k gS] dqN txgksa ij u;s&u;s :i ysrs gq, fofHkUu bykdksa esa vusd fof”k’V yk{kf.kdrkvksa ds lkFk iwjs Hkkjr esa vc Hkh cjdjkj gS rFkk vius cnlwjr y{k.kksa ls] tSls fd tkfrxr ?k`.kk] tkfrxr HksnHkko] tkfrxr mRihM+u] vLi`';rk] vkfn ls lHkh /keksZa dks izHkkfor dj jgk gS A futhdj.k vkSj mnkjhdj.k dh uhfr;ksa ds rgr vkj{k.k tSls ekStwnk tuoknh vf/kdkjksa ij Hkh ikuh Qsj fn;k x;k gS vkSj mUgas Nhu fy;k x;k gS A bl edln ls ÞeykbZnkj ijrß vkSj ÞvkfFkZd fiNM+siu ds vk/kkj ij vkj{k.kß tSls u;s&u;s QkewZys mNkys tk jgs gSa A tkfr O;oLFkk rFkk NwvkNwr ds dyad tM+ ls [kRe djus ds fy, oxZ la?k’kZ ds gfFk;kj rFkk tu tkx`fr ds fy, ØkfUrdkjh dk;ZØe dk mi;ksx dj tksjnkj la?k’kZ NsM+us dh t:jr gS A

3-4    gkykafd lÙkk gLrkarj.k ds ckn Ng n'kd chr pqds gSa] ysfdu Lora=rk laxzke ds nkSjku fd;s x;s ok;nksa ds foijhr] vc rd dh ljdkjksa us lHkh jk’Vªh;rkvksa ds vkRe&fu.kZ; ds vf/kdkj dks ekU;rk nsus ls bUdkj dj fn;k gS A ;gka rd fd turk dks Hkk"kk ds vk/kkj jkT;ksa ds xBu ds fy, Hkh yEch yM+kbZ yM+uh iM+h Fkh A tEew&d'ehj ,oa iwoksZÙkj jkT;ksa esa jktuhfrd lek/kku ds tfj, muds vkRe&fu.kZ; ds vf/kdkj ij vey djus ls bUdkj djrs gq, fiNys Ng n'kdksa ls T;knk le; ls lsuk rSukr j[kk x;k gS A pwafd uo&mifuos'khdj.k ds rgr vleku fodkl rhoz :i ysrk tk jgk gS vkSj blfy, vyx jkT;ksa dh ekax mB jgh gS] fdUrq ;k rks budk fueeZrk ls neu fd;k tk jgk gS ;k fQj bldk voljoknh <ax ls turk ds chp QwV Mkyus ds fy, bLrseky fd;k tk jgk gS A jktuhfrd lÙkk ds izxfr'khy fodsUnzhdj.k] gLrkarj.k vkSj tuoknhdj.k ds vHkko esa turk ds chp  jk"Vªh;rk vkSj uLyh; lokyksa ds vk/kkj ij Hkh vkilh dyg rhoz gksrk tk jgk gS A

3-5    vkfnokfl;ksa dk] tks Hkkjr dh vkcknh eas yxHkx nl izfr'kr dk gSa] fczfV'k mifuos'kokfn;ksa ds f[kykQ la?k"kZ djus vkSj lÙkk gLrkarj.k ds ckn vius vf/kdkjksa ds fy, yM+us dk ,d egku bfrgkl jgk gS A ysfdu vc rd dh dsUnz ,oa jkT; ljdkjksa us izxfr'khy <ax ls muds Lok;Ùk'kklh ifj"knksa dh LFkkiuk ugha dh gS ;k viuh tehu ij muds vf/kdkj dh j{kk ugha dh gS A mYVs] [knkuksa dk foLrkj djus vkSj dkjiksjsV ifj;kstukvksa dh LFkkiuk ds uke ij mUgsa cM+h la[;k esa foLFkkfir fd;k x;k gS A ^uo&mnkjoknh* uhfr;ksa ds rgr Je ds lcls lLrs lzksr ds :i esa mudk tcjnLr “kks’k.k fd;k x;k gS A blds vykok] HksnHkkoiw.kZ uhfr;ksa ds dkj.k rFkk ljdkj dh vksj ls vkfnokfl;ksa dh n”kk dks Åapk mBkus ds fy, dksbZ iz;kl ugha gksus ds dkj.k mUgsa mUur mRiknu lEcU/kksa esa Hkkxhnkjh ls vyx&Fkyx j[kk x;k gS vkSj os viuk thou Lrj csgrj ugha cuk ik jgs gSa A ,slk yxrk gS fd ekuks os ;k rks taxy ij fuHkZj jgus ds fy, ;k fQj Je dk lcls lLrk lzksr cus jgus ds fy, vfHk”kIr gSa A

3-6    efgyk,a] tks vkcknh ds vk/ks fgLls dk fuekZ.k djrh gSa] lkeUrh ,oa mifuosf'kd izHkqRo ds rgr rFkk /keZ ,oa tkfr O;oLFkk ds rgr 'kks"k.k ds lcls cnrj Lo:iksa ls ihfM+r Fkha A vusd la?k’kksZa ds QyLo:i] ?kjsyw fgUlk ds f[kykQ dkuwu tSls dbZ dkuwu cuk;s x;s gSa rFkk LFkkuh; fudk;ksa esa 50 izfr”kr vkj{k.k ykxw fd;k x;k gS] fdUrq “kkld oxZ dh ikfVZ;ka jkT; fo/kku lHkkvksa vkSj laln rd bl vkj{k.k dk foLrkj djus ds fy, vfuPNqd gSa A ;s ltkoVh lq/kkj Hkh T;knkrj dkxtksa rd gh lhfer gSa A uo&mifuos”khdj.k ds rgr efgykvksa ij u;s fdLe ds geys c<+ jgs gSa A iq#"k lÙkk vkSj futh lEifÙk dh O;oLFkk ds rgr mudh xqykeh us u;k :i xzg.k dj fy;k gS A ySafxd HksnHkko ds lkFk&lkFk dU;k Hkzq.k gR;k vkSj ;kSu fgUlk fnu&c&fnu rst gksrk tk jgk gS A ;gka rd fd efgykvksa ds 'kjhj dk Hkh izp.M :i ls okf.kT;hdj.k dj fn;k x;k gS A

3-7    uo&mifuos'khdj.k ds rgr fodkl ds uke ij ykxw dh xbZ uhfr;kas ds pyrs] tks okLro esa lkezkT;okfn;ksa vkSj mlds vuqpjksa ds fgrksa dh lsok djrh gSa] i;kZoj.k dk fouk'k yxkrkj rhoz :i ysrk tk jgk gS A ^oSf'od xjekgV* tSlh ifj?kVuk rFkk ukHkdh; gfFk;kjksa dh gksM+] ekStwnk ijek.kq ÅtkZ la;a=] tks ^ijek.kq Vkbe ce* gSa] tSlk fd Qqdq'khek us ,d ckj fQj lkfcr fd;k gS] vkSj u;s ijek.kq fctyh?kjksa ds fuekZ.k ls tUe ys jgh ukHkdh; rckgh us ekuotkfr ds Hkfo"; dks gh [krjs esa Mky fn;k gS A iks[kj.k ijek.kq foLQksV ls “kq: gqbZ ijek.kq gfFk;kjksa dh gksM+ ds ckn ikfdLrku ds lkFk rhoz gksrs vUrfoZjks/k ls lcd ysus ls bUdkj dj Hkkjr ljdkj us orZeku esa  vesfjdh lkezkT;okn ds lkFk ijek.kq djkj ij gLrk{kj fd;k gS] vkSj bl rjg ns”k dh tks Hkh lEizHkqrk Fkh mldk leiZ.k dj fn;k gS A lkezkT;oknh funsZ”k ij u;s ijek.kq fctyh?kjksa ds fuekZ.k ls i;kZoj.k dh foink dk [krjk vkSj c<+ x;k gS A lkezkT;okfn;ksa }kjk Hkkjr tSls ns'kksa esa vkS|ksfxd vkSj ijek.kq dpjk MEi fd;k tk jgk gS A bu ?kVukØeksa us i;kZoj.k dh j{kk ds fy, la?k"kZ dks lkekftd izxfr dk ,d cqfu;knh ?kVd cuk fn;k gS A

3-8    izfrfØ;koknh 'kklu O;oLFkk dks phjLFkkbZ cukus ds fy, rFkk uo&mifuos'khdj.k dks c<+kok nsus ds fy,] e/;dkyhu o lkeUrh laLd`fr vkSj rjg&rjg ds va/kfo'oklksa ds lkFk&lkFk] laLd`fr dks eky esa cny dj vkSj mldk okf.kT;hdj.k dj lkezkT;oknh lkaLd`frd ewY;ksa dks fuyZTTrk ds lkFk izksRlkfgr fd;k x;k gS A lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh rFkk bysDVªkfud ehfM;k ds l?ku foLrkj dk bLrseky dj laLd`fr dks lkezkT;oknh O;oLFkk vkSj mlds vuqpjksa ds cktk: LokFkksa ds lkFk yxkrkj tksM+k tk jgk gS vkSj bls ,d m|ksx esa cny fn;k x;k gS A f”k{kk O;oLFkk dk cktkjhdj.k dj fn;k x;k gS rFkk bldk bLrseky ubZ ih<+h dks uo&mifuosf”kd O;oLFkk ds v/khu ykus ds fy, vkSj lkezkT;oknh lkaLd`frd ewY;ksa ds izpkj&izlkj ds fy, fd;k x;k gS A lkezkT;okfn;ksa vkSj muds vuqpjksa ds lkFk lg;ksx djus okyh lkEiznkf;d rkdrksa }kjk laLd`fr lesr lkekftd thou ds gjsd {ks= dk lEiznkf;dhdj.k fd;k tk jgk gS A bu lcdk edln gS jk"Vªh; nklrk dh Hkkouk iSnk djuk rFkk leLr izxfr'khy vkSj tuoknh lkaLd`frd psruk dks u"V djus dk iz;kl djuk A

3-9    egaxkbZ] csjkstxkjh@v)Z&;csjkstxkjh vkSj lekt ds pkSrjQk vijk/khdj.k ds lkFk&lkFk Hkz"Vkpkj ,d lcls cqjh chekjh cu xbZ gS vkSj lkekftd rkus&ckus dks fNUu&fHkUu dj jgh gS A uo&mnkjoknh uhfr;ksa ds rgr lêk iwath dh loZxzklh Hkwfedk ds pyrs blus Hkhedk; Lo:i xzg.k dj fy;k gS A Åij ls ysdj uhps rd ljdkjh e'khujh] j{kk ,oa iqfyl lsok] pqukoh O;oLFkk vkSj ;gka rd fd U;k;ikfydk lesr lewps jktdh; ra= esa Hkz"Vkpkj vf}rh; Lrj ij igqap x;k gS A jktuhfrd usrkvksa vkSj fofHkUu fudk;ksa eas rFkkdfFkr :i ls pqus x;s T;knkrj lnL;ksa dk Hkh ;gh gky gS A ;g lc crkrk gS fd uo&mifuos'khdj.k ds bu lkB ls T;knk o’kksZa ds nkSjku] vius ?k`f.kr vkSj ?kkrd pfj= dks mtkxj djrs gq,] 'kklu O;oLFkk fdl gn rd v/k%ifrr vkSj tu&fojks/kh gks xbZ gS A gkykafd dkjiksjsV ?kjkuksa vkSj “kkld izfr’Bkuksa }kjk djhc&djhc iwjh rjg fu;af=r ehfM;k “kklu O;oLFkk dh cqjkb;ksa dk inkZQk”k djrh izrhr gksrh gS] ysfdu vly esa ;g lHkh {ks=ksa esa lkezkT;okfn;ksa vkSj mlds vuqpjksa ds opZLo dks cuk;s j[kus dk dke dj jgh gS A

[k.M  pkj

dE;qfuLV vkUnksyu esa HkVdkoksa ls yM+ks vkSj

turk dh tuoknh ØkfUr ds fy, la?kkZ djks

4-1    Hkkjr esa vius vfLrRo ds ukS n'kdksa ds nkSjku dE;qfuLV vkUnksyu }kjk fofHkUu pj.kksa esa fuHkkbZ xbZ Hkwfedk dk ewY;kadu mifuosf'kd vrhr vkSj uo&mifuosf'kd orZeku dh Bksl ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds vk/kkj ij fd;k tkuk pkfg, A mifuosf'kd dky ds nkSjku dE;qfuLV vkUnksyu dh xfrfof/k;ksa ij ,d utj Mkyus ls irk pyrk gS fd ikVhZ dk lkaxBfud rkSj ij fodkl rks gqvk Fkk] fdUrq og jk"Vªh; eqfDr vkUnksyu esa etnwj oxZ dk usr`Ro LFkkfir dj ikus vlQy jgk A blus lkezkT;okn ds laj{k.k esa iys&c<+s cM+s iwathifr;ksa ds nyky pfj= dks igpkuus ls bUdkj dj fn;k Fkk A tc MkW- vEcsMdj us tehu vkSj m|ksxksa ds jk’Vªh;dj.k ds lkFk tksM+dj tkfr mUewyu dk vkg~oku djrs gq, nfyr vkUnksyu NsM+k Fkk vkSj tc ns”k Hkj esa lekt ds fofHkUu mRihfM+r rcdksa ds bl izdkj ds vU; vkUnksyu py jgs Fks rks ml le; Hkkjr dh dE;qfuLV ikVhZ] oxZ la?k’kZ dh ;kaf=d vkSj egt vkfFkZd le> gksus ds dkj.k] la;qDr ekspkZ ds vk/kkj ij bu yM+kb;ksa dks /kkjnkj cukus esa l{ke ugha Fkh A blds lkFk&lkFk] Hkkjr NksM+ks vkUnksyu ds izfr ikVhZ ds :[k us Bksl ifjfLFkfr ds ckjs esa ikVhZ dh le>nkjh ds vHkko dks mtkxj dj fn;k Fkk A dE;qfuLV vkUnksyu ds bu HkVdkoksa vkSj detksfj;ksa us ns'k dk lkEiznkf;d caVokjk djus vkSj dkaxzsl ,oa eqfLye yhx ds usrkvksa dks lÙkk dk gLrkarj.k djus esa fczfV'k mifuos'kokfn;ksa dh enn dh A gkykafd 1948 esa ikVhZ ds f}rh; egkf/kos'ku esa lÙkk gLrkarj.k ds izfrfØ;koknh pfj= dk HkaMkQksM+ djrs gq, bl nf{k.kiaFkh HkVdko dks Bhd djus dk iz;kl fd;k x;k Fkk] fdUrq mlesa okeiaFkh HkVdko dh fn”kk dks Lohdkj fd;k x;k ftlds dkj.k tcjnLr /kDdk yxk Fkk A ikVhZ ds Hkhrj la?k"kZ ds ckn 1951 esa turk dh tuoknh Økafr dks vkxs c<+kus ds fy, igyk ikVhZ dk;ZØe] dk;Zuhfrd fn'kk vkSj uhfrxr oDrO; Lohdkj fd;k x;k A fdUrq nf{k.kiaFkh usr`Ro us igys rks bl fn'kk dks uje dj fn;k vkSj fQj iwjh rjg R;kx fn;k A lksfo;r la'kks/kuoknh voLFkkuksa dks cqyUn djrs gq, Hkkdik ds usr`Ro us Økafr ds pj.k dh O;k[;k jk"Vªh; tuoknh Økafr ds :i esa dh vkSj dkaxzsl ds usr`Ro dks jk"Vªh; iwathifr ds fgrksa dh lsok djus okyk crk;k A mlus jk"Vªh; tuoknh Økafr dks 'kkafriw.kZ lEiUu djus vkSj dkaxzsl ds lkFk lg;ksx djrs gq, lektokn esa laØe.k dk vkg~oku fd;k A urhts esa ikVhZ ds Hkhrj la?k"kZ rhoz gks x;k vkSj 1964 esa igyk foHkktu gqvk vkSj ekdik dk xBu fd;k x;k A

4-2    fdUrq ekdik usr`Ro us lksfo;r la'kks/kuoknh voLFkkuksa ls ukrk ugha rksM+k A 1964 esa blds lkroas egkf/kos'ku esa cM+s iwathifr;ksa ds nksgjs pfj= dk fo'ys"k.k fd;k x;k Fkk] fdUrq blds eq[;r% nyky pfj= dks ns[kus ls bUdkj dj fn;k x;k A lalnh; ckSusiu dk vuq'kj.k djrs gq, og tc Hkh pqudj lÙkk esa vkbZ rks mlus ikVhZ dk;ZØe ij vey djus dh fn'kk esa dke djus ls bUdkj dj fn;k A blus lHkh cqfu;knh lokyksa ij ^e/;ekxhZ* voLFkku xzg.k fd;k A bl ifjfLFkfr esa dE;qfuLV Økafrdkfj;ksa us bldh e/;ekxhZ fn'kk ds f[kykQ oSpkfjd la?k"kZ 'kq# fd;k A tc 1967 ds vkjEHk esa caxky vkSj dsjy esa ekdik dh vxqokbZ esa ljdkjksa dk xBu gqvk Fkk rks mlus vkewypwy Hkwfe lq/kkj ykxw djus ls bUdkj dj fn;k A

4-3    dE;qfuLV Økafrdkfj;ksa }kjk tehu n[ky ds fy, rFkk Hkkdik o ekdik ds la'kks/kuoknh usr`Ro ds f[kykQ ebZ 1967 esa uDlyckM+h tufonzksg 'kq# fd;k x;k A ekDlZokn&ysfuuokn&ekvks Rls rqax fopkj/kkjk dks ekxZn'kZd fl)kUr ds :i esa cqyUn djrs gq, dE;qfuLV Økafrdkfj;ksa dh vf[ky Hkkjrh; leUo; lfefr ¼AICCCR½ vkSj fQj vizSy 1969 esa Hkkdik¼ekys½ dk xBu fd;k x;k A ysfdu ;g cgqr tYn gh fyu fi;kvks ds oke nqLlkgloknh fn'kk ds izHkko esa vk x;k tks 1969 esa phu dh dE;qfuLV ikVhZ ds ukSosa egkf/kos'ku esa ml ij gkoh Fkh A ;g ladh.kZrkoknh voLFkkuksa dh vksj ys x;k ftlds dkj.k xgjk /kDdk yxk vkSj 1971 rd vkUnksyu fc[kj x;k A

4-4    QyLo:i] tc vkUrfjd vkikrdky ls igys vkSj mlds nkSjku bafnjk xka/kh ljdkj ds f[kykQ tufonzksg QwV iM+k Fkk vkSj tc 1977 ds pqukoksa esa dkaxszl dk lQk;k gks x;k Fkk rks ml le; Hkktik ,oa vU; nf{k.kiaFkh rkdrsa bl LFkku dks Hkjus esa dke;kc gqbZ Fkha A fiNys nks n'kdksa ds nkSjku ekdik&uhr oke ekspkZ tgka Hkh lÙkk esa vk;k gS ogka mldh fn'kk 'kkld oxZ dh ikfVZ;ksa ds lekukFkhZ gks xbZ gS A vkSj ?kksj nf{k.kiaFkh Hkktik ljdkj ds lÙkk esa vkus ds lkFk gh os Hkktik dk fojks/k djus ds uke ij ,d ckj fQj ls dkaxszl dks leFkZu nsus dh ykbu ys jgs gSa A nwljh rjQ] Hkkdik¼ekvksoknh½] u;s ;qx ds ekDlZokn&ysfuuokn ds :i esa ^ekvksokn* dk fo'ys"k.k djrs gq,] vVy :i ls vjktd ykbu ij py jgh gS A

4-5    Hkkdik¼ekys½ ds ,sls dbZ xqzi gSa tks vkt Hkh ^v)Z&mifuosf'kd] v)Z&lkearh] nh?kZdkfyd tu;q) dh ykbu* ij vM+s gq, gSa A ogha vU; ,sls xqzi Hkh gSa tks ns'k esa lkezkT;oknh rkdrksa ds c<+rs izHkqRo dks Lohdkj ls bUdkj djrs gq, Hkkjr dks ,d iwathoknh ns'k dgrs gSa vkSj Økafr ds pj.k dks lektoknh Økafr dk pj.k crkrs gSa A f}rh; fo'o ;q) ds ckn fiNys Ng n'kdksa dk fodklØe n'kkZrk gS fd lkezkT;okn us izR;{k fu;a=.k vkSj ywV ds mifuosf'kd Lo:i dks uo&mifuosf'kd Lo:i }kjk izfrLFkkfir dj fn;k gS A bl uo&mifuos'khdj.k ds fgLls ds :i esa Hkkjrh; 'kkld oxksZa vkSj mudh eq[; jktuhfrd ikVhZ dkaxzsl ds gkFkksa lÙkk dk gLrkarj.k fd;k x;k Fkk A tks ns”k uo&mifuosf'kd izHkqRo ds ekrgr ogka ds iwathifr;ksa dk nyky pfj= vkSj T;knk mtkxj gqvk gS A Hkkjr dks lkezkT;oknh O;oLFkk] fo'ks"k :i ls vesfjdh lkezkT;okn ds ^tqfu;j ikVZuj* esa cny fn;k x;k gS A

4-6    lkezkT;oknh Hkwe.Myhdj.k ds rgr fo”o loZgkjk vkSj mRihfM+r turk ij geyk vkSj T;knk rhoz gks x;k gS tks vUrjjk"Vªh; Lrj ij dE;qfuLV ikfVZ;ksa dh ?kfu"B ,drk dh ekax dj jgk gS A bl ifjfLFkfr esa] 1943 esa dE;qfuLV vUrjjk"Vªh; ¼dksfeUVuZ½ dks Hkax fd;s tkus rFkk vUrjjk"Vªh; dE;qfuLV vkUnksyu dh vksj ls brus yEcs le; rd bldk iquxZBu djus esa vlQy jgus dk fo'o Lrj ij lkezkT;okn&fojks/kh vkUnksyu ij cqjk izHkko iM+k gS A tgka ,d vksj] vUrjjk"Vªh; dE;qfuLV vkUnksyu us 1950 ds n'kd rd tks ,sfrgkfld izxfr dh Fkh og mu egRoiw.kZ dkj.kksa esa ls ,d Fkk ftlds pyrs lkezkT;oknh [kses us ywV ds rc rd ds mifuosf'kd Lo:iksa dh txg uo&mifuosf'kd Lo:iksa dks viukdj mlesa xq.kkRed cnyko yk;k Fkk] ogha nwljh vksj] vUrjjk"Vªh; dE;qfuLV vkUnksyu bl u;s lkezkT;oknh geys dks le>us esa vkSj blds vuq:i viuh vke fn'kk dk fodkl djus esa vlQy jgk tks mu cqfu;knh dkj.kksa esa ls ,d Fkk ftlds pyrs bls xaHkhj vk/kkr lguk iM+k Fkk A ,d u;s fdLe ds dE;qfuLV vUrjjk"Vªh; ds iqufuZekZ.k dh fn'kk esa mBk;s x;s ,d dne ds :i esa Økafrdkjh ikfVZ;ksa ,oa laxBuksa ds vUrjkZ"Vªh; leUo; ¼vkbZdksj½ dh LFkkiuk ds egÙo dks bl lanHkZ esa ns[kk tkuk pkfg, A

4-7    Ng n'kdksa ds uo&mifuos'khdj.k] ftlds pyrs fo'o Lrj ij lHkh {ks=ksa esa mYys[kuh; cnyko vk;k gS] ekStwnk ifjfLFkfr ds vuq:i fo'o loZgkjk lektoknh Økafr ds fl)kUr o O;ogkj dks fodflr djus dh ekax dj jgk gS A uo&mifuos'kokn ds rgr] fo'ks"k :i ls uo&mnkjoknh uhfr;ksa dks ykxw fd;s tkus vkSj blds QyLo:i lêsckt foÙkh; iwath ds fo”o Lrj ij foLrkj ds ckn] iwjh nqfu;k esa vukS|ksxhjd.k  vkSj jkstxkjghu fodkl dh vHkwriwoZ ifj?kVuk ns[kus esa vk jgh gS A blds dkj.k dbZ ns'kksa esa etnwj oxZ vkSj mRihfM+r turk ds vusd tu fonzksg gq, gSa A ,slh ,d egÙoiw.kZ ?kM+h esa Hkkjrh; turk ds le{k mifLFkr bu pqukSfr;ksa dks lEcksf/kr djus dk iz;kl djrs gq, Hkkjr esa turk dh tuoknh Økafr ds fy, ikVhZ dk;ZØe is'k fd;k x;k gS A

[k.M  ikap

Hkkjrh; ØkfUr dk jkLrk

5-1    Hkkjrh; jktlÙkk nyky ukSdj”kkgh iwathifr oxZ dh vxqokbZ esa nyky ukSdj”kkgh iwathifr vkSj HkwLokeh oxksZa dh jktlÙkk gS A ;g oxhZ; 'kklu dk fudk; gS] ;kuh fd etnwj oxZ] fdlkuksa rFkk turk ds lHkh 'kksf"kr o mRihfM+r rcdksa ij lkezkT;okn dh lsok dj jgs nyky ukSdj'kkgh iwathifr&cM+s HkwLokeh oxksZa dk vf/kuk;dRo gS A ØkfUr ds usrk ds :i esa etnwj oxZ dks xksycUn dj] fdlkuksa ds lkFk bldk xBca/ku cukdj rFkk etnwj&fdlku laJ; ds vk/kkj ij e/;e oxksZa ,oa <qyeqy lg;ksxh jk"Vªh; iwathifr oxZ dks ,drkc) djds turk dk tuoknh ekspkZ cukdj gh bl izfrfØ;koknh jktlÙkk dks m[kkM+ Qsadk tk ldrk gS vkSj bldh txg turk dh tuoknh jktlÙkk dk;e dh tk ldrh gS A

5-2    ,sfrgkfld fodkl vkSj lkezkT;okn ds ekStwnk uo&mifuosf'kd pj.k esa ns'k dh Bksl ifjfLFkfr;ka ØkfUr ds orZeku pj.k dk fu/kkZj.k dj jgh gS] tks turk dh tuoknh ØkfUr dk pj.k gS A Hkkdik¼ekys½ ekDlZokn&ysfuuokn&ekvks Rls rqax fopkj/kkjk dks gekjs ns”k dh Bksl ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa ykxw djrs gq, vkSj bls ØkfUr ds Bksl O;ogkj ds lkFk tksM+rs gq, bls vius ekxZn”kZd fl)kUr ds :i esa cqyUn djrk gS A ;g turk dh tuoknh ØkfUr dks lEiUu djus ds fy, vkSj lektoknh ØkfUr dh vksj vkxs c<+us ds fy, izfrc) gS A

5-3    Hkkjr esa turk dh tuoknh ØkfUr dk jkLrk lksfo;r] ;k phu] ;k fdlh vU; ns”k ds jkLrs ds ;kaf=d iz;ksx ls r; ugha gksrk gS] tSlk fd vrhr esa ckj&ckj fd;k x;k gS] cfYd ns'k dh vkSj vUrjjk"Vªh; Lrj dh Bksl ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls fu/kkZfjr gksrk gS A bl ØkfUrdkjh jkLrs dk fodkl djrs le; ns'k ds ØkfUrdkjh tu vkUnksyuksa ds vuqHko rFkk vUrjjk"Vªh; Lrj ij vc rd tks ØkfUr;ka gqbZ gSa mu lcds vuqHko dks vkRelkr djuk pkfg, A lalnh; ckSusiu rFkk ladh.kZrkokn ,oa O;fDrxr vkradokn dh fn'kk dks udkj dj vkSj ØkfUrdkjh tu fn'kk dks cqyUn djrs gq,] Hkkjrh; jktlÙkk dks m[kkM+ Qsadus vkSj jktuhfrd lÙkk n[ky ds fy, 'kfDr'kkyh ns'kO;kih tufonzksg ds fy, etnwj oxZ ,oa lHkh ØkfUrdkjh oxksZa o rcdksa dks xksycUn djus ds fy, ;g la?k"kZ ,oa laxBu ds lHkh :iksa dk bLrseky djus dk fu.kZ; ysrk gS A

5-4    Hkkdik¼ekys½ dE;qfuLV ?kks’k.kki= ds bl ,syku dks nqgjkrk gS fd d;qfuLV vius fopkjksa vkSj mÌs”;ksa dks Nqikus ls ?k`.kk djrs gSa A os [kqys :i ls ,syku djrs gSa fd mudk y{; lHkh fo|eku lkekftd ifjfLFkfr;ksa dks cyiwoZd m[kkM+ dj gh gkfly gks ldrk gS A “kkld oxksZa dks dE;qfuLV ØkfUr ds Hk; ls dkaius nks A loZgkjk ds ikl [kksus ds fy, viuh csfM+;ksa ds flok; vkSj dqN ugha gS A muds ikl thrus ds fy, ,d lalkj gS A^^* Hkkjrh; ØkfUr ds jkLrs dh ekax gS fd lalnokn vkSj lq/kkjokn ds lHkh fdLeksa dk frjLdkj fd;k tk;s rFkk jktuhfrd lÙkk ds ØkfUrdkjh n[ky ds jkLrs ij pyk tk;s A bldk vFkZ gS etnwj oxZ ds ns'kO;kih la?k"kksa ds lkFk ØkfUrdkjh fdlku la?k’kZ dks tksM+uk rFkk la?k’kZ ds vU; lHkh Lo:iksa dks blds lkFk tksM+uk A

[k.M  Ng

turk ds tuokn dk dk;ZØe

6-1    turk ds tuoknh jktlÙkk dh igpku ,d ,sls lafo/kku ls gksxh ftlesa futh lEifÙk ds vf/kdkj ds Øfed mUewyu vkSj mRiknu ds lHkh lk/kuksa ds lkekftd ekfydkuk ds fl)kUr ij vey ds fy, izko/kku gksxk A bl rjg ds lafo/kku dk elkSnk lafo/kku lHkk }kjk rS;kj fd;k tk;sxk tks lkoZHkkSfed erkf/kdkj ds vk/kkj ij pquh tk;sxh vkSj tks la?k"kZ ds tfj;s fodflr gqbZ desfV;ksa ls mHkj dj vkus okys etnwjksa] fdlkuksa ,oa vU; mRihfM+r tu leqnk;ksa ds lkFk&lkFk vU; lHkh ØkfUrdkjh rcdksa dk lPps vFkksZa esa izfrfuf/kRo djus okyh gksxh A bl rjg dk lafo/kku iwjh lÙkk turk ds gkFk ds fl)kUr ij vk/kkfjr gksxk ftlesa xkao ls ysdj jk"Vªh; Lrj rd lHkh Lrjksa ij etnwjksa] fdlkuksa vkSj mRihfM+r turk dh mu fofHkUu desfV;ksa dks lÙkk gLrkarfjr dh tk;sxh tks ØkfUrdkjh la?k"kZ ls mHkj dj lkeus vk;saxh A bl rjg dk lafo/kku pqus gq, izfrfuf/k;ksa dh tokcnsgh lqfuf'pr djus ds fy, lHkh Lrjksa ij mUgsa okil cqykus dk vf/kdkj iznku djsxh rFkk dk;Zikfydk dh 'kfDr vkSj fo/kkf;dk dh 'kfDr ds chp Hksn dks [kRe dj nsxk A bldk vFkZ gS fd tt] iqfyl izeq[k] uxjikfydk ds vf/kdkjh] lesr lHkh Lrjksa ij lHkh vQljksa dk pquko fd;k tk;sxk vkSj mUgsa okil cqyk;k tk ldsxk A

6-2    la?k ,oa jkT; Lrj ij tu ifj’knksa ds lnL;ksa }kjk la?k ds jk"Vªifr dk pquko fd;k tk;sxk vkSj og la?k ds tu ifj’kn }kjk tkjh fd;s x;s fu;eksa vkSj uhfr;ksa ds ekrgr jgdj dkedkt djsxk A ljdkj dh izfrfuf/kewyd iz.kkyh ds fl)kUrksa dk vuqikyu fd;k tk;sxk A orZeku lsuk dks Hkax dj fn;k tk;sxk vkSj blds LFkku ij turk dh tuoknh jktlÙkk }kjk xfBr vkSj mlds lkFk ?kfu"B :i ls tqM+h tu lsuk dk;e dh tk;sxh vkSj mls mRiknu ds lkFk tksM+k tk;sxk A iqfyl] v)Z&lSfud cyksa ,oa ekStwnk 'kklu O;oLFkk ds vU; neudkjh vaxksa dh txg LFkkuh; pqus gq, fudk;ksa ds fu;a=.k esa tu fefyf'k;k dk;e dh tk;sxh A mifuosf'kd fnuksa ls pys vk jgs vkSj blds ckn ykxw fd;s x;s dsUnz ,oa jkT;ksa ds lHkh dkuwuksa dks] tks tu&fojks/kh gSa] gVkdj mldh txg u;s tu dkuwu cuk;s tk;saxs A

6-3    lkjh lkezkT;oknh iawth tCr djuk] lHkh lkezkT;oknh dtksZa dks jn~n djuk rFkk lkezkT;oknh ns'kksa ,oa ,tsfUl;ksa ds lkFk fd;s x;s ,sls reke vleku laf/k;ksa vkSj le>kSrksa dks [kkfjt djuk tks turk ds fgrksa ds fo:) gSa A vUrjjk"Vªh; eqnzk dks"k ¼vkbZ-,e-,Q-½] fo'o cSad vkSj fo'o O;kikj laxBu ¼MCY;w-Vh-vks-½ ls ukrk rksM+uk rFkk lHkh jk"Vªksa dh lekurk vkSj HkykbZ ds vk/kkj vUrjjk"Vªh; O;kikj ds fy, igy djuk A cgqjk"Vªh; dEifu;ksa dh xfrfof/k;ksa dk fu"ks/k djuk A ns'k esa fons'kh lêk iwath ds izokg ij jksd yxkuk A ns'k dks lHkh rjg ds lkezkT;okn 'kks"k.k] n[kyvankth vkSj nknkfxjh eqDr djuk A xSj&ljdkjh laxBuksa ¼,u-th-vks-½ rFkk lkezkT;okn }kjk izksRlkfgr ,slh lHkh laLFkkvksa ds izfr turk dks f”kf{kr djuk vkSj buds dkedkt ij jksd yxkuk A

6-4    nyky ukSdj'kkgh iwathifr oxZ ;k dkjiksjsV ?kjkuksa vkSj ekfQ;k ds lHkh miØeksa] iwath vkSj lEifÙk dk jk"Vªh;dj.k djuk A Hkz"Vkpkj ds lHkh jkLRkksa dks Åij ls ysdj uhps rd cUn djuk A ?kksVkyscktksa }kjk fons'kh cSadksa ,oa vU; laLFkkvksa esa tek /ku dks okil ykuk vkSj mls tCr djuk A eBksa ,oa bl rjg laLFkvksa esa tek dkys /ku lesr lHkh dkys /ku dk irk yxkuk vkSj mls tCr djuk A eBksa vkSj lHkh /kkfeZd laLFkkvksa dh lEifÙk tCr djuk A lHkh Hkz"Vkpkfj;ksa dks ltk nsuk A

6-5    Þtksrus okys dks tehuß ds vk/kkj ij ØkfUrdkjh Hkwfe lq/kkj ykxw djuk A d`f"k {ks= esa lHkh izkd~&iwathoknh lEcU/kksa dk mUewyu djuk rFkk HkwLokfe;ksa dh tehu dks tCr djuk vkSj mldk caVokjk djuk A dkjiksjsV ?kjkuksa] cgqjk"Vªh; dEifu;ksa vkSj ekfQ;kvksa ds ekfydkus okys ckxkuksa ,oa QkeksZa esa ogka dke djus okyksa dk lkewfgd ekfydkuk dk;e djuk A lHkh fdLe dh ca/kqvk etnwjh vkSj lwn[kksjh dk mUewyu djuk A d`f"k ds dkjiksjsVhdj.k rFkk d`f’k {ks= esa d`f’k&cgqjk"Vªh; dEifu;ksa ds izos'k ij jksd yxkuk vkSj i;kZoj.k laj{k.k ij iwjk /;ku nsrs gq, lcds fy, [kkn~; lqj{kk ds utfj, ls d`f"k dk fodkl djuk A

6-6    lHkh {ks=ksa esa Øe”k% Ng ?k.Vs dk dk;Zfnol vkSj ikap fnu dk dk;Z lIrkg ykxw djuk A vko”;drk vk/kkfjr U;wure osru dks iqu% ifjHkkf’kr djuk vkSj bls ykxw djuk A Bsdsnkjh Je izFkk] Je ds vLFkk;hdj.k rFkk ^^dke djkvks] fudky nks** izFkk dk vUr djuk A etnwjksa ds ekSfyd vf/kdkj ds :i esa laxfBr gksus] lkewfgd eksyHkko djus rFkk gM+rky ,oa vU; la?k’kZ ds vf/kdkj dks lqfuf”pr djuk A

6-7    lexz jk"Vªh; vkS|ksfxd uhfr ykxw djuk A Hkkjh] e>kSys vkSj y?kq m|ksxksa ds chp rFkk xkao vkSj 'kgj ds chp LoLF; fj”rk fodflr djuk A ns'kt 'kks/k ,oa fodkl uhfr dk fodkl dj fons'kh izkS|ksfxdh ij fuHkZjrk dks Øe”k% [kRe djuk A turk ds fgrksa dks lokZsifj j[krs gq, cSad] chek ,oa _.k iznku djus okyh laLFkkvksa lfgr lsok {ks= dk fodkl djuk A leqnk; ds lkfoZd fgrksa dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, vk/kkjHkwr <kaps dh ifj;kstukvksa dk fodkl djuk A

6-8    lkoZHkkSfed tu forj.k iz.kkyh] lcds fy, eq¶r ,oa vfuok;Z f'k{kk o LokLF; ns[kHkky] vkokl vkSj jkstxkj lqfuf'pr djuk A lexz [ksy uhfr dk fodkl djuk rFkk bls turk dh Hkkxhnkjh ds lkFk ykxw djuk A ,d tu laLd`fr uhfr dk fodkl djuk A

6-9    lHkh dkys dkuwuksa dks jn~n djuk A lHkh Lrjksa ij iz”kklu vkSj lekt dk tuoknhdj.k djuk A naM lafgrk ls ekSr dh ltk dk mUewyu djuk A

6-10   lHkh fdLe ds ySafxd HksnHkko ij jksd yxkuk A iq#"k lÙkk dh tdM+ rFkk /keZ&tkfr vk/kkfjr mRihM+u ls efgykvksa dh eqfDr ds fy, ifjfLFkfr;ksa dk fuekZ.k djuk A dk;ZLFkyksa ,oa vU; LFkkuksa ij efgykvksa ij gksus okys lHkh fdLe ds geyksa ij jksd yxkuk A dU;k Hkzq.k gR;k ij jksd yxkuk A lHkh {ks=ksa esa efgykvksa dh lekurk] efgykvksa dk lEifÙk ij vf/kdkj rFkk leku dke ds fy, leku osru lqfuf'pr djuk A lHkh efgykvksa dks lkekftd :i ls mRiknd Je esa fu;qDr fd;k tk;sxk A lekt dh vkfFkZd bdkbZ ds :i esa dke djus okys ekStwnk ifjokj O;oLFkk dk mUewyu lqfuf”pr djus rFkk ,d izxfr”khy tuoknh ifjokj O;oLFkk dk fuekZ.k djus ds fy, dne mBk;k tk;sxk A

6-11   lHkh cPpksa ds fy, lqj{kk] LokLF; vkSj f'k{kk dh xkjaVh djuk rFkk cky Je lesr cPpksa ds lHkh rjg ds 'kks"k.k dk vUr djuk A ofj’B ukxfjdksa ds fy, lHkh vFkksZa esa lqj{kk lqfuf”pr djuk A

6-12   lHkh jk"Vªh;rkvksa ds vyx gksus ds vf/kdkj rd vkRe&fu.kZ; ds vf/kdkj dks lqfuf'pr djuk A turk dk x.kra= fofHkUu jk"Vªh;rkvksa dh turk dks cyiwoZd ugha] cfYd mudh LoSfPNd lgefr ls ,drkc) djus dk iz;Ru djsxk A tEew&d'ehj ,oa mÙkj&iwohZ jkT;ksa dh leL;k dk lek/kku ogka ls lsuk dks ,dckjxh gVkdj rFkk vkRe&fu.kZ; dk vf/kdkj lqfuf'pr djrs gq, jktuhfrd rjhdksa ls djuk A turk dks viuh ekr`Hkk"kk esa f'k{kk ikus dk vf/kdkj] lHkh Hkk"kkvksa ds lkFk ,dleku O;ogkj ,oa bl rjg ds vU; tuoknh vf/kdkjksa dks lqfuf'pr djuk A

6-13   vkfnokfl;ksa ds lHkh rjg ds 'kks"k.k vkSj mRihM+u dk vUr djuk A tc izxfr”khy fodkl dh ifj;kstukvksa ij vey fd;k tk;s rks izkd`frd lalk/kuksa ij muds vf/kdkj dh j{kk djuk A lEiw.kZ 'kfDr;ksa ds lkFk Lok;Ùk'kklh ifj"knksa dh LFkkiuk djuk rFkk muds tuoknh vf/kdkjksa dks lqfuf'pr djuk A

6-14   jktlÙkk ds <kaps dk lPpk /keZ fujis{k pfj= lqfuf'pr djuk A /kkfeZd vk/kkj ij lHkh fdLe ds HksnHkkoksa dk vUr djuk rFkk /kkfeZd vYila[;dksa dh j{kk djuk A /kkfeZd dêjiaFkh rkdrksa }kjk lekt ds lkEiznkf;dhdj.k ds iz;klksa ij jksd yxkuk A jkT; ds ekeyksa vkSj ns'k ds jktuhfrd thou esa /keZ ds feJ.k ij jksd yxkuk A lkoZtfud {ks=ksa esa] tSls fd f'k{kk] fpfdRlk ,oa bl rjg vU; {ks=ksa esa /kkfeZd laLFkkvksa ds izos'k ij jksd yxkuk A lekt ds tuoknhdj.k ds fgLls ds :i esa /keZ fujis{k] tuoknh o izxfr'khy leku ukxjhd lafgrk dk fodkl djuk A turk dk tuoknh jkT; }kjk jkT; ,oa /keZ ds chp vyxko ds /keZ fujis{k fl)kUr dks dM+kbZ ls ykxw fd;k tk;sxk A

6-15   tkfr izFkk ,oa vU; lHkh lkekftd xSj&cjkcjh dk iw.kZ :i ls mUewyu ds fy, eqfge ,oa yksdrkaf=d vkUnksyu tkjh j[kuk A blds fgLls ds :i esa] lHkh rjg ds tkfr vk/kkfjr mRihM+uksa] tkfrxr HksnHkko] vLi`';rk vkSj [kki iapk;r tSlh izfrfØ;koknh laLFkkvksa ij jksd yxkuk A tc rd lHkh rjg dh lkekftd vlekurkvksa dk vUr ugha gks tkrk gS rc rd vkj{k.k tSls tuoknh vf/kdkjksa ij vey djuk A Þtksrus okys dks tehuß ds ukjs ds vk/kkj ij nfyrksa ds fy, tehu lqfuf'pr djuk A

6-16   bl le>nkjh ds vk/kkj ij fd vUrjjk"Vªh; vkSj jk"Vªh; nksuksa Lrjksa ij iwath vkSj izd`fr ds chp vUrfoZjks/k ,d eq[; vUrfoZjks/k cu x;k gS] i;kZoj.k dh j{kk ds fy, rFkk bl egRoiw.kZ loky dks /;ku esa j[kdj fodkl dk utfj;k fodflr djus ds fy, Bksl ;kstuk,a cukbZ tkuh pkfg, A

6-17   /keZ fujis{k] ySafxd&eS=hiw.kZ] yksdrkaf=d vkSj oSKkfud f'k{kk O;oLFkk ykxw djuk tks lcds igqap ds Hkhrj gks A f'k{kk ds cktkjhdj.k vkSj futhdj.k ij jksd yxkuk A lHkh cPpksa ds fy, eq¶r] ,d leku vkSj vfuok;Z f'k{kk lqfuf'pr djuk A lcds fy, mPp f'k{kk dh lqfo/kk,a lqfuf'pr djuk A lHkh vfHktkr Ldwyksa dks cUn djuk rFkk f'k{kk {ks= esa i{kikr vkSj HksnHkko cUn djuk A

6-18   lkeUrh vkSj lkezkT;oknh lkaLd`frd ewY;cks/kksa ds izHkko ds f[kykQ yM+rs gq, turk dh tuoknh] ySafxd&eS=hiw.kZ laLd`fr dk fodkl djuk A lHkh {ks=ksa esa oSKkfud n`f"Vdks.k dks izksRlkgu nsuk A pwafd lkezkT;okn vkSj mlds vuqpjksa }kjk turk dks ywV vkSj izHkqRo ds v/khu cuk;s j[kus ds fy, Åijh <kaps esa vius izHkkoksa dk bLrseky fd;k tk jgk gS] blfy, HkwriwoZ lektoknh ns'kksa ds vc rd ds vuqHko ds vk/kkj ij ,d lrr pyus okyh izfØ;k ds :i esa lkaLd`frd ØkfUr fodflr djus ds loky dks] [kkldj bu lHkh lektoknh ns'kksa esa iwathokn dh iquLFkkZiuk ds lanHkZ esa] vR;f/kd egRo fn;k tkuk pkfg, A

6-19   lekurk vkSj 'kkfUriw.kZ lg&vfLrRo ds vk/kkj ij iM+kslh ns'kksa ds lkFk lHkh {ks=ksa esa ?kfu"B lEcU/k dk;e djuk A nksLrkuk ckrphr ds tfj;s lHkh lhek fooknksa dk fuiVkjk djuk A

6-20   loZgkjk vUrjkZ’Vªh;rkokn dks cqyUn djuk A vUrjjk’Vªh; Lrj ij ekDlZoknh&ysfuuoknh ikfVZ;ksa dh ,drk ds fy, iz;Ru djuk A nqfu;k ds lHkh izxfr'khy] lkezkT;okn&fojks/kh rkdrksa ds lkFk ,drkc) gksuk rFkk lkezkT;okn] fo'ks"k :i ls vesfjdh lkezkT;okn vkSj mlds vuqpjksa ds f[kykQ ØkfUrdkjh rkdrksa ds lkFk fcjknjkuk fj”rk dk;e djuk A vesfjdk vxqokbZ esa gks jgs geyksa vkSj ccZj opZLodkjh dneksa ls lHkh txg gks jgh rckgh ds f[kykQ lfØ; :i ls la?k"kZ djuk A

6-20   yksdra= vkSj lektokn ds fy, la?k"kZ esa iwjh nqfu;k dh turk ds lkFk ,dtqVrk O;Dr djuk A pwafd f}rh; fo'o ;q) ds ckn fufeZr la;qDr jk"Vª la?k lesr vusd laLFkk,a vkSj ,tsfUl;ka uo&mifuosf'kd ywV vkSj izHkqRo dks rst ds vkStkj ds :i esa dke dj jgh gSa] blfy, turk ds tuoknh x.kjkT; dks loZgkjk vUrjkZ"Vªh;rkokn ds vk/kkj ij turk ds tuoknh vkSj lektoknh ns'kksa ds oSdfYid vUrjkZ"Vªh; dsUnzksa dks Øfed :i ls fufeZr djus ds fy, lfØ; dne mBkuk pkfg, A

[k.M  lkr

ikVhZ dk iquxZBu djks vkSj turk ds tuoknh ØkfUr ds jkLrs ij vkxs c<+ks

7-1    Hkkjr esa turk dh tuoknh ØkfUr ds fy, yxHkx ukS n'kdksa ls] ;gka dE;qfuLV vkUnksyu ds ,dne 'kq:vkr ls gh la?k"kZ py jgk gS A bu n'kdksa ds nkSjku vUrjjk"Vªh; vkSj jk"Vªh; nksuksa gh Lrjksa ij Hkkjh cnyko vk;s gSa A gkykafd orZeku ;qx vc Hkh lkezkT;okn vkSj loZgkjk ØkfUr dk ;qx gS] rFkkfi lkezkT;okn us] f}rh; fo'o ;q) ds i'pkr ftldk usr`Ro vesfjdh lkezkT;okn dj jgk gS] ywV vkSj izHkqRo ds mifuosf'kd Lo:iksa dh txg uo&mifuosf'kd Lo:iksa dks viuk fy;k gS A lkezkT;okn ds bl uo&mifuosf”kd pj.k esa Hkkdik¼ekys½ ds lkeus pqukSrh gS ekStwnk ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds vuq:i turk dh tuoknh ØkfUr ds dk;ZHkkj dks mldh eafty rd ys tkuk rFkk lektoknh ØkfUr dh vksj vkxs c<+uk A

7-2    Hkkdik¼ekys½ ;g elkSnk ikVhZ dk;ZØe u dsoy vius lnL;ksa ds le{k] cfYd vke rkSj ij ftls O;kid vFkksZa esa okeiaFkh vkUnksyu dgk tk ldrk gS mlds lnL;ksa vkSj leFkZdksa rFkk lHkh izxfr”khy o tuoknh rkdrksa ds le{k bl mEehn ds lkFk j[k jgk gS fd blds vk/kkj ij ,d O;kid ppkZ dh 'kq:vkr gksxh vkSj bl ij lfØ; :i ls vey fd;k tk;sxk A gesa mEehn gS fd bldh oSpkfjd o jktuhfrd fn”kk ds vk/kkj ij ekDlZoknh&ysfuuoknh rkdrksa dks ,d lkFk ykus ds fy, fd;s tk jgs ,drk iz;klksa dks tkjh j[kus ds lkFk&lkFk bl rjg dk dne mBkus ls vf[ky Hkkjr Lrj ij dE;qfuLV vkUnksyu ds iquxZBu ds ,sfrgkfld dk;ZHkkj dks xfr iznku djus esa enn feysxh tks turk dh tuoknh ØkfUr dks iwjk djus dh fn”kk esa vkxs c<+us ds fy, rFkk lektokn vkSj lkE;okn dks lkdkj djus ds fy, dwp djus ds fy, ,d u;k vkosx iznku djsxk A

n n n


ikVhZ lafo/kku

/kkjk ,d % uke

ikVhZ dk uke Hkkjr dh dE;qfuLV ikVhZ ¼ekDlZoknh&ysfuuoknh½ jsM LVkj gksxk A

/kkjk nks % izrhd fpUg

ikVhZ dk izrhd fpUg yky i`’BHkwfe esa lQsn jax esa cuk ,d&nwljs dks frjNk dkVrs gq, gafl;k&gFkkSM+k rFkk loZgkjk vUrjkZ"Vªh;rkokn ds izrhd ds :i esa gafl;k&gFkkSM+k ds nkfgus Åijh fdukjs ij pkSFkkbZ o`rkdkj cukrs gq, lQsn jax esa ikap rkjk gksxk A

/kkjk rhu % >.Mk

ikVhZ dk >.Mk vk;rkdkj yky >.Mk gksxk ftldh yEckbZ vkSj pkSM+kbZ dk vuqikr 3%2 gksxk vkSj ftlds Åijh fdukjs ¼M.Ms dh vksj½ ds ,d pkSFkkbZ fgLls ds e/; esa lQsn jax esa gafl;k&gFkkSM+k vkSj pkSFkkbZ o`rkdkj es ikap rkjk vafdr fd;k gksxk A

/kkjk pkj % ekxZn'kZd fl)kUr vkSj lkekU; dk;ZØe

1-  Hkkdik ¼ekys½ jsM LVkj Hkkjrh; loZgkjk dk vxzxkeh nLrk] ;kuh fd] fgjkoy nLrk gS] tks ekDlZokn&ysfuuokn&ekvks Rls raqx fopkj/kkjk dks vius ekxZn”kZd fl)kUr ds :i esa cqyUn djrk gS rFkk lHkh fdLe ds la”kks/kuoknh vkSj ladh.kZrkoknh :>kuksa ds f[kykQ le>kSrkghu la?k’kZ djrs gq, bls Hkkjr dh Bksl ifjfLFkfr;kas esa ykxw djuk pkgrk gS vkSj bls Hkkjrh; Økafr ds Bksl O;ogkj ds lkFk ,d:i djuk pkgrk gS A

2-  ;g turk dh tuoknh Økafr ¼ih-Mh-vkj-½ lEiUu djus rFkk turk dk tuoknh vf/kuk;dRo LFkkfir djus ds fy, izfrc) gS A turk dh tuoknh Økafr ds bl pj.k esa ikVhZ ds lkeus dk;ZHkkj gS lkezkT;okn dh lsok dj jgs nyky ukSdj”kkgh iwathoknh&HkwLokeh oxksZa ds “kklu dks m[kkM+ Qsaduk rFkk ekStwnk izfrfØ;koknh Hkkjrh; jktlÙkk dh txg loZgkjk oxZ ds usr`Ro esa turk dh tuoknh jktlÙkk dh LFkkiuk djuk A ikVhZ dk cqfu;knh dk;ZØe gS turk dh tuoknh Økafr ds dk;ZHkkj dks iwjk djuk] lektoknh ØkfUr dh vksj vkxs c<+uk rFkk loZgkjk vf/kuk;dRo ds ekxZn'kZd mlwyksa ds rgr lektokn vkSj lkE;okn dks lkdkj djus ds fy, vkxs dne c<+kuk A

3-  Hkkdik ¼ekys½ jsM LVkj loZgkjk vUrjjk’Vªh;rkokn dks cqyUn djrk gS A nqfu;k dh lHkh ekDlZoknh&ysfuuoknh ikfVZ;ksa o laxBuksa ds lkFk fj”rk cukus ds ekeys esa cjkcjh vkSj HkkbZpkjk bldk ekxZn”kZd mlwy gksxkA

4-  Hkkdik ¼ekys½ jsM LVkj lHkh dE;qfuLV Økafrdkfj;ksa dks ,d ikVhZ esa ,drkc) dj cksY”ksfod fl)kUrksa ds vk/kkj ij dE;qfuLV ikVhZ dk fuekZ.k djus ds fy, iz;Ru”khy gS A

/kkjk ikap % ikVhZ  lnL;rk

1-  vV~Bkjg o’kZ ;k mlls T;knk mez dk dksbZ Hkh Hkkjrh; ukxfjd] tks ikVhZ ds dk;ZØe vkSj lafo/kku dks Lohdkj djrk gS] tks fdlh ,d ikVhZ desVh esa dke djus] fu;fer :i ls ikVhZ lnL;rk 'kqYd vkSj ysOgh vnk djus rFkk ikVhZ ds fu.kZ;ksa ij vey djus ds fy, rS;kj gS] og ikVhZ lnL; cuus dh ik=rk j[krk gS A

2   O;fDrxr :i ls vkosnu djus vkSj nks ikVhZ lnL;ksa dh vuq'kalk ij ikVhZ ”kk[kk ;k vU; ikVhZ desfV;ksa ds ek/;e ls u;s lnL;ksa dks ikVhZ esa “kkfey fd;k tkrk gS A LFkkuh; ;k uxj] rglhy ;k Cykd ;k ,fj;k] ftyk] jkT; vkSj dsUnzh; Lrjksa dh ikVhZ desfV;ksa dks Hkh u;s lnL;ksa dks ikVhZ esa “kkfey djus dk vf/kdkj gS A tks ikVhZ lnL; vkosnd dh vuq'kalk dj jgs gSa mUgsa vkosnd ds lEcU/k esa O;fDrxr tkudkjh ds vk/kkj ij vkSj ftEesnkjh dh Hkkouk ls lacaf/kr ikVhZ desVh dks lgh lwpuk iznku djuh pkfg, A ikVhZ lnL;rk ds fy, lHkh vkosnuksa dks mudh vuq”kalk vkSj vuqeksnu ds i”pkr vkosnu tek djus ,oa muds vuqeksnu ds ,d ekg ds Hkhrj vxyh mPprj ikVhZ desVh ds lkeus is”k fd;k tkuk pkfg, A

3-  viokn Lo:i ekeyksa dks NksM+dj] ikVhZ lnL;ksa dh HkrhZ muds chp ls dh tkuh pkfg, ftUgksaus oxZ@tu laxBuksa esa dke fd;k gS vkSj tks dqN lkaxBfud dk;ksZa vkSj oxZ la?k"kZ esa tkaps&ij[ks gq, gSa] vkSj ftUgksaus fdlh ,d ikVhZ desVh ds ekrgr dk;Zjr dk;ZdÙkkZ@leFkZd lewgksa esa dke fd;k gSS A inyksyqiksa ¼dSfj;jokfn;ksa½] lkft'k jpus okyksasa] nksgjs pky&pyu okyksa] cqjs pfj= okyksa vkSj nq”eu ds ,tsUVksa }kjk ikVhZ esa ?kqliSB ds izfr fo'ks"k lrdZrk cjruh pkfg, A

4-  lEcfU/kr ikVhZ desVh] tgka vkosnu fd;k x;k gS] viuh cSBd esa u;s lnL;ksa dks “kkfey djus ds ckjs esa fu.kZ; ysxh A ;fn vkosnd dks ikVhZ esa “kkfey fd;k tkrk gS rks mls mEehnokj lnL; ekuk tk;sxk A mEehnokj lnL; dks mEehnokj lnL;rk dh U;wure ,d o’kZ dh vof/k ls gksdj xqtjuk gksxk A iwathifr] HkwLokeh ,oa vU; “kks’kd oxksaZ ls vkus okys lnL;ksa ds fy, mEehnokj lnL;rk dh vof/k nks o’kZ dh gksxh A

5-  mEehnokj lnL;ksa dh HkrhZ djus okyh ikVhZ desVh }kjk ikVhZ dk;ZØe] ikVhZ lafo/kku vkSj ikVhZ dh ekStwnk uhfr;ksa ds ckjs esa mudh vkjfEHkd f”k{kk dh O;oLFkk dh tk;sxh vkSj muds fodkl ij utj j[kh tk;sxh A

6-  mEehnokj lnL;rk dh vof/k lekIr gksus ij] lEcfU/kr ikVhZ desVh bl ij ppkZ djsxh fd D;k mEehnokj lnL; iw.kZ lnL; ds :i esa “kkfey fd;s tkus dh xq.koÙkk j[krk gS A lEcfU/kr ikVhZ desVh mEehnokjksa dks iw.kZ lnL; ds :i esa HkrhZ dj ldrh gS ;k mEehnokj lnL;rk dh vof/k dks vkxs c<+k ldrh gS] tks N% ekg ls T;knk ugha gksxh A ;fn mEehnokj lnL; vuqi;qDr ik;k tkrk gS] rks ikVhZ desVh mldh mEehnokj lnL;rk dks [kkfjt dj ldrh gS A lEcfU/kr ikVhZ desVh }kjk vxyh mPprj desVh ds ikl fu;fer :i ls lnL;ksa dh HkrhZ dh fjiksVZ izsf’kr dh tk;sxh A

7-  mPprj desVh fjiksVZ dh Nkuchu dj] ftl ikVhZ desVh us fjiksVZ Hkstk gS mlds lkFk ijke”kZ ds i”pkr] ,sls fdlh fu.kZ; dks cny ldrh gS ;k mlesa lq/kkj yk ldrh gS A mEehnokj lnL;ksa dh HkrhZ rFkk iw.kZ lnL; ds :i esa “kkfey djus ds ekeys esa ftyk vkSj jkT; desfV;ksa dks fuxjkuh j[kus dk vf/kdkj gksxk rFkk mUgsa bl ekeys esa fupyh desfV;ksa ds fu.kZ; dks lq/kkjus ;k mls [kkfjt djus dk vf/kdkj gksxk A

8- lnL;rk 'kqYd nl #i;s okf"kZd gksxh A lnL; ftl desVh esa 'kkfey gS ml desVh }kjk lEcfU/kr lnL; dh {kerk dk vkadyu djus ds i'pkr ysOgh tek djsxh A

9-  ,d ikVhZ lnL; viuh lnL;rk dks ,d desVh ls nwljh desVh esa LFkkukarfjr dj ldrk gS ftlds fy, mls ml desVh dk vuqeksnu ysuk gksxk tgka ls og LFkkukarj.k pkgrk gS rFkk ftl desVh esa og “kkfey gksuk pkgrk gS ogka mls vius lEcU/k esa igyh desVh }kjk iznÙk igpku i= izLrqr djuk gksxk A ftyk ;k jkT; ls ckgj LFkkukarj.k ds ekeys esa lEcfU/kr ftyk ;k jkT; desVh dk vuqeksnu vko”;d gksxk A ;g vxyh mPprj desVh ds vuqeksnu dk fo’k; gksxk A

10- ftu lnL;ksa dks ,d ckj ikVhZ ls fu"dkflr fd;k tk pqdk gS] mUgsa dsoy ml ikVhZ desVh ds fu.kZ; ls gh iqu% ”kkfey fd;k tk ldsxk ftlus muds fu’dklu dh iqf’V dh Fkh] tks vxyh mPprj desVh ds vuqeksnu dk fo’k; gksxk A

11- tc LFkkuh;] bykdk] ftyk ;k jkT; Lrj ij fdlh vU; jktuhfrd ikVhZ dk dksbZ usr`Rodkjh lnL; ikVhZ esa 'kkfey gksuk pkgrk gS] rks lEcfU/kr lnL; dks ikVhZ lnL; ds :i esa HkrhZ djus ls igys blds fy, LFkkuh;] bykdk] ftyk ;k jkT; desVh dh eatwjh ds vykok vxyh mPprj desVh dh eatwjh vko';d gS A viokn Lo:i ekeyksa esa dsUnzh; desVh ;k jkT; desVh ,sls lnL;ksa dks ikVhZ dh iw.kZ lnL;rk ns ldrh gSa A tc jkT; desVh ,slk fu.kZ; ysrh gS rks ,sls ekeyksa esa og dsUnzh; desVh ls iwoZ&vuqefr ysxh A

12- ikVhZ lnL;rk dk izfro"kZ uohuhdj.k fd;k tkuk pkfg, A ,sls ikVhZ lnL;ksa dks tks fdlh larks"ktud dkj.k ds fcuk ,d o"kZ rd lEcfU/kr ikVhZ desfV;ksa vkSj mPp desfV;ksa }kjk r; dh xbZ xfrfof/k;ksa esa lfØ; :i ls Hkkx ysus esa] ikVhZ ds fu.kZ;ksa dks ykxw djus esaa] ikVhZ vuq'kklu cuk;s j[kus esa vkSj lnL;rk 'kqYd ;k ysOgh vnk djus esa vlQy jgrs gSa] mUgsa viuh lnL;rk okil ysus ds fy, dguk pkfg, vkSj ,slk u djus ij vxyh mPprj desVh ds vuqeksnu ls muds uke dks lnL;rk lwfp ls gVk nsuk pkfg, A

13- lnL;rk dh iqf’V ds le; izR;sd ikVhZ lnL; vius lEifÙk dh ?kks’k.kk djsxk rFkk lnL;rk ds uohuhdj.k ds le;] ;fn bl chp mlus ubZ lEifÙk vftZr dh gS] rks mldk fooj.k izLrqr djsxk A

14- dsUnzh; desVh rd mPprj desfV;ksa esa dke djusokys lHkh ikVhZ lnL; fdlh ,d cqfu;knh ikVhZ desVh] ;kuh fd] muds fuokl LFky esa lfØ; ;k vklikl ds bykdksa esa dk;Zjr 'kk[kk ;k LFkkuh; ;k ,fj;k desVh ds lnL; gksaxs vkSj os tc Hkh ml bykds esa gksaxs rks mPprj desVh dh viuh ftEesokfj;ksa dks fdlh Hkh rjg ls izHkkfor fd, fcuk bldh cSBdksa vkSj dkedkt esa fgLlk ysaxs A mudh ikVhZ lnL;rk ds uohuhdj.k ds le; bu desfV;ksa dk fopkj ekaxk tk;sxk A

/kkjk Ng % ikVhZ 'kiFk

ikVhZ esa 'kkfey gksus okys izR;sd lnL; ikVhZ 'kiFk ysaxs A ;g 'kiFk bl izdkj gksxk %

**eSa ekDlZokn&ysfuuokn&ekvks Rlsraqx fopkj/kkjk dks ikVhZ ds ekxZn”kZd fl)kUr ds :i esa Lohdkj djrk gw¡ A

^^eSa ikVhZ ds dk;ZØe dks Lohdkj djrk gw¡ rFkk blds lafo/kku dk ikyu djus ,oa ikVhZ ds fu.kZ;ksa ij vey ds fy, bZekunkjh ds lkFk dke djus ds fy, lger gw¡ A eSa blds izfr dFkuh vkSj djuh esa fu’Bkoku vkSj bZekunkj jgus dh “kiFk ysrk gw¡ A

**eSa lkE;okn ds vkn'kksZa ds vuq:i thou fcrkus dk iz;kl d:axk rFkk eSa ges'kk ikVhZ] turk vkSj Økafr ds fgrksa dks vius O;fDrxr fgr ds Åij j[krs gq, fu%LokFkZ :i ls loZgkjk y{; vkSj Økafr dh lsok d:axk vkSj mlds fy, la?k’kZ d:axk rFkk ikVhZ ds lEeku vkSj izfr’Bk dks cqyUn j[kus dk iz;kl d:axk A

**eSa thou vkSj lekt esa lkEiznkf;drk] tkfrokn] :<+hokn] va/k&jk’Vªokn vkSj ySafxd HksnHkko ds f[kykQ yMwaxk A**

/kkjk lkr % ikVhZ ysOgh vkSj lnL;rk 'kqYd dk forj.k

1-  lEcfU/kr ikVhZ desfV;ksa }kjk ikVhZ lnL;ksa ls tek dh xbZ ikVhZ ysOgh dk fuEukuqlkj caVokjk fd;k tk;sxk&&

    10 izfr”kr dsUnzh; desVh ds fy,] 40 izfr”kr jkT; desVh ds fy, rFkk “ks’k 50 izfr”kr dk ftyk desVh ,oa uhpyh desfV;ksa ds chp caVokjk fd;k tk;sxk ftldk fu.kZ; lEcfU/kr ftyk desVh }kjk fy;k tk;sxk A

2-  lnL;rk o uohuhdj.k “kqYd dsUnzh; desVh ds ikl tk;sxk A

/kkjk vkB % ikVhZ lnL;ksa dh ftEesokfj;ka

ikVhZ lnL;ksa dh ftEesokfj;ka fuEukuqlkj gSa %

1-  ekDlZokn&ysfuuokn&ekvks Rlsrqax fopkj/kkjk dh le> c<+kus dk iz;kl djsa rFkk fl)kUr dks O;ogkj ds lkFk ,d:i djuk lh[ksa A

2-  os ftl ikVhZ desVh ds lnL; gSa mldh lHkh xfrfof/k;ksa esa fu;fer :i fgLlk ysa rFkk ikVhZ dh uhfr;ksa] QSlyksa vkSj funsZ'kksa ij fu"BkiwoZd vey djsa A

3-  ikVhZ if=dkvksa vkSj izdk'kuksa dks i<+sa A muds fu;fer izdk'ku esa enn djsa rFkk mudk lfØ; :i ls izpkj djsa A

4-  ikVhZ lafo/kku dk ikyu djsa vkSj vuq'kklu dk;e j[ksa A lkE;okn ds egku vkn'kksZa vkSj loZgkjk vUrjkZ"Vªh;rkokn dh Hkkouk ds vuq:i thou O;frr djsa vkSj vkpj.k djsaa A

5-  vius Lo;a ds fgrksa dks turk vkSj ikVhZ ds fgrksa ekrgr j[ksa A

6-  lefiZr Hkko ls turk dh lsok djsa ,oa muds lkFk vius laca/kksa dks yxkrkj lqn`<+ cuk;sa rFkk ges”kk gh turk ls lh[kus ds fy, rS;kj jgsa ,oa turk ds la?k’kksZa esa Hkkx ysa A turk dh t:jrksa ,oa fopkjksa ls ikVhZ dks voxr djk;sa A ;fn fo'ks"k dkj.kksa ls mUgsa NwV u nh xbZ gks] rks ikVhZ ds funsZ'kksa ds rgr fdlh ,d oxZ@tu laxBu esa dke djsa A

7-  ikVhZ lnL;ksa ds chp dkejsMkuk lEcU/k dks etcwr cuk;sa A ikVhZ ds vUnj fcjknjkuk laca/kksa dks fujarj fodflr djasa A

8-  Lo;a dh ,oa lkewfgd xfrfof/k;ksa dks csgrj cukus ds fy, rFkk ,d&nwljs dh enn djus ds fy, fu;fer :i ls vkykspuk ,oa vkRe vkykspuk djsa A

9-  ikVhZ }kjk O;Dr Hkjksls ds lkFk dHkh Hkh fo'okl?kkr u djsa A ikVhZ ds vUnj [kqysiu vkSj bZekunkjh ds lkFk vkpj.k djsa A

10- ikVhZ dh ,drk vkSj rkdr dh j{kk djsa( loZgkjk ,oa turk ds nq'euksa ds izfr lrdZrk cjrsa A

11- /keZ] tkfr] jk’Vªh;rk vkSj fyax vk/kkfjr mRihM+uksa vkSj HksnHkkoksa ds fo:) vfojke :i ls yM+sa rFkk lkEiznkf;drk] /kkfeZd dêjrk] tkfrokn] izkUrokn] ladh.kZ erokn vkSj iq#’k izHkqRookn tSlh foHkktudkjh izo`fr;ksa dk n`<+rk ls fojks/k djsa A

12- ekDlZokn&ysfuuokn&ekvks Rlsrqax fopkj/kkjk rFkk ikVhZ dh oSpkfjd o jktuhfrd fn”kk ls lHkh fdLe ds HkVdkoksa ds izfr le>kSrkghu joS¸;k viuk;sa A lHkh xSj&loZgkjk fopkjksa rFkk la”kks/kuokn] okeiaFkh o nf{k.kiaFkh voljokn] mnkjrokn] ladh.kZrkokn] vjktdrkokn ,oa tM+lw=okn dh izo`fr;ksa ds fo:) yM+sa A

13- ikVhZ desfV;ksa dk ;g dk;ZHkkj gS fd os mijksDr ftEesokfj;ksa dks ykxw djus ds fy, ikVhZ lnL;ksa dk ekxZn'kZu djsa vkSj mls iwjk djus ds fy, mUgsa gj lEHko lgk;rk djsa A

/kkjk ukS % ikVhZ lnL;ksa ds vf/kdkj

1-   ikVhZ lnL;ksa ds vf/kdkj fuEufyf[kr gSa %

v½  ikVhZ desfV;ksa dks pquus vkSj mlesa pqus tkus dk vf/kdkj(

c½  ikVhZ dh uhfr;ksa ,oa ikVhZ ds fu.kZ;ksa dks lq=hc) djus dh fn'kk esa ;ksxnku nsus ds fy, ppkZvksa esa [kqys :i ls fgLlk ysus dk vf/kdkj(

l½  ikVhZ eas vius Lo;a ds dk;Z ds ckjs esa izLrko j[kus dk] viuh ;ksX;rk ,oa thou ds gkykr ds vuq:i vius fy, dke fu/kkZfjr djokus dk vf/kdkj(

n½  ikVhZ desfV;ksa vkSj ikVhZ ds inkf/kdkfj;ksa ds ckjs ikVhZ dh cSBdksa esa vkykspuk djus dk vf/kdkj(

p½  tc fdlh ikVhZ desVh }kjk lnL; ds fo:) vuq'kklukRed dk;Zokgh ij ppkZ dh tk jgh gks ;k mlds O;fDrxr pfj= ;k ,slh xaHkhj xyfr;ksa ls lEcfU/kr mlds dk;ksZa ds ckjs esa ewY;kadu dh tk jgh gks ftleas fyIr gksus ds ckjs esa ml ij vkjksi gS] rks O;fDrxr rkSj ij lqus tkus dh ekax djus dk vf/kdkj(

N½  tc dksbZ ikVhZ lnL; ikVhZ desVh ;k ikVhZ ds usr`Ro eas fdlh laxBu ds fu.kZ; ls vlgefr j[krk gS] rks mls vius fopkj dks dsUnzh; desVh vkSj ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku lesr mPprj desVh esa j[kus dk vf/kdkj gS A fuf”pr gh] ,sls lHkh ekeyksa esa ikVhZ lnL; ikVhZ ds fu.kZ;ksa ij vey djsaxs rFkk erHksnksa dks O;ogkj esa tkapus vkSj dkejsMjkuk ppkZvksa ds tfj, gy djus dk iz;kl fd;k tk;sxk(

>½  fdlh oDrO;] vihy ;k f”kdk;r dks dsUnzh; desVh lesr fdlh Hkh mPprj desVh rd vkSj ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku rd is”k djus dk vf/kdkj gS] c”krsZ fd izR;sd lnL; }kjk ,sls oDrO; ;k f”kdk;r dks loZizFke vius izkFkfed desVh esa j[kk tk;sxk A og izkFkfed desVh ,sls fdlh oDrO; ;k f”kdk;r ij fu.kZ; ys ldrh gS A ;fn lnL; ,sls fdlh fu.kZ; ls larq’V ugha gS] ;k ;fn ml ij rhu eghuksa rd dksbZ fu.kZ; ugha fy;k tkrk gS rks lEcfU/kr lnL; dks vxyh mPprj desVh esa vkSj blh <ax ls dsUnzh; desVh ;k ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku rd vihy djus dk vf/kdkj gksxk A

2-  ikVhZ desfV;ksa vkSj ikVhZ inkf/kdkfj;ksa dk dÙkZO; gksxk fd os ;g ns[ksa fd bu vf/kdkjksa dk lEeku fd;k tk jgk gS A

3-  oksV nsus vkSj pqus tkus ds vf/kdkj ds vykok mEehnokj lnL;ksa dks iw.kZ lnL; ds lHkh vf/kdkj gSa A

/kkjk nl % ikVhZ ds lkaxBfud fl)kUr

1-  ikVhZ dh lajpuk tuoknh dsUnzh;rk ds fl)kUr ij vk/kkfjr gS vkSj mldk vkUrfjd thou mlh ls funsZf”kr gksrk gS A tuoknh dsUnzh;rk dk vFkZ gS iw.kZ vUr%&ikVhZ tuokn ds vk/kkj ij dsUnzh;Ñr usr`Ro rFkk dsUnzhÑr usr`Ro ds ekxZn'kZu ds ekrgr vUr%&ikVhZ tuokn A

    ikVhZ lajpuk esa tuoknh dsUnzh;rk ds ekxZn”kZd fl)kUr gSa %

v½  Åij ls ysdj uhps rd lHkh ikVhZ fudk; pqus gq, gksaxs(

c½  vYier }kjk cgqer ds fu.kZ;ksa ij vey fd;k tk;sxk( fupys Lrj dh ikVhZ desfV;kas }kjk mPprj ikVhZ desfV;ksa ds fu.kZ;ksa ,oa funsZ”kksa ij vey fd;k tk;sxk( O;fDr vius vkidks lewg ds v/khu j[ksxk A lHkh ikVhZ desfV;ksa }kjk ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku ,oa dsUnzh; desVh ds fu.kZ;ksa ,oa funsZ”kksa ij vey fd;k tk;sxk A

l½  lHkh ikVhZ desfV;kas }kjk le;≤ ij vius Bhd uhps dh ikVhZ desVh dks vius dk;ksZa dh fjiksVZ nh tk;sxh vkSj blh izdkj lHkh fupyh desfV;ka vius Bhd Åij dh desVh dks fjiksVZ nsaxh A

n½  lHkh ikVhZ desfV;ka] fo”ks’k :i ls usr`Rodkjh desfV;ka] fupys Lrj dh ikVhZ desfV;ksa vkSj vke ikVhZ lnL;ksa ds fopkjksa ,oa vkykspukvksa ij fu;fer :i ls /;ku nsaxh A

p½  lHkh ikVhZ desfV;ka lkewfgd fu.kZ;ksa vkSj tkap&iM+rky ds lkFk O;fDrxr tokcnsgh ds mlwy dk dM+kbZ ls ikyu djsaxh A

N½  vUrjkZ"Vªh; ekeyksa ls lacaf/kr lHkh fo’k;ksa] vf[ky Hkkjrh; pfj= okys fo’k;ksa] ;k ,d ls vf/kd jkT;ksa ls lEcU/k j[kus okys fo’k;ksa] ;k fo’k;ksa ds ckjs esa iwjs ns'k ds iSekus ij ,dleku QSlyk ysus dh vko';drk gS] bu lc ekeyksa esa dsUnzh; desVh }kjk fu.kZ; fy;k tk;sxk A jkT; ;k ftyk Lrj ds lHkh lokyksa ij QSlyk vke rkSj ij ml Lrj dh ikVhZ desVh }kjk fy;k tk;sxk A ysfdu] fdlh Hkh gkykr esa ;s QSlys mPPkrj ikVhZ laxBuksa ds QSlyksas ds f[kykQ ugha tkus pkfg, A tc Hkh ikVhZ dh dsUnzh; desVh dks jkT; ds egRo ds fdlh eqn~ns ij QSlyk ysuk gksxk rks og lEcfU/kr jkT; desVh ls ijke'kZ djus ds i'pkr gh ,slk djsxh A ftyksa ls lacaf/kr ekeyksa esa jkT; desfV;ka Bhd ,slk gh djsaxh A

t½ ,sls eqn~ns ftudk vf[ky Hkkjrh; Lrj ij ikVhZ dh uhfr ij vlj iM+rk gks] ysfdu ftu ij ikVhZ dks igys&igy viuk er izdV djuk gks] mu ij uhfrxr c;ku nsus dk vf/kdkj dsoy dsUnzh; desVh dks gksxk A uhpyh desfV;ka le; jgrs viuh jk; ,oa lqq>koksa dks fopkj ds fy, dsUnzh; desVh ds ikl Hkst ldrh gSa vkSj mUgsa Hkstuk Hkh pkfg, A

2-  lEiw.kZ ikVhZ lnL;rk vkSj yksdfiz; vkUnksyuksa ds vuqHko ds vk/kkj ij ikVhZ ds vkUrfjd thou esa ds {ks= esa tuoknh dsUnzh;rk ds fuEufyf[kr ekxZn”kZd fl)kUr ykxw gksrs gSa %

d½ ikVhZ] mldh uhfr vkSj dk;Z dks izHkkfor djus okys lHkh lokyksa ij ikVhZ desVh esa [kqyh vkSj eqDr ppkZ djuk(

[k½ ikVhZ dh uhfr;ksa dks yksdfiz; cukus vkSj ml ij vye ds fy, ikVhZ lnL;ksa dks lfØ; cukus] mudk oSpkfjd ,oa jktuhfrd Lrj Åapk mBkus rFkk mudh vke f”k{kk dks csgrj cukus dk fVdkÅ iz;kl djuk] rkfd os ikVhZ thou vkSj dk;Z esa izHkko”kkyh <ax ls Hkkx ys ldsa(

x½  ;fn fdlh ikVhZ desVh esa xaHkhj erHksn mB [kM+k gksrk gS] rks vke le> dk;e djus ds fy, lHkh rjg ls iz;kl fd;k tkuk pkfg, A ,slk djus esa vlQy jgus ij] vkxs vkSj Hkh ppkZvksa ds ek/;e ls erHksnksa dks gy djus utfj;s ls fu.kZ; dks LFkfxr j[kuk pkfg,] c”krsZ ikVhZ vkSj tu vkUnksyu dh t:jrksa dks /;ku esa j[kdj rRdky fu.kZ; dh vko”;drk u gks(

?k½  lHkh Lrjksa ij] Åij ls ysdj uhps rd] vkykspuk vkSj vkRe& vkykspuk dks] fo”ks’k :i ls uhps ls vkykspuk dks izksRlkgu nsuk(

M-½ lHkh Lrjksa ij ukSdj”kkgh izo`fr;ksa ds f[kykQ vuojr la?k’kZ djuk(

p½  ikVhZ ds vUnj fdlh Hkh :i esa xqVckth djus vkSj xqV cukus dh vuqefr ugha gS(

N½  fcjknjkuk fj”rksa vkSj ikjLifjd lg;ksx dks fodflr dj ikVhZ Hkkouk dks etcwr cukuk] dkejsMksa ds lkFk lgkuqHkwfr dk crkZo djds xyfr;ksa dks lq/kkjuk] muds vkSj muds dke ds ckjs esa dqN fNViqV xyfr;ksa ;k ?kVukvksa ds vk/kkj ij ugha] cfYd ikVhZ dh lsok esa fd;s x;s muds iwjs dke dks /;ku esa j[kdj QSlyk djukA

3-  lEcfU/kr desfV;ksa esa fofHkUu erksa dks izfrfuf/kRo fn;k tkuk pkfg, A

4-  vlkekU; ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa lHkh Lrjksa ij lkaxBfud desfV;ksa dk xBu fd;k tk ldrk gS A

5-  izkFkfed desVh ikVhZ vkSj turk ds chp lsrq gksxh A turk ,oa desfV;ksa ds fopkjksa dk /;kuiwoZd v/;;u fd;k tk;sxk] mldk fupksM+ fudkyk tk;sxk] mls vkRelkr fd;k tk;sxk rFkk ikVhZ dh uhfr;ksa dks lq=hc) djus ,oa csgrj cukus ds fy, mudk bLrseky fd;k tk;sxk A

6-  dk;ZdrkZ uhfr ¼dSMj ikWfylh½ ds vk/kkj ij lefiZr vkSj ;ksX; dkejsMksa dks ysdj dsUnzh; desVh vkSj jkT; desVh dk xBu fd;k tk;sxk A ikVhZ is”ksoj Økafrdkfj;ksa ds fodkl dh ftEesnkjh ysxh A

/kkjk X;kjg % vkykspuk vkSj vkRe&vkykspuk

vkykspuk vkSj vkRe&vkykspuk ikVhZ desVh dh lcls egRoiw.kZ mlwyksa esa ls ,d gS A vke rkSj ij ikVhZ vkSj fo”ks’k :i ls usr`Ro] desfV;ksa ,oa lnL;ksa ds fy, bl ij vey djuk fugk;r gh t:jh gS A

v½  vkykspuk vkSj vkRe&vkykspuk ikVhZ dh fn”kk vkSj mlds O;ogkj ij vk/kkfjr gksuh pkfg, A

c½  vkykspuk ikVhZ vkSj lEcfU/kr desVh ds vUnj dh tkuh pkfg,] u fd ckgj A

l½  Åijh desfV;ksa ds ckjs esa ;k muds fu.kZ;ksa ds f[kykQ vkykspuk lEcfU/kr desVh ds ikl Hksth tkuh pkfg, A

n½  ,drk&la?k’kZ&,drk ds ek/;e ls] ;kuh fd] vkykspuk vkSj vkRe&vkykspuk dh izfØ;k ls ikVhZ dh ,drk gkfly gksrh gS A

/kkjk ckjg % ikVhZ vuq'kklu

1-  ikVhZ dh ,drk dks dk;e j[kus vkSj mls lqn`<+ cukus ds fy,] mldh rkdr] tq>k: {kerk vkSj mldh izfr"Bk c<+kus ds fy, rFkk tuoknh dsUnzh;rk ds mlwyksa dks ykxw djus ds fy, vuq'kklu vifjgk;Z gS A ikVhZ vuq'kklu dk dBksjrk ls ikyu fd;s fcuk ikVhZ la?k"kksZa vkSj dk;Zokfg;ksaa esa vke turk dk usr`Ro ugha dj ldrh gS vkSj u gh muds izfr viuh ftEesokfj;ksa dks iwjk dj ldrh gS A

2-  vuq'kklu dk vk/kkj ikVhZ ds y{;ksa] dk;ZØe vkSj uhfr;ksa dks lpsr :i ls Lohdkj djuk gS A ikVhZ ds lHkh lnL;] ikVhZ laxBu ds vUnj vFkok lkoZtfud thou esa mudk pkgs tks Hkh ntkZ gks] ikVhZ vuq'kklu ls leku :i ls ca/ks gSa A

3-  ikVhZ ds lafo/kku vkSj ikVhZ ds QSlyksa dks rksM+uk ;k dksbZ Hkh ,slk dke vkSj vkpj.k djuk tks dE;qfuLV ikVhZ ds ,d lnL; dh izfr"Bk ds izfrdwy gks] ikVhZ vuq'kklu dks rksM+uk ekuk tk;sxk vkSj mlds fo#) vuq'kklu dh dk;Zokgh dh tk ldrh gSA

4-  vuq”kklu dh dk;Zokfg;ka gSa %

    v½ psrkouh nsuk A

    c½  fuUnk djuk A

    l½ lkoZtfud fuUnk djuk A

    n½  ikVhZ esa in ls gVkuk A

    p½ ikVhZ dh iw.kZ lnL;rk ls fdlh ,d vof/k ds fy, fuyfEcr djuk] ysfdu og vof/k ,d o"kZ ls T;knk ugha gksxh A

    N½ ikVhZ lnL;rk lwfp ls gVkuk A

    t½ fu"dkflr djuk A

5-  ;fn fdlh desVh dk dksbZ lnL; mDr desVh dh rhu cSBdksa esa yxkrkj mifLFkr ugha gksrk gS rks mDr desVh dks mDr lnL; ls Li’Vhdj.k ekaxus dk vkSj] mDr lnL; ds Li’Vhdj.k ij lquokbZ ds i”pkr] ;fn mDr Li’Vhdj.k dks larks’ktud ugha ik;k tkrk gS rks mDr lnL; ls mDr desVh ls gVkus dk vf/kdkj gksxk] tks jkT; desVh ;k dsUnzh; desVh ls vuqeksnu dk fo’k; gksxk] rFkkfi bl rjg ls gVk;s x;s lnL; dks dUVªksy deh”ku ds ikl vihy djus dk vf/kdkj gksxk A

6-  lkekU; rkSj ij vuq”kklu dh dk;Zokgh rc dh tk;sxh tc le>kus& cq>kus dk rjhdk lesr lHkh rjhds lEcfU/kr dkejsM dks lq/kkjus esa vlQy gks x;s gksxsa A fdUrq ,sls ekeyksa esa Hkh tgka vuq”kklu dh dk;Zokgh dh xbZ gks] ogka dkejsM dks vius vkidks lq/kkjus esa enn nsus dk iz;kl tkjh j[kk tk;sxk A ,sls ekeyksa esa tgka vuq”kklu dk mYya?ku ,slk gS fd ikVhZ ds fgrksa ;k mldh izfr’Bk dh j{kk ds fy, rRdky vuq”kklu dh dk;Zokgh djus dh t:jr gS] vuq”kklu dh dk;Zokgh rRdky dh tk;sxh A

7-  vuq'kklu dh lHkh dk;Zokfg;ksa esa ikVhZ ls fu"dklu dBksjre dne gS vkSj bls ykxw djrs le; vf/kdre lko/kkuh] fopkj vkSj foosd ls dke ysuk pkfg, A

8-  fdlh lnL; ds fu"dklu ;k fuyEcu lEcU/kh vuq'kklukRed dk;Zokgh ml le; rd izHkkoh ugha gksxh tc rd vxyh mPprj dessVh }kjk mldh iqf"V u dj nh tk;s A rFkkfi] fu"dklu ;k fuyEcu ds ekeys esa] nf.Mr ikVhZ lnL; dks bldh iqf"V gksus rd lHkh ftEesnkj inksa ls] ftl ij og gks ldrk gS] gVk fn;k tk;sxk A

9-  ftl dkejsM ds f[kykQ vuq'kklu dh dk;Zokgh izLrkfor gS] mls mlds f[kykQ yxk;s x;s vkjksiksa] dkj.kksa ,oa lHkh izklafxd rF;ksa dh iwjh tkudkjh nh tk;sxh A lnL; dks ml ikVhZ desVh esa O;fDrxr :i ls viuh ckr j[kus dk vf/kdkj gksxk ftlesa muds ekeys ij ppkZ dh tk jgh gS A

10- os lnL; tks gM+rky&rksM+d] vknru 'kjkch] uSfrd :i ls ifrr] ikVhZ fo'okl ds lkFk xn~nkjh djus vkSj xaHkhj vkfFkZd vfu;ferrkvksa ds nks"kh ik;s tkrs gSa ;k ,sls lnL; ftudh xfrfof/k;ka ikVhZ vkSj etnwj oxZ ds fy, ?kkrd gSa] mu ij ml ikVhZ desVh }kjk dk;Zokgh dh tk;sxh ftlds os lnL; gSa vkSj os vuq”kklukRed dk;Zokgh ds Hkkxh gksxsa A

11- vuq'kklu dh dk;Zokgh ds gj ekeys esa vihy djus dk vf/kdkj gksxk A

12- jkT; desVh dks vf/kdkj gS fd og uhpys Lrj dh ,slh desVh dks Hkax dj ns ;k mlds f[kykQ vuq”kklu dh dk;Zokgh djs tks ikVhZ ds QSlyksa vkSj uhfr dk fujarj mYya?ku djrs gaS] tks xaHkhj xqVckth esa vkSj ikVhZ vuq'kklu dks rksM+us esa 'kkfey gSa A

13- ikVhZ ls bLrhQk nsus ds fy, bPNqd lnL; lEcfU/kr ikVhZ desVh dks vkosnu nsxsa tks vius vke lnL;ksa dh cSBd ds fu.kZ; }kjk mls Lohdkj dj ldrh gS vkSj mlds uke dks lnL;rk lwfp ls gVkus  dk fu.kZ; ys ldrh gS vkSj ekeys dh fjiksVZ vxyh mPprj desVh dks nsxh A

/kkjk rsjg % vf[ky Hkkjrh; ikVhZ egkf/kos'ku

1-  vf[ky Hkkjrh; ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku iwjs ns”k ds fy, ikVhZ dk loksZPp fudk; gksxk A

v½  dsUnzh; desVh }kjk vke rkSj ij izR;sd rhu o’kZ esa fu;fer ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku vk;ksftr fd;k tk;sxk A rFkkfi] fdlh Hkh ekeys esa egkf/kos”ku ds vk;kstu dks bl rhu o’kZ ds vkxs ,d o’kZ ls T;knk le; ds fy, foyfEcr ugha fd;k tk ldrk gS A

c½  ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku dh frfFk] LFkku] ,ts.Mk vkSj dk;Zokgh dk fu.kZ; fo”ks’k :i ls bl edln ls cqykbZ xbZ cSBd esa dsUnzh; desVh }kjk fy;k tk;sxk A

l½  ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku esa jkT; lEesyuksa }kjk vkSj lkFk gh lh/ks rkSj ij vf[ky Hkkjrh; ikVhZ dsUnz ds ekrgr dk;Z djus okyh ikVhZ desfV;ksa ds lEesyuksa }kjk fuokZfpr izfrfuf/k 'kkfey gkssaxsA

n½  ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku esa izfrfuf/kRo dk vk/kkj dsUnzh; desVh }kjk r; fd;k tk;sxk A

p½  dsUnzh; desVh vkSj dsUnzh; dUVªksy deh”ku ds lnL;ksa dks ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku esa] pkgs og fu;fer ;k fQj fo”ks’k egkf/kos”ku gks] iw.kZ izfrfuf/k ds :i esa Hkkx yssus dk vf/kdkj gksxk A

N½  fdlh jkT; dh lnL;rk la[;k dks] ftlds fy, dsUnzh; desVh ds ikl lnL;rk “kqYd dk dksVk iwjh rjg tek fd;k x;k gS] ml jkT; ls ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku esa izfrfuf/k;ksa dh la[;k dh x.kuk djus dk vk/kkj ekuk tk;sxk A

2-  ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku ds dk;Z vkSj “kfDr;ka fuEufyf[kr gSa %

v½  dsUnzh; desVh dh jktuhfrd vkSj lkaxBfud fjiksVZ ij ppkZ djuk vkSj dk;Zokgh djuk A

c½  ikVhZ dk;ZØe vkSj ikVhZ lafo/kku esa la”kks/ku vkSj ifjorZu djuk A

l½  ØkfUr dk jkLrk rFkk ekStwnk ifjfLFkfr esa ikVhZ dh dk;Zuhfrd fn”kk vkSj uhfr dks fu/kkZfjr djuk A

n½  xqIr ernku ds tfj, dsUnzh; desVh dk pquko djuk A

p½  dsUnzh; dUVªksy deh”ku dh fjiksVZ vkSj lkFk gh lkFk vihyksa dh lquokbZ djuk vkSj fu.kZ; ysuk A

N½  dUVªksy deh”ku }kjk is”k vk;&O;; dh fjiksVZ ij lquokbZ djuk vkSj fu.kZ; ysuk A

t½ dsUnzh; dUVªksy deh”ku dk pquko djuk A

>½  viuh dk;Zokfg;ksa ds lapkyu ds fy, ,d v/;{ke.My vkSj lapkyu lfefr dk pquko djuk A

3-  v½ dsUnzh; desVh }kjk vius Lo;a ds foosd ls ;k tc mu jkT; desfV;ksa }kjk bldh ekax dh tk; tks dqy ikVhZ lnL;rk ds de&ls&de ,d&frgkbZ dk izfrfuf/kRo djrs gaS] rks fo”ks’k ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku vk;ksftr fd;k tk;sxk A tc ,sls ,d fo”ks’k ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku dh ekax dh tk;sxh rks bls mDr ekax djus dh frfFk ls N% ekg ds vUnj vk;ksftr fd;k tk;sxk A

c½  fo”ks’k ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku dh frfFk] LFkku] dk;Z vkSj ,ts.Mk dk fu.kZ; fo”ks’k :i ls bl edln ls cqykbZ xbZ cSBd esa dsUnzh; desVh }kjk fy;k tk;sxk A

l½  fo”ks’k ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku ds fy, izfrfuf/kRo dk vk/kkj dsUnzh; desVh }kjk bl edln ls fo”ks’k :i ls cqykbZ xbZ cSBd esa r; fd;k tk;sxk A

n½  dsUnzh; desVh vkSj dsUnzh; dUVªksy deh”ku ds lnL;ksa dks fo”ks’k ikVhZ bl edln ls esa iw.kZ izfrfuf/k ds :i esa Hkkx yssus dk vf/kdkj gksxk A

/kkjk pkSng % ikVhZ egkf/kos'ku ls iwoZ dh ppkZ

1-  dsUnzh; desVh vf[ky Hkkjrh; ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku ds rhu ekg igys lHkh ikVhZ lnL;ksa@mEehnokj lnL;ksa }kjk ppkZ ds fy, elfonk nLrkrstksa dks tkjh djsxh A jkT; desfV;ksa ds fy, ;g ck/;dkjh gS fd dsUnzh; desVh }kjk bls tkjh djus ds ckn lEHkore de&ls&de le; esa lEcfU/kr Hkk"kkvksa esa mudk vuqokn djsa vkSj 'kk[kk desfV;ksa rd lHkh desfV;ksa dks bldh vko';d izfr;ka miyC/k djk;ssa A izLrkoksa ds fy, la'kks/kuksa dks lh/ks dsUnzh; desVh ds ikl Hkstk tk;sxk tks blds ckjs esa viuh fjiksVZ vf[ky Hkkjrh; egkf/kos”ku ds le{k j[ksxh A

2-  vf[ky Hkkjrh; ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku ds fgLls ds :i esa dsUnzh; desVh ds elfonk nLrkostksa rFkk lEcfU/kr desfV;ksa vkSj mlds Åij dh desVh ls ysdj jkT; desVh rd dh fjiksVksZa vkSj izLrkokssa ds vk/kkj ij gj Lrj ij lEesyu vk;ksftr fd;s tk;saxs A

3-  'kk[kk vkSj LFkkuh; desVh Lrj ds lEesyuksa esa mPprj desVh ds ,d dkejsM }kjk ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku esa izLrqr fd;s tkus okys nLrkostksa dh fjiksVZ is'k dh tk;sxh A lHkh ikVhZ lnL;@mEehnokj lnL; bykdk lEesyuksa esa izfrfuf/k gksxsa A

/kkjk iUnzg % vf[ky Hkkjrh; ikVhZ lEesyu

tc Hkh vko”;d le>k tk;sxk] dsUnzh; desVh }kjk vf[ky Hkkjrh; ikVhZ lEesyu vk;ksftr fd;k tk ldrk gS A



/kkjk lksyg % ikVhZ Iysue

1-  tc dHkh fdlh egRoiw.kZ uhfrxr elys vkSj laxBukRed loky ij O;kid Lrj ij ppkZ vkSj fu.kZ; dh t:jr mB [kM+h gksxh rks dsUnzh; desVh }kjk vf[ky Hkkjrh; Iysue dk vk;kstu fd;k tk ldrk gS A

2-  dsUnzh; desVh vkSj dsUnzh; dUVªksy deh”ku ds lnL; Iysue esa insu izfrfuf/k gksaxs A vU; izfrfuf/k;ksa dk p;u dsUnzh; desVh }kjk r; ekin.M ds vk/kkj ij desfV;ksa }kjk fd;k tk;sxk A

3-  dsUnzh; desVh Iysue dk ,ts.Mk r; djsxh A

4-  Iysue ds fu.kZ; dsUnzh; desVh ds fy, ca/kudkjh gksxsa A

/kkjk lÙkjg % dsUæh; desVh

1   v½ dsUnzh; desVh dk pquko ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku esa fd;k tk;sxk] blds lnL;ksa dh la[;k ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku }kjk r; dh tk;sxh A

c½  fuorZeku dsUnzh; desVh }kjk egkf/kos”ku esa mEehnokjksa dk ,d iSuy izLrkfor fd;k tk;sxk A

l½  turk ds lkFk ?kfu’B :i ls tqM+s] etnwj oxZ ds Økafrdkjh n`f’Vdks.k ij vfMx vkSj ekDlZokn&ysfuuokn&ekvks Rls rqax fopkj/kkjk dh f'k{kk ls ySl ,d l{ke usr`Ro dh rS;kj djus ds n`f’Vdks.k ls mEehnokjksa dk iSuy cuk;k tk;sxk A iSuy esa jkT;ksa] tu laxBuksa vkSj ikVhZ xfrfof/k;ksa ds vU; {ks=ksa ls Js’B izfrHkkvksa vkSj vuqHkoh yksxksa dks ,d lkFk yk;k tk;sxk A

n½  izLrkfor iSuy ds fdlh Hkh uke ds lEcU/k esa dksbZ Hkh izfrfuf/k vkifÙk mBk ldrk gS vkSj lkFk gh fdlh u;s uke ;k ukeksa dk izLrko j[k ldrk gS A

p½  dksbZ Hkh O;fDr ftldk uke izLrkfor fd;k x;k gS] mls viuk uke okil ysus dk vf/kdkj gksxk A

N½  izfrfuf/k;kas }kjk fd;s x;s vfrfjDr ukekadu lfgr vfUre :i ls izLrkfor iSuy ij xqIr eri= ls ernku gksxk A

2-  dsUnzh; desVh nks vf[ky Hkkjrh; ikVhZ egkf/kos”kuksa ds chp ikVhZ dk loksZPp izkf/kdkj gksxh A

3-  ;g ikVhZ lafo/kku dks ykxw djus rFkk ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku }kjk Lohd`r jktuhfrd fn”kk ,oa fu.kZ;ksa ij vey djus ds fy, tokcnsg gS A

4-  dsUnzh; desVh lkfoZd :i ls ikVhZ dk izfrfuf/kRo djsxh rFkk ikVhZ ds iwjs dke dks funsZf”kr djus ds fy, ftEesokj gksxh A dsUnzh; desVh dks ikVhZ ds le{k mifLFkr fdlh Hkh loky ij iw.kZ izkf/kdkj ds lkFk fu.kZ; ysus dk vf/kdkj gksxk A

5-  dsUnzh; desVh vius lnL;ksa ds chp ls egklfpo lesr ,d jktuhfrd C;wjks ¼iksfyr C;wjks½ dk pquko djsxh A jktuhfrd C;wjks ds lnL;ksa dh la[;k dsUnzh; desVh }kjk r; dh tk;sxh A jktuhfrd C;wjks dsUnzh; desVh ds nks l=ksa ds njE;ku blds dk;kasZ dks vkxs ys tkrh gS vkSj mls dsUnzh; desVh dh nks cSBdksa ds chp jktuhfrd fu.kZ; ysus dk vf/kdkj gS A ikVhZ usr`Ro dk cnyko Hkh xqIr ernku ds vk/kkj ij fd;k tk;sxk A

6-  jktuhfrd C;wjks dh LFkkbZ desVh ¼LVSafMax desVh½ blds jkstejkZ ds dk;kZas dk lapkyu djsxh A

7-  v½ vuq”kklu ds ?kksj mYya?ku] nqO;Zogkj vkSj ikVhZ&fojks/kh xfrfof/k ds fy, fdlh Hkh lnL; dks dsUnzh; desVh mifLFkr nks&frgkbZ lnL;ksa ds er ls desVh ls gVk nsxh vkSj ftlds fy, fdlh Hkh gkyr esa dsUnzh; desVh dh dqy la[;k ds vk/ks ls T;knk }kjk ,sls fu’dklu ds fy, oksV fn;k tkuk pkfg, A ;g uhpys Lrj dh desfV;ksa ij Hkh ykxw gksxk A

c½  og dqy lnL;ksa ds lk/kkj.k cgqer ls vius xBu esa vk;h fdlh Hkh fjDrrk dh lg;kstu }kjk iwfrZ dj ldrh gS A

l½  tc dsUnzh; desVh dk ,d ;k T;knk lnL; fxj¶rkj gks tkrs gS]a rks ,sls ekeyksa esa desVh ds cps gq, lnL; nks&frgkbZ cgqer }kjk izfrLFkkfir lnL;ksa (substitute members) dks lg;ksftr dj ldrs gSa vkSj mUgsa ewy lnL;ksa tSlk iw.kZ vf/kdkj gksxk A

8-  dsUnzh; desVh dsUnzh; dUVªksy deh”ku esa vk;h fdlh Hkh fjDrrk dks mifLFkr nks&frgkbZ lnL;ksa er ls Hkj ldrh gS vkSj ml mEehnokj ds fy, fdlh Hkh gkyr esa dsUnzh; desVh dh dqy la[;k ds vk/ks ls T;knk }kjk oksV fn;k tkuk pkfg, A

9-  dsUnzh; desVh dh nks cSBdksa ds chp le; dk vUrjky pkj ekg ls T;knk ugha gksxk vkSj tc Hkh dqy lnL;ksa ds ,d&frgkbZ }kjk vuqjks/k fd;k tk;sxk] bldh cSBd cqykbZ tk;sxh A

10- dsUnzh; desVh jktuhfrd ,oa lkaxBfud eqn~nksa ij vkSj tu vkUnksyu dh leL;kvksa ij ppkZ djsxh vkSj fu.kZ; ysxh rFkk jkT; desfV;ksa dk vkSj tu laxBuksa esa vf[ky Hkkjrh; ikVhZ ÝSD'kuksa dk ekxZn'kZu djsxh A

11- dsUnzh; desVh ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku esa] tc Hkh og vk;ksftr gks] viuk jktuhfrd vkSj laxBukRed fjiksVZ izLrqr djsxh A

12- dsUnzh; desVh vius eq[ki=ksa ds fy, lEiknd e.Myksa dh fu;qfDr djsxh tks dsUnzh; desVh ds ekxZn”kZu vkSj fu;a=.k ds ekrgr dk;Z djsaxh A

13- dsUnzh; desVh ,sls laxBu ds fuekZ.k ds fy, O;oLFkk djsxh tks lHkh vkdfLedrkvksa ds lkeus fVds jg lds A Åij ls ysdj uhps dh desfV;ksa rd bl i)rh dk ikyu fd;k tk;sxk A

/kkjk vëkjg % jkT;] ftyk] bykdk] LFkkuh;] 'kk[kk desfV;ka vkSj ikVhZ ÝSD'ku

1-  jkT;] ftyk] bykdk] LFkkuh; ;k 'kk[kk lEesyu Øe”k% jkT;] ftyk] bykdk] LFkkuh; ;k 'kk[kk Lrj ij loksZPp fudk; gksaxs tks jkT;] ftyk] bykdk] LFkkuh; ;k 'kk[kk desVh dk pquko djsaxh A

2-  v½ jkT;] ftyk] bykdk] LFkkuh; ;k 'kk[kk ikVhZ desVh dh lkaxBfud lajpuk] vf/kdkj vkSj dk;Z oSls gh gSa ftudk ooZ.k vf[ky Hkkjrh; Lrj ij ikVhZ lajpuk vkSj dk;Z ls lEcfU/kr /kkjk esa fd;k x;k gS] rFkkfi muds dk;Z jkT;] ftyk] bykdk] LFkkuh; ;k 'kk[kk Lrj ds eqn~nksa rd lhfer jgsaxs rFkk vxys mPprj ikVhZ desVh }kjk fy, x;s fu.kZ;ksa ds nk;js ds vUnj jgsaxs A

c½  jkT;] ftyk] bykdk] LFkkuh; ;k “kk[kk desVh lfpo vkSj tgka t:jh gks dk;Zdkfj.kh desVh dk pquko djsaxh A

3-  v½ ikVhZ dk izkFkfed fudk; is”kk ;k HkkSxksfyd [k.M ds vk/kkj ij laxfBr 'kk[kk desVh gS A

c½  ikVhZ lnL;ksa dks] tc os fdlh ,d dkj[kkus] fdlh ,d laLFkku ;k fdlh m|ksx esa dk;Zjr gksa] rks mUgsa muds is”kk ;k dk;Z (vocation) ds vk/kkj ij laxfBr fd;k tk;sxk A tc ,slh bZdkb;ksa dks laxfBr fd;k tk;sxk rks ,slh bZdkb;ksa ds lnL; vius fuokl LFky esa ikVhZ bZdkb;ksa ds ,”kksfl,V lnL; gksaxs ;k mUgsa ogka lgk;d bZdkb;ksa ds :i esa laxfBr fd;k tk;sxk A mUgsa vius fuokl LFky ij lkSaik x;k dke dkj[kkus] laLFkku ;k is”ks esa mudh cqfu;knh bZdkb;ksa }kjk mUgsa lkSais x;s dke dks uqdlku iagqpkus okyk ugha gksuk pkfg, A

l½  “kk[kk desVh esa lnL;ksa dh la[;k] <kapk o dk;Z rFkk “kk[kk desVh ls lacaf/kr vU; ekeyksa dks jkT; desVh }kjk r; fd;k tk;sxk A

4-  jkT; dk eq[ki= vkSj izdk”ku dsUnzh; desVh dh jktuhfrd vkSj lkaxBfud fn”kk ds vuq:i gksuh pkfg, A

/kkjk mUuhl % dUVªksy deh'ku

1-  ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku }kjk pqus x;s rhu lnL;ksa dk ,d dsUnzh; dUVªksy deh”ku gksxk A og vius chp ls ,d la;kstd dk pquko djsxh A

2-  dsUnzh; desVh }kjk ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku esa dUVªksy deh”ku ds fy, iSuy dk uke izLrkfor fd;k tk;sxk A ukekadu ds fy, ukeksa dk izLrko j[kus ds fy, mEehnokj dh ikVhZ ls lac)rk ¼party standing½] tks nl o’kZ ls de ugha gksuh pkfg,] rFkk ikVhZ laxBu esa mlds vuqHko ,oa mudh O;fDrxr fu’Bk dks /;ku esa j[kk tk;sxk A

3-  pquko dh izfØ;k ogh gksxh tks dsUnzh; desVh ds pquko dh gS A

4-  dsUnzh; dUVªksy deh”ku ds lnL; dsUnzh; desVh dh cSBdksa esa oksV ds vf/kdkj ds lkFk Hkkx ysxsa] flok; ml le; ds tc vuq”kklukRed dkjZokbZ ls lacaf/kr lokyksa dks fy;k tk jgk gks A

5-  dsUnzh; dUVªksy deh”ku fuEu fo’k;ksa dks gkFk esa ysxh %

v½  dsUnzh; desVh ;k jktuhfrd C;wjks }kjk mls izsf’kr ekeys(

c½  ,sls ekeys ftlesa dsUnzh; desVh }kjk vuq”kklukRed dkjZokbZ dh xbZ gS(

l½  ,sls ekeys ftlesa dsUnzh; desVh }kjk ikVhZ ls fu’dklu dk fu.kZ; fy;k x;k gS ftlds fo:) lacaf/kr lnL; }kjk vihy dh xbZ gS(

n½  dsUnzh; desVh }kjk fy;s x;s vuq”kklu ds lHkh dneksa dh fjiksVZ dsUnzh; dUVªksy deh”ku dks dh tkuh pkfg, A

6-  dsUnzh; dUVªksy deh”ku }kjk vius fu.kZ;ksa dh fjiksVZ dsUnzh; desVh dks nh tk;sxh A ;s fu.kZ; lkekU;r% vafre gksxsa vkSj dsUnzh; desVh }kjk mu ij vey fd;k tk;sxk] tc rd fd mls mifLFkr lnL;ksa ds nks&frgkbZ cgqer }kjk [kkfjt u dj fn;k x;k gks rFkk fdlh Hkh ekeys esa ;g oksV dsUnzh; desVh dh dqy la[;k ds vk/ks ls T;knk gks ¼ftlesa dsUnzh; dUVªksy deh”ku ds lnL;ksa dh la[;k “kkfey ugha gS½ A

7-  izR;sd jkT; lEesyu dks jkT; dUVªksy deh”ku xfBr djus dk vf/kdkj gS A Åij mYysf[kr /kkjk 2 ls 7 rd ds izko/kku jkT; dUVªksy deh”ku ds fy, Hkh ykxw gksxsa] gkykafd bldk nk;jk mDr jkT; rd lhfer gksxk A mijksDr /kkjkvksa esa ^^dsUnzh; desVh** ;k ^^iksfyr C;wjks** dk dksbZ Hkh mYys[k jkT; dUVªksy deh”ku ds ekeys esa ^^jkT; desVh** ds lanHkZ ds :i esa ekuk tk;sxk A ml jkT; esa fdlh Hkh ikVhZ fudk; }kjk dh xbZ lHkh vuq”kklukRed dkjZokbZ dh fjiksVZ jkT; dUVªksy deh”ku dks Hksth tk;sxh A

8-  jkT; desVh ls uhps ds Lrj dh desfV;ksa }kjk dh xbZ lHkh vuq”kklukRed dkjZokbZ dh vihy vxyh mPprj desVh ls ysdj jkT; desVh rd dh tk ldrh gS A

9-  vuq”kklukRed dkjZokbZ ds lHkh ekeyksa esa] jkT; dUVªksy deh”ku ds fu.kZ; ds i”pkr jkT; desVh }kjk fy;s x;s vafre fu.kZ; dh vihy dsUnzh; desVh ds le{k dh tk;sxh rFkk dsUnzh; dUVªksy deh”ku ds fu.kZ; ds i”pkr dsUnzh; desVh }kjk fy;s x;s vafre fu.kZ; dh vihy ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku esa dh tk;sxh A

10- dsUnzh; desVh vkSj jkT; desfV;ka Øe”k% dsUnzh; ,oa jkT; dUVªksy deh”kuksa ds foLrkfjr dkedkt dks ifjHkk’khr djrs gq, fu;e cuk ldrh gSa A

/kkjk mUuhl ¼v½ % {ks=kh; leUo; lfefr;ka

1-  izR;sd {ks= ds fy,] tSls fd iwohZ] if”peh] nf{k.kh vkSj mÙkjh {ks= ds fy,] {ks=h; leUo; lfefr gksxh A

2-  dsUnzh; desVh bu {ks=h; leUo; lfefr;ksa dk xBu fd;k tk;sxk A

3-  {ks=h; leUo; lfefr esa fuEu lnL; gksaxs %

v½  {ks= ds vUrxZr vkus okys jkT;ksa dk izfrfuf/kRo djus okys dsUnzh; desVh lnL;(

c½  {ks= ds vUrxZr vkus okys jkT;ksa dk izfrfuf/kRo djrs gq, jkT; desVh ;k jkT; lkaxBfud desfV;ksa ds lfpo( ,oa

l½  {ks= esa “kkfey jkT;ksa ds dsUnzh; daVªksy deh”ku ds lnL;A

4-  dsUnzh; desVh }kjk r; iksfyr C;wjks dk ,d lnL; {ks=h; leUo; desVh dk la;kstd gksxk A

5-  {ks=h; leUo; lfefr dh nks eghus esa ;k dsUnzh; desVh dh nks cSBdksa ds chp ;k tc Hkh vko”;d gks viuh cSBd djsxh A

/kkjk chl % pqus gq, lkoZtfud fudk;ksa esa ikVhZ lnL;

1-  laln] fo/kku lHkkvksa] uxjfuxeksa] uxjikfydkvksa] iapk;rksa bR;kfn fofHkUu lkoZtfud fudk;ksa ds fy, pqus x;s ikVhZ lnL; leqfpr ikVhZ desVh ds ekrgr dke djsaxs A ;fn ,sls ,d ls T;knk lnL; gSa rks os vius vkidks ikVhZ xqzi ds :i esa xfBr djsaxs rFkk ikVhZ dh fn”kk] uhfr;ksa vkSj funsZ”kksa dk dM+kbZ ds lkFk ikyu djrs gq, dke djsaxs A os ges”kk gh tu vkUnksyu dks izfrfcfEcr djsaxs] ikVhZ dh uhfr;ksa dks cqyUn djsaxs vkSj mls yksdfiz; cuk;saxs rFkk vfopy :i ls turk ds fgrksa dh j{kk djsaxs A os O;fDrxr fu’Bk ds Åaps Lrj dks cuk;s j[ksaxs] vkMEcj jfgr thou O;frr djsaxs rFkk turk ds lkFk vius O;ogkj vkSj lEidZ es fouezrk cjrsaxs vkSj ikVhZ ds fgr dks vius O;fDrxr fgr ls Åij j[ksaxs A

2-  os fu;fer :i ls vkSj fcuk ukxk fd;s viuh vk; ij leqfpr ikVhZ desVh }kjk r; dh xbZ ysOgh vnk djsaxs A

3-  os vius dk;ksZa ds ckjs esa ernkrkvksa vkSj turk dks fu;fer fjiksVZ nsaxs vkSj muls lq>ko o lykg ysxsa A

4-  laln ds pquko ds fy, ikVhZ mEehnokjksa ds lHkh ukekaduksa dks dsUnzh; desVh }kjk eatwjh nh tk;sxh A jkT; fo/kku lHkkvksa ;k dsUnz “kkflr ifj’knksa ds fy, ikVhZ mEehnokjksa ds ukekadu dks lEcfU/kr jkT; desVh }kjk vfUre :i fn;k tk;sxk vkSj mldh ?kks’k.kk dh tk;sxh A uxjikfydkvvksa] uxjfuxeksa] ftyk cksMZ] LFkkuh; cksMZ vkSj iapk;rksa ds fy, fu;eksa dks jkT; desVh }kjk rS;kj fd;s tk;saxs A

/kkjk chl ¼v½ % tu izfrfuf/kRo dkuwu] 1951 dh /kjk 29¼,½ ds rgr vfuokZ; izko/kku

^^Hkkjr dh dE;qfuLV ikVhZ ¼ekDlZoknh&ysfuuoknh½ jsM LVkj Hkkjr esa dkuwu }kjk LFkkfir lafo/kku ds izfr rFkk lektokn] /keZ fujis{krk ,oa yksdra= ds fl)kUrksa ds izfr lPph fo”okl ,oa fu’Bk j[ksxk vkSj Hkkjr dh ,drk] v[k.Mrk ,oa lEizHkqrk dks cqyUn djsxk A**

/kkjk bDdhl % vUr%&ikVhZ ppkZ

1-  ikVhZ dks ,drkc) djus ds fy, rFkk mldh tu fn”kk dks fodflr djus ds fy, vUr%&ikVhZ ppkZ ikVhZ thou dk fu;fer pfj= gksuk pkfg, A ikVhZ laxBu }kjk ,slh ppkZ,a vf[ky Hkkjrh; Lrj ij ;k fofHkUu Lrjksa ij laxfBr dh tk;saxh] tks eqn~nksa ds pfj= ij fuHkZj djrk gS A

2-  vUr&ikVhZ ppkZ laxfBr fd;k tk;sxk %

d½ vf[ky Hkkjrh; ;k jkT; Lrjh; egRo ds egRoiw.kZ lokyksa ij] ftl Lrj dk ekeyk gks] vkSj ftl ij QkSjh rkSj ij fu.kZ; ysus dh t:jr ugha gks] ikVhZ dh dsUnzh; ;k jkT; desfV;ksa }kjk fu.kZ; ysus ls igys(

[k½ tc ikVhZ dh uhfr ds fdlh egRoiw.kZ loky ij dsUnzh; desVh ds vUnj ;k jkT; desVh ds vUnj i;kZIr :i ls iq[rk cgqer u gks(

x½  tc ikVhZ lnL;rk ds ,d&frgkbZ ls T;knk lnL;ksa dk izfrfuf/kRo djus okys jkT; desfV;kas }kjk vf[ky Hkkjrh; Lrj ij ;k lEcfU/kr jkT; esa dqy lnL;rk ds mlh vuqikr dk izfrfuf/kRo djus okys ftyk desfV;ksa }kjk jkT; Lrj ij vUr%&ikVhZ ppkZ dh ekax dh tk;s A

3-  vUr%&ikVhZ ppkZ dsUnzh; ;k jkT; desVh ds ekxZn”kZu ds rgr pyk;h tk;sxh tks ppkZ ds eqn~nksa dks lq=hc) djsaxs A ikVhZ desVh tks ppkZ dk ekxZn”kZu djsxh] ;g r; djsxh fd ppkZ dks fdl <ax ls pyk;k tk;s A

4-  dqNsd oSpkfjd vkSj jktuhfrd eqn~nksa ij dsUnzh; desVh dh tkudkjh esa laxBu ds ckgj Hkh cgl vkSj ppkZ pyk;h tk ldrh gS] c”krsZ fd ,slh dk;Zokfg;ka laxBu dh ,drk vkSj Hkkjrh; Økafr ds mÌs”; dks {kfr u igqapk;s A

/kkjk ckbl % tu laxBuksa esa dk;Zjr ikVhZ lnL;

tu laxBuksa vkSj mudh dk;Zdkfj.kh desfV;ksa esaa dke djus okys ikVhZ lnL;ksa dks ÝSD'kuksa esa ;k ÝsD'ku desfV;ksa esa laxfBr fd;k tk;sxk vkSj os leqfpr ikVhZ desVh ds ekxZn'kZu ds rgr dke djsaxs A os ftu tu laxBukssa esas dke djrs gSa] mUgsa mldh ,drk] tuk/kkj vkSj tq>k: {kerk dks etcwr cukus ds fy, fujarj iz;kljr jguk pkfg, A

/kkjk rsbl % foÙk

1-  ikVhZ ds foÙkh; lalk/kuksa esa ikVhZ lnL;ksa dk lnL;rk “kqYd vkSj ysOgh rFkk turk] tu laxBuksa vkSj O;fDrxr leFkZdksa ls izkIr pUnk “kkfey gS A

2-  ikVhZ ds dsUnzh; ra= dks pykus ds fy, dsUnzh; desVh gjsd o’kZ ;k tSlk Hkh ekeyk gks ;g r; djsxh fd izR;sd jkT; }kjk ikVhZ Q.M esa ;k fo”ks’k ikVhZ Q.M eqfge pydkj mls fdruk Q.M fn;k tk;sxk A

3-  iksfyr C;wjks }kjk dsUnzh; desVh ds ikl vuqeksnu ds fy, okf’kZd ys[kk is”k fd;k tk;sxk A

4-  jkT; vkSj ftyk Lrj ij lEcfU/kr desfV;ksa dk lfpoe.My jkT; vkSj ftyk desfV;ksa ds ikl mlds vuqeksnu ds fy, okf’kZd ys[kk is”k djsaxs A vuqeksfnr ys[kk dh ,d izfr vxyh mPprj desVh ds ikl Hksth tkuh pkfg, A

5-  dsUnzh; desVh vkSj jkT; desVh] ftl Lrj dk ekeyk gks] ,dkmUV dh dk;Ziz.kkyh ,oa vU; ekeyksa ds fy, fu;e cuk ldrh gSa A

6-  dsUnzh; desVh vkSj jkT; desVh ds ,dkmUV dk okf’kZd vkfMV lacaf/kr desVh ds fdlh nks lnL;ksa }kjk fd;k tk;sxk vkSj vkfMV fjiksVZ egkf/kos”ku vkSj lEesyu ds le{k ppkZ vkSj vkxs dh dkjZokbZ ds fy, is”k fd;k tk;sxk A uhpyh desfV;ksa ds ,dkmUV dh vkfMV jkT; desVh ds isyu }kjk dh tk;sxh ftlesa nks ls de lnL; ugha gksxsa A

/kkjk pkSchl % mi&fu;e

dsUnzh; desVh ikVhZ lafo/kku ds rgr vkSj mlds lkFk laxfr cuk;s j[kdj fu;e vkSj mi&fu;e rS;kj dj ldrh gS A jkT; desfV;ka Hkh ikVhZ lafo/kku ds lkFk laxfr j[kdj ikVhZ lafo/kku ds rgr fu;e vkSj mi&fu;e cuk ldrh gSa ftl ij mUgsa dsUnzh; desVh dh eatwjh ysuh gksxh A

/kkjk iPphl % ikVhZ lafo/ku esa la'kks/ku

ikVhZ lafo/kku esa la'kks/ku dsoy ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku }kjk gh fd;k tk;sxk A lafo/kku esa la”kks/ku ds fy, izLrkoksa dh uksfVl mDr ikVhZ egkf/kos”ku ds nks ekg iwoZ nh tk;sxh A

 

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PARTY PROGRAM

Adopted by Ninth Congress of 2011 and updated by the Tenth Congress of February-March, 2015

Chapter One

From Colonisation to Neo-Colonisation

1.1 Our country, India, is one of the biggest countries of the world inhabited by more than 1.3 billion people. It is a multi-national, multi-ethnic, multi-lingual and multi- religious country with vast diversities and complex character. The caste system continues as a distinctive inhuman feature of the Indian society.

1.2 During its millenniums long pre-colonial history, it had evolved its own specific socio-economic village system with its own mode of production, which was largely self-sufficient and had specific agrarian relations and other features. For long it was pursuing its own course of development through a process of various pre-capitalist phases of class relations, as was happening in various other countries or regions also.

1.3 But the advent of colonial forces from early mercantile capitalist days interfered with and started violently changing this course of development. The indigenous development of productive forces taking place in the sub-continent was violently crushed. It was through more than a century long ruthless colonization process, formally starting with battle of Plassey of 1757, British imperialism ultimately succeeded in formally transforming India in to its colony after defeating the First War of Independence of 1857. From the very beginning the British colonialists started transforming the agrarian relations through the introduction of Zamindari and Ryotwari systems. Through these steps feudal, semi-feudal relations were consolidated to serve as the social base of colonial domination. To facilitate the plunder of the vast resources and to help capitalist accumulation, a merchant class was promoted as middlemen who later got transformed in to the comprador bourgeois class who served the integration of Indian economy with the British colonial system. Through the introduction of English education system, a comprador bureaucratic class to serve the colonial state apparatus also was developed. Along with these, while the colonial policies contributed to erosion of the stringent character of the caste system in some fields in at least superficial ways, it promoted it to utilize it as a support base to colonial rule. To safeguard colonial rule the 'divide and rule' policy was also promoted by fomenting communal strife.

1.4 From the time British imperialism started establishing its colonial domination, starting with adivasi revolts in many regions, various sections of people had launched numerous agitations against them. Different streams of renaissance movements on the one hand and the bourgeois democratic influences on the other started playing their role in creating socio-political awareness against the colonial rule according to the concrete conditions and the level of social development in different areas. The First War of Independence of 1857 was the first organized patriotic revolt of the Indian people against colonial rule. Though it was brutally suppressed through heinous ways including communally dividing the people, a series of people's upsurges in different areas took place continuously challenging the colonial rule. It was in this situation, under the active involvement of the colonialists, the Indian National Congress was formed as a safety valve to contain people's anger against the colonial rule. Even when the emerging comprador bourgeoisie, big landlord class and bureaucratic sections had their sway over the Congress, at the same time, it became an arena for the national movement against the colonial rule. As a result, the Congress started spreading its influence all over the country. But because of its class character it did not unleash the revolutionary zeal of the masses against the colonial rulers. It was satisfied with demanding dominion status within the British common wealth.

1.5 The industrial development taking place at various centers had led to the growth of the working class and to the trade union movement by the last decade of 19th century. Soon they started entering the political arena. The October Revolution in 1917 gave new impetus to national liberation movements all over the world. The communist movement emerged, and under its initiative the demand for full independence became the rallying point, which the Congress also had to adopt. The 1920s also saw emergence of different revolutionary forces like the one led by Bhagat Singh. The outbreak of working class struggles and anti-feudal movements also started becoming a feature of these decades. The Communist International had put forward the guiding principle of People's Democratic Revolution under the leadership of the working class to be followed in countries like India which were under various forms of colonial domination. The growing anti-feudal and anti-colonial struggles had created conditions for the growth of the revolutionary forces. In spite of all these, the leadership of the CPI failed to make concrete analysis of the comprador character of the emerging big bourgeoisie and its influence over Congress and develop a revolutionary line analyzing the concrete situation of India. It failed to establish the leadership of the working class over the independence struggle. Instead, by and large, it surrendered the leadership of the national movement to the Congress and to the Muslim League. Even after the great victory of the anti-fascist forces led by the Soviet Union in the Second World War, in spite of the great upsurge of the national liberation movements and the outbreak of the Naval Revolt, the Telengana-Tebhaga movements and powerful working class struggles, the leadership of the CPI failed to rectify its erroneous line.

1.6 The post- Second World War period brought momentous changes at the international level. Under the leadership of the Soviet Union the socialist camp and the national liberation movements had emerged as a powerful force. On the other hand, British imperialism had weakened and the US emerged as the leader of the imperialist camp. In this situation, in order to counter the challenge of the socialist camp and to spread its hegemony at the global level, the US-led imperialist camp initiated the transformation of colonial forms of plunder and domination into neo-colonial forms, building necessary tools for it and transferring power in the colonies to the representatives of the comprador bureaucratic bourgeois and landlord classes. British imperialism facilitated this policy by resorting to communal partition of the country and transferring power to the Congress and the Muslim League which were representing the comprador bourgeois-big landlord class interests in India and Pakistan. Thus India achieved political independence, though limited in character.

Chapter Two

Intensification of the Crisis under Neo-Colonisation and New Challenges

2.1 In the post- Second World War (SWW) period, even while the era still continued as the era of imperialism and proletarian revolution, under the imperialist system in its neo-colonial phase, the major contradictions at the international level continued as the contradiction between imperialism and the oppressed nations and peoples of the world, the contradiction between capital and labor, the contradiction among the imperialist countries and among the monopoly groups, and the contradiction between the imperialist system and the socialist forces. At the same time, during this period, especially after the crisis of the 1970s, with the mad rush for exploitation of natural and human resources utilizing the unprecedented technological advances under the imperialist perspective of development, ever- intensifying ecological devastation has started becoming a major factor both at the international and the national level. It has given rise to a new, fifth major contradiction, at both international and national levels, the contradiction between capital and nature, along with the other four major contradictions. Among these five major contradictions, the contradiction between imperialism and the oppressed peoples and nations continues as the principal contradiction at the international level.

2.2 After the 1947 transfer of power, the Congress government serving the interests of comprador bureaucratic bourgeois-big landlord classes serving imperialism opened the country for the penetration of foreign capital from all imperialist countries on a larger scale. While refusing to implement the land reforms based on "land to the tiller" as promised during the independence struggle, it went for 'land reforms from above' in the name of land ceiling laws etc, initiating the replacement of old feudal land relations. As a result, a new type of landlord class started emerging and coming in to dominance which started to open the agrarian sector to capital-market forces and technological innovations under 'green revolution' like policies.

2.3 With the transfer of power India, which was a colonial and semi-feudal country, was transformed in to a dependent country under neo-colonial domination with agrarian relations subjected to fast changes, as imperialism had abandoned its colonial policy of utilizing feudalism as its social base. The four major contradictions in the country during the colonial period were the contradiction between imperialism and the nation, between feudalism and the broad masses of people, between capital and labor, and contradiction among the ruling classes with the contradiction between imperialism and the nation continuing as the principal contradiction. Under neo- colonization they transformed in to the contradiction between imperialism and the people, the contradiction between capital and labor, the contradiction between the landlord classes and the broad masses of the peasantry and the contradiction among the ruling classes. As explained above, the contradiction between capital and nature has emerged as a fifth major contradiction in recent times. And the principal contradiction has transformed to the contradiction between the alliance of imperialism, comprador bureaucratic bourgeoisie and landlord classes on the one hand and the broad masses of people on the other.

2.4 During the post-1947 years, under the Keynesian policies pursued under neo-colonization by the imperialist system and under the impact of the powerful socialist camp coming to existence during the 1940s and of the mighty national liberation movements and growing working class struggles, the Congress government, representing the interests of Indian ruling classes, initiated many welfare policies, went for nationalization of core production sectors and for building of a powerful public sector. But by 1970s as stagflation became the commanding phenomenon and the imperialist system started facing serious crises. The imperialist countries led by US started replacing the hitherto Keynesian policies with 'neo-liberal' policies through the much advertised globalization-liberalization-privatization regime utilizing the IMF-World Bank-WTO trio, the MNCs and numerous other imperialist agencies. With the formal imposition of these changes in India in 1991, a reversal of the earlier policies was initiated fast. A sea change has taken place in the financial sector and in all other socio-economic-cultural fields.

2.5 Under 'neo-liberal' policies, all public sector undertakings are already privatized or are in that process. All public and government undertakings in the field of banking, insurance etc and other service sectors including transportation, communications, energy etc are also being privatized at a fast pace. During this process the state controlled enterprises are forming joint ventures with the MNCs. The corporate houses and MNCs are given monopoly in all fields including control of water, forest, land, mining etc. allowing them to wantonly loot the natural and human resources.

2.6 Under these new economic policies all the hard won rights of the working class are snatched away. The contract system, casualization of labor, and 'hire and fire' are the rules of the day. Even eight hour work time, minimum wages and other democratic rights are denied. While the dalits, adivasis and other backward sections who are the actual tillers are not provided land, even whatever land is owned by the poor and marginal peasantry are snatched away for various 'neo-liberal' projects and by land mafias. Corporatization of agriculture is increasing with the corporate houses - MNCs given full entry to the agrarian sector. It is forcing hundreds of thousands of peasants to commit suicide and millions of poor peasants and agricultural workers to migrate to cities. Right to public distribution system, free education, housing, healthcare, water, electricity, transport and employment is denied to the masses. 'Futures trading', entry of corporate houses and MNCs and state withdrawing from procurement-distribution sectors along with hoarding and black marketing becoming rampant, leading to sky-rocketing price rise. Many millions of retail traders are pauperized as a result. All these have led to unprecedented pauperization of the masses.

Chapter Three

Neo-Colonisation Intensifies All Major Contradictions

3.1 Analyzing the emerging class relations following the October Revolution, Communist International (Comintern) had explained that firstly, whatever progressive character the bourgeoisie in the capitalist countries had was disappearing in the monopoly capitalist or imperialist stage, and secondly, the bourgeoisie which had emerged in the Afro- Asian- Latin American countries under colonization is basically collaborating with imperialism and is incapable of completing the tasks of national and democratic revolution. In the neo-colonial phase, though this bourgeois class which has become the most influential section of the ruling class in the neo-colonies is contending to some extent with the imperialist powers for its enrichment according to the extent of their development, it is basically collaborating with imperialism. The comprador bourgeoisie is not only the agent of the imperialists, but also is a conscious part of monopoly capital who goes on to take decisions for the interest of the monopoly capital. In that sense it can still be called comprador in character. The comprador bureaucratic bourgeoisie and the big landlord class constitute the ruling class in India.

3.2 British colonialists promoted upper caste Hindus to strengthen their colonial state apparatus. At the same time, they were pursuing 'divide and rule' policy fomenting communal rivalry between Hindus and Muslims. The communal division of India amidst communal massacres and the communal appeasement policy of Congress governments from the very beginning went on increasing the communal strife. It provided a fertile ground for the Hindu fundamentalist forces mainly spearheaded by the RSS through its political arm, Jan Sangh, presently BJP, to grow, and for the Muslim communalist forces also to gain strength in response. The role played by the CPI(M)-led forces in the Janata Dal-led alliance during 1989 general elections along with BJP also helped the strengthening of the Sangh Parivar. The heinous and dangerous policy of the Congress government in 1992 which allowed the RSS Parivar to demolish Babri Masjid to divert attention from the imposition of imperialist globalization policies, has led not only to the communal fascist BJP coming to power at center in 1998 and consolidation of its grip in few states, but also to the growth of all religious fundamentalist forces, especially the Hindu fundamentalists. These policies have led to the communalization of society to a large extent. In spite being described as secular in Indian Constitution, the Indian state has increasingly become a Hindu state for all intent and purposes, where the rights and security of the religious minorities are under constant threat. The increasing pauperization of the masses under the decade long rule of UPA led by Congress through speeding up of neo-liberal policies provided fertile ground for the growth of the fundamentalist forces, derailing the anger and discontent of the masses. The BJP government coming to power in 2014 Lok Sabha elections has led to replacement of rightist rule of Congress led UPA with ultra rightist rule, intensifying corporate raj and communal fascism unprecedentedly.

3.3 As part of the attempts to resist social change, Congress and all ruling class parties utilize caste based vote bank politics, against the spirit of the annihilation of the caste system raised during the renaissance movement and independence struggle. The very purpose of the reservation policy was defeated with the ruling class parties trying to perpetuate the caste system with an eye on vote bank politics. As a result, anti caste campaigns and caste annihilation demands became weaker. Though the Mondal Commission Report provided new enthusiasm for the backward sections to demand their rights, in order to divert attention from its central recommendations like land reforms and ensuring social justice, the dominant caste forces and remnant feudal social formations like khap panchayats etc soon intensified the caste based strife to unprecedented levels. As a result, contrary to the spirit of the recommendations in the Report, it was utilized for carrying forward the caste based politics. The caste system, which is a special feature of the dominant Hindu religion, continues all over India still as a result, taking newer forms in some places, with many specific characteristics in different areas and influencing all the religions to some extent with its ugly features like caste hatred, caste discrimination, caste oppression, untouchability etc. Under privatization and liberalization policies, existing democratic rights like reservation are also diluted and snatched away. For this purpose new formulations like "creamy layer" and "reservations based on economic backwardness" are coming to the fore. A vigorous struggle is required for eradication of the caste system and stigma of untouchability, utilizing the weapon of class struggle and a revolutionary program for awakening the masses.

3.4 Contrary to the promises during the independence struggle, though more than six decades passed after transfer of power, consecutive governments have refused to recognize the right to self determination of all nationalities. Even for achieving linguistic states the people had to wage long struggles. Military is deployed in Jammu and Kashmir and Northeast for six decades or more refusing to implement their right of self determination through political settlement. As the uneven development under neo-colonization is intensifying, giving rise to demand for separate states, they are either ruthlessly suppressed or opportunistically utilized to divide the people. In the absence of progressive decentralization, devolution and democratization of political power, people's strife based on nationality and ethnic questions is also intensifying.

3.5 The adivasis who constitute nearly 10% of the Indian population have a great history of struggling against the British colonialists and fighting for their rights after the transfer of power. But consecutive central and state governments have not established even their autonomous councils in a progressive manner or protected their right to their land. On the contrary in the name of expanding mining and establishing corporate projects they are displaced in ever larger numbers. They are exploited massively as the cheapest source of labor under the 'neo-liberal' policies. Further, as a result of discriminatory policies and absence of efforts from the government side to uplift the condition of the adivasis, they are being kept away from participating in advanced production relations and from improving their living conditions. It is as if they are doomed to either depending on the forests or continuing as the cheapest source of labor.

3.6 The women who constitute half of the population were victims of worst forms of exploitation under feudal and colonial domination and under religion and caste system. As a result of numerous struggles many laws like the one against domestic violence are enacted and 50% reservation in local bodies is implemented, though the ruling class parties are reluctant to extent this reservation to state assemblies and parliament. These cosmetic reforms too have largely remained confined to paper. Under neo-colonization new types of attacks are mounting against women. The enslavement under patriarchy and the system of private property has taken new forms. Along with gender discrimination, female infanticide and sexual harassment are also intensifying day by day. Even the female body is wantonly commercialized.

3.7 Under neo-colonization, due to the policies implemented in the name of development which actually serve the interests of imperialists and their lackeys, ecological devastation has become an ever intensifying factor. 'Global warming' like phenomena and the nuclear catastrophe created by the nuclear arms race, existing nuclear plants which are 'nuclear time bombs' as once again proved by the meltdown of Fukushima nuclear plant in Japan. Refusing to learn from the intensification of the contradictions with Pakistan following the nuclear arms race started by it from Pokhran nuclear blast, presently Indian government has signed the nuclear agreement with the US imperialists, further surrendering whatever sovereignty the country had. The construction of new nuclear plants under imperialist dictates threatens further environmental disaster. The imperialists are dumping industrial and nuclear waste in countries like India. All these developments have made the struggle for ecological protection one of the basic components of social progress.

3.8 In order to perpetuate the reactionary ruling system and to promote neo-colonization, along with medieval and feudal culture and various forms of superstitions, the imperialist cultural values are also promoted brazenly, commercializing and commodifying culture. Utilizing extensive growth of information technology and electronic media, culture is increasingly linked with the market interests of imperialist system and its lackeys and turned in to an industry. The education system is commercialized and used for subordinating the new generation to neo-colonial system and to spread imperialist cultural values. The communal forces colluding with imperialists and their lackeys are communalizing all spheres of social life including culture. All these are intended to create a sense of national servitude and for destruction of all progressive and democratic cultural consciousness.

3.9 Along with price rise, unemployment/underemployment, and all round criminalization of the society, corruption has become one of the worst malaises, destroying the social fabric. It has taken gigantic proportions with the speculative capital playing all pervasive role under 'neo-liberal' policies. The corruption in the state apparatus including the government machinery from top to bottom, the defense and police services, the electoral system, and even the judiciary have reached unprecedented levels. So are the political leaders and most of the so-called elected members of various bodies. All these explain the extent to which the ruling system has degenerated and become anti-people under more than six decades of neo-colonization, exposing its heinous and pernicious character. Though the media almost entirely controlled by the corporate houses and the ruling establishment appears to expose the evils of the ruling system, in reality it is serving to perpetuate the hegemony of the imperialists and their lackeys in all fields.

Chapter Four

Fight Deviations in the Communist Movement and Struggle for PDR

4.1 The role played by the Communist movement in India during various phases of its nine decades of its existence should be evaluated on the basis of concrete conditions of the colonial past and neo-colonial present. A glance through the activities of the communist movement during the colonial days show that though the Party developed organizationally, it failed to establish the leadership of the working class over the national liberation movement. It refused to recognize the comprador character of the big bourgeoisie developed under imperialist patronage. When Dr. Ambedkar launched the dalit movement calling for annihilation of caste, linking it with the question of nationalisation of land and industries, and when other such movements were going on all over the country of various oppressed sections in society, due to having a mechanical and merely economic understanding of the class struggle, the Communist Party of India was not able to sharpen these fights based on a united front. Along with this, the Party's approach to the Quit India Struggle exposed the lack of the understanding of the concrete situation by the Party. These deviations and short comings on the part of the communist movement helped the British colonialists to communally divide the country and transfer power to Congress and Muslim League leaderships. Though the Second Congress of the Party in 1948 tried to correct this right deviation exposing the reactionary character of the transfer of power, it adopted a line of left deviation which caused immense setbacks. Following inner party struggles the first Party Program, tactical line and policy statement were adopted in 1951for advancing the PDR. But the rightist leadership first diluted and then abandoned this line. Upholding Soviet revisionist positions, the CPI leadership interpreted the stage of revolution as National Democratic, and the Congress leadership as one serving national bourgeois interests. It called for peaceful completion of NDR and transition to socialism collaborating with Congress. As a result, the inner party struggle intensified and in 1964 the first split took place and CPI (M) was formed.

4.2 But the leadership of CPI (M) did not make a break with the Soviet revisionist positions. Its Seventh Congress in 1964 analyzed the dual character of the big bourgeoisie, but refused to see its predominant comprador character. Following parliamentary cretinism, it refused to work towards implementation of the Party Program whenever voted to power. On all basic questions it took 'centrist' position. In this situation, the Communist Revolutionaries (CRs) launched ideological struggle against its centrist line. When the CPI (M) led governments were formed in Bengal and Kerala in early 1967, they refused to implement radical land reforms.

4.3 The Communist Revolutionaries launched the Naxalbari Uprising in May 1967 for capture of land and against the revisionist CPI and CPI (M) leaderships. The all India coordination of CRs (AICCCR) and then CPI (ML) was formed in April, 1969, upholding Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought as guiding ideology. But, very soon it came under influence of the Lin Biaoist left adventurist line which had dominated the CPC during its Ninth Congress in 1969. This led to sectarian positions causing severe setbacks, splintering the movement by 1971.

4.4 As a result, when mass uprisings broke out against Indira Gandhi government before and during the internal emergency, and when Congress was routed in 1977 elections, it was the BJP and other rightist forces who succeeded to occupy this space. During the last two decades, the line of CPI (M) -led Left Front wherever it came to power had become synonymous with the ruling class parties. And with the advent of ultra rightist BJP government coming to power they are once again taking the line of supporting Congress in the name of opposing BJP. On the other hand, the CPI (Maoist), analyzing 'Maoism' as the Marxism-Leninism of the new era, is stubbornly pursuing anarchist line.

4.5 There are number of CPI (ML) groups who still persist in the 'semi-colonial, semi-feudal, protracted people's war line'. There are other groups who advocate India is a capitalist country and stage of revolution as socialist, refusing to recognize the increasing domination of imperialist forces in the country. The developments during the last six decades after the Second World War show that colonial forms of direct control and plunder are replaced by neo-colonial forms by imperialism. The power was transferred to the Indian ruling classes and their main political party, Congress, as part of this neo-colonization. The comprador character of the bourgeoisie in the countries under neo-colonial domination is further exposed. India is turned in to a 'junior partner' of the imperialist system, especially US imperialism.

4.6 Under imperialist globalization attacks on international proletariat and oppressed peoples have further intensified, demanding closer unity of the Communist parties at the international level. In this situation, the dissolution of the Comintern in 1943 and the failure of the international communist movement to reorganize it for such a long time have adversely affected the anti-imperialist movement at global level. If the historic advances made by the international communist movement by 1950s was one of the important factors which led the imperialist camp to qualitatively transform the hitherto colonial forms of plunder to neo-colonial forms, the failure of the ICM to recognize this new imperialist offensive and to develop its general line accordingly was one of the basic reasons for the serious setbacks suffered by it. The significance of founding the International Coordination of the Revolutionary Parties and Organizations (ICOR) as a step towards rebuilding the Communist International of a new type should be seen in this context.

4.7 The six decades of neo-colonization which has made significant changes at global level in all spheres calls for developing the theory and practice of world proletarian socialist revolution according to present situation. Under neo-colonialism, especially after the initiation of 'neo-liberal' policies and the consequent global expansion of rule of speculative finance capital, the whole world is experiencing de-industrialization and the unprecedented phenomena of jobless growth. This has led to many upsurges of the working class and the oppressed people in many countries. The Party Program for the PDR in India is put forward at such a critical time, trying to address these challenges before the Indian people.

Chapter Five

Path of Indian Revolution

5.1 The Indian state is a state of the comprador bureaucratic bourgeois and landlord classes led by the comprador bureaucratic bourgeoisie. It is the organ of class rule, that is the dictatorship of the comprador bureaucratic bourgeois-big landlord classes serving imperialism, over the working class, the peasantry and all sections of exploited and oppressed masses. This reactionary state can be overthrown and be replaced by the People's Democratic State only by mobilizing the working class as the leader of the revolution, forging its alliance with the peasantry and building the People's Democratic Front based on this worker-peasant alliance, uniting the middle classes and the national bourgeoisie, a vacillating ally.

5.2 The historical developments and concrete conditions of the country in the present neo-colonial phase of imperialism determine the present stage of revolution which is People's Democratic. The CPI (ML) upholds Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought as its guiding ideology, applying it to the concrete conditions of the country and integrating it with the concrete practice of revolution. It is committed to complete the People's Democratic Revolution and to advance towards socialist revolution.

5.3 The Path of the PDR in India is determined not by mechanical application of the Soviet or Chinese or any other path as happened repeatedly in the past, but by the concrete conditions of the country and international situation. While developing this revolutionary path, the experience of the revolutionary people's movements of the country and the experience of all hitherto revolutions that had taken place at international level should be assimilated. Rejecting parliamentary cretinism and the line of sectarianism and individual terrorism, upholding path of revolutionary mass line, it resolves to utilize all forms of struggle and organizations to mobilize the working class and all revolutionary classes and sections for a massive countrywide people's uprising to overthrow the Indian state and to seize political power.

5.4 The CPI (ML) reiterates the declaration of The Communist Manifesto: "The communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win". The path of Indian revolution calls for rejecting all shades of parliamentarism and reformism and pursuing the path of revolutionary seizure of political power. It means combining the countrywide struggles of the working class with the revolutionary agrarian struggles, combining all other forms of struggles with it.

Chapter Six

Program of People's Democracy

6.1 The People's Democratic State will be distinguished by a Constitution providing for progressive abolition of the right to private property and implementation of the principle of social ownership of all the means of production. Such a Constitution will be drafted by a Constituent Assembly to be elected on the basis of universal suffrage and truly representing the workers, peasants and other oppressed masses arising from the committees which have grown out of the struggle along with all other revolutionary sections. Such a Constitution will be based on the principle of all powers to the people, with the power being transferred to the various committees of the workers, peasants and oppressed people which have arisen out of the revolutionary struggle at all levels from the village to the national level. Such a Constitution shall provide for the right to recall at all levels to ensure the accountability of the elected representatives and shall do away with the schism between the executive power and the legislative power. This means that all officials at all levels, including judges, police chiefs, municipal officials etc. will be elected and all of them subjected to recall.

6.2 The president of the union shall be elected by members of the People's Congresses at Union and State level and shall function under the rules and policies promulgated by the People's Congress of the union. The principles of the representative system of government shall be followed. The present army shall be dissolved and replaced by a People's Army constituted and led closely linked with the People's Democratic State and shall be linked to production. The police, para-military and numerous other repressive arms of the present ruling system shall be replaced by People's militia under the control of the local elected bodies. The entire central and state laws continuing from colonial days and later introduced, which are anti-people, shall be replaced by new people's laws.

6.3 Confiscate all imperialist capital, liquidate all imperialist debts and scrap all unequal treaties or agreements with imperialist countries and agencies which are against people's interests. Quit IMF, WB and WTO and initiate international trade based on equality and well being of all nations. Prohibit operations of MNCs. Stop flow of all speculative foreign capital to the country. Free the country from all forms of imperialist exploitation, interference and bullying. Educate the people against NGOs and all such imperialist promoted agencies and put an end to their functioning.

6.4 Nationalize all enterprises, capital and properties of the comprador bureaucratic bourgeois class or corporate houses and mafias. Stop all avenues for corruption from top to bottom. Get back all deposits of scamsters in foreign banks and in other institutions and confiscate them. Unearth and confiscate all black money including that deposited in mutts and similar institutions. Confiscate the wealth of mutts and all religious institutions. Punish all corrupt.

6.5 Implement revolutionary land reforms based on "land to the tiller". Abolish all pre-capitalist relations in the agrarian sector and confiscate and distribute all land with the landlords. Establish the collective ownership of those working in the plantations and farms owned by the corporate houses, MNCs and mafias. Abolish all forms of bonded labor and usury. Stop corporatization of agriculture, entry of agro- MNCs in to agricultural sector and develop agriculture with the perspective of food security for all, giving full attention to ecological conservation.

6.6 Implement six hour working day and five day week progressively in all sectors. Redefine need based minimum wage and implement it. End contract labor system, casualization of labor and 'hire and fire'. Ensure right to organize, to collective bargaining and to wage strike and other struggles as fundamental right of the working class.

6.7 Implement comprehensive national industrial policy. Develop healthy relation among heavy, medium and small industries, and between urban and rural regions. Progressively abolish dependence on foreign technology by developing indigenous research and development policy. Develop the service sector including banking, insurance and credit institutions putting people's interests in command. Develop infrastructural projects taking the overall interests of the community in to consideration.

6.8 Ensure universal public distribution system, free and compulsory education, healthcare for all, housing and employment for all. Develop a comprehensive sports policy and implement it with people's participation. Develop a people's cultural policy.

6.9 Abolish all black laws. Ensure democratization of the administration and society at all levels. Abolish death penalty from the statutes.

6.10 Stop all forms of gender discrimination. Create conditions for women to liberate from the grip of patriarchy and religious-caste based oppression. Stop all forms of attack on women at work places and elsewhere. Stop female infanticide. Ensure women's equality in all fields, property right to women and equal pay for equal work. All women shall be employed in socially productive labor. Measures shall be taken to ensure the abolition of the present family system which serves as the economic unit of the society and to build a progressive democratic family system.

6.11 Guarantee protection, healthcare and education for all children and abolish all forms of exploitation of children including child labor. Ensure the protection of senior citizens in all respects.

6.12 Ensure right of self-determination for all nationalities up to secession. The People's Republic shall strive to unite people of various nationalities not by force but by their voluntary consent. Settle the Jammu and Kashmir and Northeast questions by withdrawing army from there forthwith and through political means ensuring the right of self determination to all nationalities. Ensure right of the people to receive education in their mother tongue, equal treatment for all languages and such other democratic rights.

6.13 Abolish all forms of exploitation and oppression of adivasis. Protect their right over the natural resources, when progressive development projects are taken up. Establish autonomous councils with full powers and ensure their democratic rights.

6.14 Ensure genuine secular character of the state structure. Abolish all discriminations based on religious ground and protect the religious minorities. End all efforts by religious fundamentalist forces for communalization of the society. Prevent mixing of religion in state affairs and political life of the country. Stop religious institutions from entering public domain like education, healthcare and such other fields. Evolve secular, democratic and progressive common civil code as part of democratization of the society. The People's Democratic state shall strictly implement the secular principle of separation between state and religion.

6.15 Continue campaigns and democratic movements for abolition of the caste system fully and of all other social inequalities. As part of it, stop all forms of caste based oppression, caste discrimination, untouchability, and khap panchayats like reactionary institutions. Implement reservation like democratic rights till all social inequalities are abolished. Ensure land to the dalits based on the slogan of "land to the tiller".

6.16 Based on the understanding that the contradiction between capital and nature has become a major contradiction at both national and international level, concrete plans should be worked out to protect environment and to develop the perspective on development taking this important question in to consideration.

6.17 Implement secular, gender-friendly, democratic and scientific education system accessible to all. Stop commercialization and privatization of education. Ensure free, uniform and compulsory education for all children, ensure facilities for higher education to all. Abolish all elitist schools, stop discrimination and differentiation in the field of education. .

6.18 Develop people's democratic and gender-friendly culture fighting against the influence of feudal and imperialist cultural values. Promote scientific outlook in all fields. As imperialism and its lackeys are utilizing the influences in the superstructure to subjugate people to their plunder and hegemony, the question of developing Cultural Revolution based on hitherto experience of the former socialist countries as a continuous process should be given great significance, especially in the context of the capitalist restoration in all these socialist countries.

6.19 Based on equality and peaceful co-existence, establish closest relations in all fields with the neighboring countries. Resolve all boundary disputes through friendly negotiations.

6.20 Uphold proletarian internationalism. Strive for the unity of the Marxist-Leninist parties at international level. Unite with all progressive and anti- imperialist forces all over the world and strive to establish fraternal relations with the revolutionary forces against imperialism, especially US imperialism, and its lackeys. Actively struggle against US led aggressions and barbaric hegemonic moves creating havoc everywhere.

6.21 Extend solidarity with people all over the world in the struggle for democracy and socialism. As several institutions and agencies built up during the post-Second World War period including the UNO are serving as the tools for intensification of neo-colonial plunder and hegemony, the People's Democratic Republic should initiate active moves to progressively build alternative international centers of People's Democratic and socialist countries based on the principles of proletarian internationalism.

Chapter Seven

Strengthen the Party and Advance along the Path of PDR

7.1 The struggle for the People's Democratic Revolution is continuing for more than nine decades in India, from the very beginning of the Communist movement here. During these decades momentous developments have taken place internationally and nationally. Even when the present era continues to be the era of imperialism and proletarian revolution, in the post-SWW period, imperialism with US imperialism taking over its leadership has replaced the colonial forms of plunder and domination with neo-colonial forms. The challenge before the CPI (ML) in this neo-colonial phase of imperialism is to carry forward the task of completion of the PDR and advancing to socialist revolution according to the present conditions.

7.2 The CPI (ML) is presenting this draft Party Program not only before its members, but also before the membership and supporters of what can be broadly called the left movement in general and all the progressive democratic forces with the hope of initiating a broad discussion based on it and active steps to put it in to practice. It is our hope that such a step along with the continuation of the unity efforts to bring together the Marxist-Leninist forces based on the ideological political line put forward, shall help to speed up the historic task of reorganization of the Communist movement at all India level, providing a new fillip to advance towards the completion of the People's Democratic Revolution and to march forward for the realization of socialism and communism. 

PARTY CONSTITUTION

Article I

Name : The name of the Party shall be the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Red Star.

Article II

Emblem : The emblem of the Party shall be a crossed hammer and sickle in white against a red background, with five white stars forming a quadrant on the left side of the hammer and sickle as symbol of proletarian internationalism.

Article III

Flag : The Flag of the Party shall be the Red Flag of rectangular shape the ratio of length and breadth being 3:2 with hammer and sickle and the five stars in a quadrant in white inscribed in middle of the top one quarter (near the pole).

Article -IV

Guiding Ideology and General Program

1. The CPI (ML) Red Star, the vanguard, that is, the advanced detachment, of the Indian proletariat, upholds Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought as its guiding ideology, and seeks to apply it to the concrete conditions of India and to integrate it with the concrete practice of Indian revolution, uncompromisingly struggling against both revisionist and sectarian tendencies of all hues.

2. It is committed to complete the tasks of People's Democratic Revolution (PDR) and to establish the People's Democratic Dictatorship. The task before the Party in the stage of the People's Democratic Revolution is to overthrow the rule of comprador ­bureaucratic bourgeois-landlord classes serving imperialism and replace the present reactionary Indian state with the Peoples Democratic State led by the proletariat. The basic Program of the party is to complete the PDR, to advance towards socialist revolution, and to march forward under the guiding principles of dictatorship of the proletariat for the realization of socialism and communism.

3. The CPI (ML) Red Star upholds proletarian internationalism. Equality and fraternity shall be the principles guiding the relations between all Marxist-Leninist parties and organizations the world over.

4. The CPI (ML) Red Star strives to build up communist party based on Bolshevik principles, uniting all the Communist Revolutionaries into a single Party.

Article V

Party Membership

1. Any Indian citizen, eighteen years of age or above, who accepts the Program and Constitution of the Party, agrees to work in one of the Party committees, pays the Party membership fees and levy regularly and carries out decisions of the Party shall be eligible for Party membership.

2. New members are admitted to the Party on individual application and through Party Branch or other Party committees on the recommendation of two Party members. The Party committees at local or town, taluk or block or area, district, state and central levels also have the power to admit new members to the Party. The Party members who recommend an applicant must furnish the Party committee concerned truthful information about the applicant, from personal knowledge and with due sense of responsibility. All applications for Party membership after their recommendation and approval must be placed before the next higher committee within a month of their presentation and recommendation.

3. Barring exceptional cases, Party members should be recruited from those who have worked in class/mass organizations and have been tested in some organizational work and class struggle, who have worked in an activist/sympathizers group functioning under a party committee. Special caution must be maintained against careerists, conspirators and double dealers, bad characters and enemy agents from sneaking into the Party.

4. The meeting of the Party committee concerned where the application is presented shall decide the admission of the new members. If applicant is admitted to the Party, she/he will be regarded as a candidate member. A candidate member will have to undergo a minimum period of candidature of one year. The period of candidature will be two years for those coming from the capitalist, landlord and other exploiting classes.

5. The Party committee admitting candidate members shall arrange for their elementary education on the Party Program, Party Constitution and the current policies of the Party and observe their development.

6. By the end of the period of candidature, the Party Committee concerned shall discuss whether the candidate member is qualified to be admitted to full membership. The party committee concerned may admit candidates to full membership or prolong the period of candidature for another term not exceeding six months. If a candidate member is found unfit, the Party committee may cancel her/his candidate membership. A report of recruitment shall be regularly forwarded by the Party Committee concerned to the next higher Party committee.

7. The higher committee may on scrutiny of the report, alter or modify any such decision after consultation with the Party committee which has submitted the report. The District and State Committees shall exercise supervisory powers over the recruitment of candidate members and over admissions to full membership and have the right to modify or reject the decision of the lower committees in this respect.

8. The membership fee will be Rs. 10/- annually. Levy shall be collected by the committee to which the member belongs after assessing the capacity of the member concerned.

9. A Party member can transfer her/his membership from one committee to another with the approval of the committee from which transfer is sought and by presenting a letter of introduction from the same to the new committee she/he wishes to join. In case of transfer outside the district or state, approval by the district or the state committee concerned shall be necessary. This shall be subject to the approval of the next higher committee.

10. Members once expelled from the Party can be readmitted only by the decision of the Party committee which confirmed their expulsion, subject to the approval of the next higher committee.

11. When a leading member from another political party from local, area, district or state level wants to join the Party, it is necessary to have the sanction of the next higher committee in addition to the sanction of the local, area, district or state committee, before the concerned member is admitted to membership of the Party. In exceptional cases the central committee or the state committee can admit such members to the full membership of the Party. In case of the state committee taking such a decision, it shall obtain previous sanction from the central committee.

12. Party membership should be subjected to renewal every year. Party members who are failing to take active part in activities decided by the concerned Party committees and higher committees, to carry out the decisions of the Party, to maintain Party discipline, or to pay membership fee or levy for the whole year without any satisfactory reason should be asked to withdraw their membership, and failing which their name shall be removed from the membership roll subject to the approval of the next higher committee.

13. Every party member shall declare her/his assets at the time of confirmation of membership and shall submit details if any new assets are obtained later during the membership renewal.

14. All party members working in higher committees up to the Central Committee shall be members of a basic party committee, that is a branch or Local or Area Committee active in place of his/her residence or functioning in nearby areas and shall attend its meetings and the functions whenever she/he is available in the area without in anyway affecting the performance of her/ his responsibilities in the higher committee. The opinion of of these committees shall be sought at the time of the renewal of their party membership.

Article –VI

Party Pledge

Every member jointing the Party shall take the Party Pledge.

The Pledge shall be:

"I accept Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought as the guiding ideology of the Party.

"I accept the Program of the Party and agree to abide by its Constitution and work sincerely to implement the decisions of the Party. I pledge to be loyal and honest in words and deeds to them.

"I shall strive to live up to the ideals of Communism and selflessly serve and fight for the proletarian cause and revolution always placing the interest of the Party, People and Revolution above personal interests and strive to uphold the honor and dignity of the Party.

"I will fight communalism, casteism, revivalism, national chauvinism and gender discrimination in life and society".

Article -VII

Distribution of Party Levy and Membership Fee

1. Party levy collected from Party members by concerned Party committees shall be distributed as follows:

10 percent for the Central Committee; 40 percent for State Committee and the remaining 50 percent shall be divided among the District committee and the lower committees as decided by the district committee concerned.

2. All membership and renewal fees shall go to the Central Committee.

Article - VIII

Responsibilities of Party Members

Responsibilities of Party members are as followings:

1. Strive to develop the understanding of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought and learn to integrate theory with the practice.

2. Regularly participate in all the activities of the Party committee in which one is a member and faithfully implement the policies, decisions and instructions of the Party.

3. Read Party paper and publications. Help to regularly bring them out and to actively propagate them.

4. Follow the Party Constitution and maintain discipline. Live and behave in accordance with the great principles of Communism and in accordance with the spirit of proletarian internationalism.

5. Subordinate one's own personal interests to the Party and people interests.

6. Serve the masses devotedly and strengthen relation with them continuously and always be ready to learn from the masses and participate in the struggle of the people. Report their necessities and opinions to the Party. If not exempted for specific reasons, function in one of the class/mass organizations under the instructions of the Party.

7. Strengthen comradely relation among members. Constantly develop fraternal relations within the Party.

8. Regularly carry out criticism and self- criticism for improving one's own and collective activities and for helping each other.

9. Never betray the confidence reposed by the Party. Behave with openness and sincerity in the Party.

10. Protect the unity and strength of the Party; maintain vigilance against the enemies of the proletariat and the people.

11. Fight consistently against all oppressions and discriminations based on religion, caste, nationality and gender and firmly oppose such disruptive tendencies as communalism, fundamentalism, casteism, provincialism, parochialism and patriarchy.

12. Be uncompromising towards all deviations from Marxism-­Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought as well as from ideological and political line of the party. Fight against all non -proletarian ideas and trends of revisionism, left and right opportunism, liberalism, sectarianism, anarchism and dogmatism.

13. It is the task of the Party committee to guide the Party members in implementing above mentioned responsibilities and to help them in whichever way possible to implement them.

Article IX

Rights of Party Members

1. Rights of the Party members are as follows:

a) To elect Party committees and to get elected to them.

b) To participate freely in discussions in order to contribute towards the formulation of Party policy and of the decisions of the Party.

c) To make proposals regarding one's own work in the party to get work assigned to oneself in accordance with one's ability and situation in life.

d) To make criticisms about Party committees and Party functionaries at Party meetings.

e) To demand to be heard in person when a Party committee discusses disciplinary action against or evaluates their personal character or work in connection with serious mistakes which she/he is alleged to have committed.

f) When any Party member disagrees with any decision of a Party committee or any organization under the Party leadership, she/he has right to submit her/his opinion to the higher committee, including and up to the Central Committee and the Party Congress. In all such cases the Party member shall, of course, carry out the party decision and the differences shall be sought to be resolved through the test of practice and through comradely discussions;

g) To address any statement, appeal or complaint to any higher Party committee up to and including the Central Committee and the Party Congress, provided that such statement or complaint shall be addressed by each member to her/ his primary committee in the first place. Such primary committee may take a decision on such a statement or complaint. If the member is not satisfied with such a decision, or if no decision is taken thereon for three months, the member concerned shall have the right to appeal to the next higher committee and in the same manner up till and including the Central Committee or the Party Congress.

2. It shall be the duty of Party committee and Party functionaries to see that these rights are respected.

3. The candidate members are entitled to all rights of a full-fledged member except the right to vote and to be elected.

Article-X

Organizational Principles of the Party

1. The structure of the Party is based on, and its internal life is guided by the principles of democratic centralism. Democratic centralism means central leadership based on full inner - Party democracy and inner- Party democracy under the guidance of the centralized leadership.

In the sphere of the Party structure, the guiding principles of democratic centralism are:

a) All Party committees from top to bottom shall be elected.

b) The minority shall carry out the decisions of the majority, the lower Party committees shall carry out the decisions and directives of the higher Party committees, the individual shall subordinate herself/himself to the collective. All Party committees shall carry out the decisions and directives of the Party Congress and of the Central Committee.

c) All Party committees shall periodically report on their work to the Party committees immediately below and all lower committees shall likewise report to their immediate higher committees.

d) All Party committees, particularly the leading Party committees shall pay constant heed to the opinion and criticism of the lower Party committees and the rank and file Party members.

e) All Party committees shall function strictly on the principle of collective decisions and check-up, combined with individual responsibility.

f) All questions concerning international affairs, questions of all India character, or questions concerning more than one State or questions requiring uniform decisions for the whole country, shall be decided upon by the Central Committee. All questions of a state or district character shall be ordinarily decided upon by the concerned Party committees. But in no case shall such decisions run counter to the decisions of higher Party committees. When the Central Committee has to take a decision on any issue of major importance concerning a state, it shall do so after consultation with the State Committee concerned. The State Committee shall do likewise in relation to districts.

g) On issues which affect the policy of the Party at all India level, but on which the Party's stand point is to be expressed for the first time, only the Central Committee of the Party is entitled to make a policy statement. The lower committees can and should send their opinions and suggestions in time for consideration by the Central Committee.

2. Basing itself upon the experience of the entire Party membership and of the popular movement, in the sphere of the internal life of the Party the following guiding principles of democratic centralism are applied:

a) Free and frank discussion within the Party committee on all questions affecting the Party, its policy and work.

b) Sustained efforts to activate the Party members in popularizing and implementing the Party policies, in raising their ideological political level and improving their general education so that they can effectively participate in the life and work of the Party.

c) When serious differences arise in a Party committee, every effort should be made to arrive at a common understanding. Failing this, the decision should be postponed with a view to resolve the differences through further discussions, unless an immediate decision is called for by the needs of the Party and the mass movement.

d) Encouragement of criticism and self-criticism at all levels, from top to bottom especially criticism from below.

e) Consistent struggle against bureaucratic tendencies at all levels.

f) Impermissibility of factionalism and factional grouping inside the Party in any from.

g) Strengthening of the Party spirit by developing fraternal relations and mutual help, correcting mistakes by treating comrades sympathetically, judging them and their work not on the basis of isolated mistakes or incidents, but by taking into account their whole record of service to the Party.

3. Differing views should be given representation in the respective committees.

4. In extraordinary situations, organizing committees may be formed at all levels.

5. The primary committee will be the link between the Party and people. The opinions of the people and the committees will be carefully studied, summed up, assimilated and used to improve and formulate the party's policies.

6. The Central Committee and State Committees shall be constituted of capable and dedicated comrades based on cadre policy. This principle should be followed in the case of lower committees also as far as possible. The Party shall undertake the responsibility to develop the professional revolutionaries.

Article - XI

Criticism and Self-Criticism

Criticism and Self-Criticism is one of the most important principles of Party committee system. It is absolutely essential for the Party in general, the leadership, the committees and party members in particular to conduct it.

1. Criticism and self - criticism must be based on the Party line and its practice.

2. Criticism must be made within the Party and the concerned unit, not outside it.

3. Criticism regarding the higher committees or against their decisions should be sent to the concerned committee.

4. The unity of the Party is achieved through the principle of unity-struggle-­unity, i.e., through the process of criticism and self-criticism.

Article –XII

Party Discipline

1. Discipline is indispensable for preserving and strengthening the unity of the Party, for enhancing its strength, its fighting ability and its prestige, and for enforcing the principles of democratic centralism. Without strict adherence to the Party discipline, the Party cannot lead the masses in struggle and actions, nor discharge its responsibility towards them.

2. Discipline is based on conscious acceptance of the aims, Program and policies of the Party. All members of the Party are equally bound by Party discipline irrespective of their status in the Party organization or in public life.

3. Violation of the Party Constitution and decisions of the Party as well as any other action and behaviour unworthy of a member of the Communist Party shall constitute a breach of Party discipline and are liable to disciplinary actions.

4. The disciplinary actions are

1. Warning.

2. Censure.

3. Public censure.

4. Removal from the post held in the Party.

5. Suspension from full Party membership for any period but not exceeding one year.

6. Removal from the Party rolls.

7. Expulsion

5. If any member of any committee of any committee fails to attend three consecutive meetings of the said committee then that committee shall have the authority to call for an explanation from that member and, after hearing that member on his explanation, if that explanation is not found to be satisfactory, to remove that member from that committee, subject to ratification from the State Committee or the Central Committee, provided that the member so removed shall have the right to appeal to the Control Commission.

6. Disciplinary action shall normally be taken where other methods, including methods of persuasion, have failed to correct the comrade concerned. But even where disciplinary measures have been taken, the efforts to help the comrade to correct herself/himself shall continue. In cases where the breach of discipline is such that it warrants an immediate disciplinary measure to protect the interests of the Party or its prestige, the disciplinary action shall be taken promptly.

7. Expulsion from the Party is the severest of all disciplinary measures and this shall be applied with utmost caution, deliberation and judgment.

8. No disciplinary measure involving expulsion or suspension of a Party member shall come into effect without confirmation by the next higher committee. In case of suspension or expulsion, the penalized Party member shall, however, be removed from the responsible post that she/he may hold pending confirmation.

9. The comrade against whom a disciplinary measure is proposed shall be fully informed of the allegations, charges and other relevant facts against her/him. She/he shall have the right to he heard in person by the Party committee in which her/his case is discussed.

10. Party members found to be strike-breakers, habitual drunkards, moral degenerates, betrayers of Party confidence, guilty of financial irregularities or members whose actions are detrimental to the Party and the working classes, shall be dealt with by the Party committees to which they belong and be liable to disciplinary action.

11. There shall be right of appeal in all cases of disciplinary action.

12. The State Committee has the right to dissolve or take disciplinary action against a lower committee in cases where a persistent defiance of Party decisions and policy, serious factionalism, or a breach of Party discipline is involved.

13. A Party member who desires to resign from the Party shall submit her/his resignation to the Party committee concerned, which, by a decision of its committee meeting may accept the same and decide to strike her/his name off the rolls and report the matter to the next higher committee.

Article -XIII

All India Party Congress

1. The supreme organ of the Party for the whole country shall be the All India Party Congress.

a) The regular Party Congress shall be convened by the Central Committee ordinarily once every three years. However, in no case shall the convening of the Congress be delayed beyond the period of three years by more than one year.

b) The date, venue, agenda and functions of the Party Congress shall be decided by the Central Committee at a meeting specially called for the purpose.

c) The Party Congress shall be composed of delegates elected by the State Conferences as well as by Conferences of party Units directly under the all India Party Centre.

d) The basis of representation at a Party Congress shall be decided by the Central Committee.

e) The members of the Central Committee and of the Central Control Commission shall have the right to participate as full delegates in the Party Congress, whether regular or extraordinary.

f) The number of membership from any State for which the membership fee quota to the Central Committee has been fully paid shall be taken as the basis for calculating the number of delegates from that State at the Party Congress.

2. Functions and powers of the Party Congress are as follows:

a) To discuss and act on the political and organizational report of the Central Committee.

b) To revise and change the Party Program and the Party Constitution.

c) To determine the Path of Revolution and the policy of the party in the current situation.

d) To elect the Central Committee by secret ballot,

e) To hear and decide on the report of the Central Control Commission as well as on appeals.

f) To hear and decide on the audit report submitted by the Control Commission.

g) To elect Central Control Commission.

h) To elect a Presidium and Steering Committee for the conduct of its business.

3. a) An extra ordinary Party Congress shall be called by the Central Committee at its own discretion or when it is demanded by the State Committees representing not less than one third of the total party membership. When such an extra-ordinary Party Congress is requisitioned it shall be called within six months of receiving the said requisition.

b) The date, venue, functions and agenda of the extra-ordinary Party Congress shall be decided by the Central Committee at a meeting specially called for the purpose.

c) The basis of representation to the extra-ordinary Party Congress shall be decided by the Central Committee at a meeting specially called for the purpose.

d) The members of the Central Committee and of the Central Control Commission shall have the right to participate as full delegates in the extra-ordinary Party Congress.

Article -XIV

Discussions Prior to Party Congress

1. The Central Committee shall release the draft documents for discussion by all party members/ candidate members three months before the All India Party Congress. It is obligatory on the part of the state committees to render it into respective languages and forward the required number of copies to all committees up to branch committees in the shortest possible time after its release by the Central Committee. Amendments to the resolutions shall be sent directly to the Central Committee which will place its report on them before the All India Party Congress.

2. From the area committee level, the conferences as part of Party Congress shall take place on the basis of the draft documents of the Central Committee and the reports and resolutions submitted by the respective committees and committees above it up to the state committees.

3. In the branch and local committee level conferences a comrade from the higher committee shall present a report on the documents to be presented to the Party Congress. All the Party members/ candidate members shall be delegates to the Area conferences.

Article - XV

All India Party Conference

The central Committee may convene All India Party Conference as and when required.

Article- XVI

Party Plenum

1. When need arises for wider discussion and decision on any important policy matter and organizational question, the Central Committee may convene an All India Plenum.

2. The Central Committee and Central Control Commission members shall be ex-officio delegates to the Plenum. Other delegates shall be elected by the committees as per the criteria fixed by the Central Committee.

3. The Central Committee shall decide the agenda of the Plenum.

4. The Plenum's decisions shall be binding on the Central Committee.

Article- XVII

Central Committee

1. a) The Central Committee shall be elected at the Party Congress, the number of members being decided by the Party Congress.

b) The outgoing Central Committee shall propose to the Congress a panel of candidates.

c) The Panel of candidates shall be prepared with a view to creating capable leadership, closely linked with the masses, firm in the revolutionary outlook of the working class and educated in Marxism- Leninism-Mao's Tung Thought. The panel shall bring together the best talents, experience from the states, from mass fronts and other fields of Party activity.

d) Any delegate can raise objection with regard to any name in the panel proposed as well as propose any new name or names.

e) Anyone whose name has been proposed shall have the right to withdraw.

f) The panel finally proposed, together with the additional nominations by the delegates shall be voted upon by secret ballot.

2. The Central Committee shall be the highest authority of the Party between two all - India Party Congresses.

3. It is responsible for enforcing the Party Constitution and carrying out the political line and decisions adopted by the Party Congress.

4. The Central Committee shall represent the Party as a whole and be responsible for directing the entire work of the Party. The Central Committee shall have the right to take decisions with full authority on any question facing the Party.

5. The Central Committee shall elect from among its members the General Secretary and a Political Bureau (PB) including the General Secretary. The number of members in the PB shall be decided by the Central Committee. The PB carries on the work of the Central Committee between its two sessions and has the right to take political decisions in between two meetings of the Central Committee. The election of the Party leadership also shall be based on secret ballot.

6. The Standing Committee of the PB shall carry out its day to day works.

7. a) The Central committee shall remove any member from itself for gross breach of discipline, misconduct or for anti-­Party activity by two-thirds of the members present and voting and in any case by more than half the total strength of the Central Committee voting for such removal.

b) It can fill up any vacancy occurring in its composition through co-option by simple majority of its total members.

c) In case a member or members of the Central Committee are arrested, the remaining members of the committee by a two-thirds majority can co-opt substitute members and they shall have full rights as the original members. This is applicable to lower level committees also.

8. The Central Committee shall fill up any vacancy that may occur in the Control Commission by two-thirds of the members present and voting and in any case by more than half the total strength of the Central Committee voting for the candidate.

9. The time gap between two meetings of the Central Committee shall not exceed four months and it shall meet whenever one third of its total members make a requisition.

10. The Central Committee shall discuss and decide political and organizational issues and problems of mass movement and guide the State Committees and All India Party Fractions in mass organizations.

11. The Central Committee shall submit its Political and Organizational Report before the Party Congress, whenever it is convened.

12. The Central Committee shall appoint Editorial Boards for its organs which shall function under its guidance and control.

13. The Central Committee shall make arrangements for the building up of the organization that can withstand all eventualities. This method shall be followed from the higher to the lower committees.

Article XVIII

State, District, Area, Local, Branch Committees and Party fractions

1. The highest organ in the State, District, Area, Local or Branch shall be the State, District, Area, Local or Branch Conference which elects a State, District, Area, Local or Branch Committee.

2. a) The organizational structure, the rights and functions of the State, District, Area, Local or Branch committees are similar to those enumerated in the articles concerning the Party structure and functions at the all - India level, their functions being confined to the State, District, Area, Local or Branch levels and their decisions being within the limit of the decisions taken by the next higher Party committee.

b) The State, District, Area, Local or Branch Committee shall elect a Secretary and an executive committee wherever necessary.

3. a) The primary organ of the Party is the Branch committee organized on the basis of profession or territory.

b) Party members are to be organized on the basis of their occupation or vocation, when they are working in a factory, an institute or any industry. When such units are organized the members of such units shall be associate members of the Party units in place of their residence or organized as auxiliary units there. The work to be allotted in their place of residence shall not be detrimental to the work allotted to them by their basic committees in the factory or institute or occupation;

c) The number of members in a Branch, its structure and functions and other matters relating to a Branch or unit will be determined by the State Committee.

4. State organs and publications shall be in conformity with the political and organizational line of the Central Committee.

Article – XIX

Control Commissions

1. There shall be a Central Control Commission of three members elected by the Party Congress. It shall elect a convener from among themselves.

2. The central Committee shall propose a panel of names for the Central Control Commission to the party Congress. In proposing the names for nomination, the party standing of the candidate, which shall not be less than ten years, and his experience in the Party organization and personal integrity shall be taken in to account.

3. The procedure of election shall be the same as in the case of the Central Committee.

4. The members of the Central Control Commission shall participate in the meetings of the Central Committee with the right to vote except when the question concerning disciplinary actions are taken up.

5. The Central Control Commission shall take up:

a. Cases referred to it by the Central Committee or Polit Bureau;

b. Cases where disciplinary action has been taken by the Central Committee;

c. Cases involving expulsion from the party decided upon by the Central Committee against which an appeal has been made by the member concerned;

d. All disciplinary measures taken by the Central Committee should be reported to the Central Control Commission.

6. The central Control Commission shall report its decisions to the central Committee. These decisions shall be ordinarily final and be implemented by the central Committee unless they are set aside by two-thirds majority of the members present and voting and in any case by more than half of the total strength of the Central Committee ( not counting the members of the Control Commission).

7. Every state conference shall have the right to set up a State Control Commission. The provisions of clauses 2to 7 above shall also apply to the State Control Commission, limited however, to the state. Any reference to "Central committee" or "Polit Bureau" in those clauses shall be construed as a reference to the "State Committee" with respect to the State Control Commission. All disciplinary measures taken by any party body in that state shall be reported to the State Control Commission.

8. All disciplinary actions by party committees below the level of the state committee may be appealed to the next higher committee till the state committee.

9. In all cases of disciplinary action, the final decision of the State Committee taken after the decision of the State Control Commission shall be appealable to the Central Committee and the final decision of the Central Committee taken after the decision of the Central Control Commission, shall be appealable to the Party Congress.

10. The Central Committee and the State Committee may make rules to define the detailed functioning of the Central and State Control Commissions respectively.

Article XIX A

Zonal Coordination Committees

1. There shall be a Zonal Coordination Committee for each zone, namely eastern, southern, western and northern.

2. The Central Committee shall constitute respective zonal coordination committees.

3. The members of the zonal coordination committees shall be as follows:

a. Central Committee Members from the states included in the zone;

b. Secretaries of the State Committees or State Organizing Committees representing the states included in the zone; and

c. Central Control Commission Member/s from the states included in the zone.

4. A Polit Bureau member as may be decided by the Central Committee shall be the convener of each Zonal Coordination Committee.

5. The Zonal Coordination Committee shall meet bi-monthly or in between two Central Committee meetings or as and when required.

Article-XX

Party Members in Elected Public Bodies

1. Party members elected to different public bodies including Parliament, Assemblies, corporations, municipalities, panchayats etc. shall function under the appropriate Party committee. If there is more than one member, they shall constitute themselves into a party group and function in strict conformity with the line, policies and directives of the Party. They shall always reflect the mass movement, uphold' and popularize the policy of the party and defend the interest of the people unswervingly. They shall maintain a high standard of personal integrity, lead an unostentatious life and display modesty in all their dealing and contact with the people and place the party above self.

2. They shall pay regularly and without default a levy on their earnings fixed by the appropriate party committee.

3. They shall make regular reports of their work to the electors and the people and seek their suggestion and advice.

4. All nominations of Party candidates for election to Parliament shall be subject to approval by the Central Committee. Nominations of Party candidates to the State Legislatures or the councils of centrally-administered areas shall be finalized and announced by the State Committee concerned. Rules governing the nomination of Party candidates for corporation, municipalities, district boards, local boards and panchayats shall be drawn up by State Committee.

Article XX (A)

Mandatory Provision as in Section 29A (5) of the Representation of the People Act, 1951

"The Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) shall bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established and to the principles of socialism, secularism and democracy and would uphold the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India."

Article-XXI

Inner Party Discussions

1. To unify the Party and for evolving its mass line inner Party discussion shall be a regular feature of Party life. Such discussion shall be organized on all -India scale or at different levels of the Party organization depending on the nature of the issue.

2. Inner - Party discussion shall be organized:

(a) On important questions of all India or State importance, where immediate decision is not necessary, by the Central or the State Committees of the party as the case may be, before the decision is taken;

(b) Whenever there is no sufficient majority inside the Central Committee or in the State Committees on an important question of Party policy.

(c) When an inner-Party discussion on an all India scale is demanded by a number of State Committees representing one­-third of the total Party membership or at the State level by District committees representing the same proportion of the total membership of the State concerned.

3. Inner-Party discussion shall be conducted under the guidance of the Central or the State committee which shall formulate the issues under discussion. The Party Committee which guides the discussion shall lay down the manner in which the discussion shall be conducted.

4. On certain ideological and political issues debates and discussions may be carried on even outside the organization with the knowledge of the Central Committee provided such actions do not cause damage to the unity of the Party and to the cause of Indian Revolution.

Article-XXII

Party members working in mass organizations

Party members working in mass organization and their executives shall organize themselves into fractions or fraction committees and function under the guidance of the appropriate Party committee. They must always strive to strengthen the unity, mass base and fighting capacity of the mass organizations concerned.

Article-XXIII

Finance

1. The financial resources of the party comprise of membership fees and levies of the Party members, contributions from the masses, mass organizations and individual sympathizers.

2. In order to run the Party's central apparatus, the Central Committee shall decide each year, or as the case may be, the quantum of funds each state shall pay to it through Party fund or special Party fund drive.

3. The Polit Bureau shall submit yearly accounts to the Central Committee for its approval.

4. At state and district level the secretariat of concerned committees shall submit yearly accounts to the Slate and District Committees for their approval. A copy of the approved accounts should he submitted to the next higher committee.

5. The Central Committee and the State Committee, as the case may be, may frame rules for accounting procedure ad for other matters.

6. The yearly audit of accounts of the Central Committee and State Committee shall be audited by any two members of the respective committee and the audit report shall be palced before the Congress and the Conferences for discussion and for taking further action. The accounts of the lower committees shall be audited by a panel of state committee members not less than two.

Article-XXIV

Bye-laws : The Central committee may frame rules and bye-laws under the Party Constitution and in conformity with it. Rules and bye - laws under the Party Constitution and in conformity with it may also be framed by the State Committees subject to confirmation by the Central Committee.

Article-XXV

Amendment : The Party Constitution shall be amended by the Party Congress only. The notice of proposals for amending the Constitution shall be given two months before the said Party Congress. 

 

Read Party Program and Constitution in PDF File

Path of Indian Revolution

PATH OF INDIAN REVOLUTION

We are publishing the Path of Indian Revolution updated and concretized by the Tenth Congress held from 25th February to 2nd March, 2015. It was initially adopted by the All India Special Conference held in November, 2009, and updated by the Ninth Congress held in November, 2011.

1. Introduction

2. International Situation

3. National Situation

4. Class Analysis of Indian Society

5. Building Party as Vanguard of Indian Proletariat

6. Mobilizing Working Class as Leader of PDR

7. Building Revolutionary Peasant Movement

8. Mobilizing Women for Liberation

9. Mobilizing Youth for Revolution

10. Organizing Students' Movement

11. Tasks in the Cultural Front

12. Separating Religion from Politics

13. The Caste Question

14. Developing People's Movements on Questions like Ecology,

Displacement and Slums

15. The Nationality Question

16. On Utilizing Parliamentary Forms of Struggle

17. On Building Tactical to Strategic United Fronts

18. Agrarian Question and Agrarian Revolutionary Program

19. The Path of Indian Revolution

20. Conclusion

1. Introduction

1.1 As the Party Program states: "India is one of the biggest countries in the world inhabited by more than 1.3 billion people, a multi-national, multi-ethnic, multi-lingual and multi-religious country with vast diversities and complex character." When the Path of Revolution in such a country is put forward, the momentous changes that have taken place in the international and national situation during the last five decades or more compared to pre-Second World War days have to be taken into consideration. During this period the socialist countries have degenerated to capitalist countries and the international communist movement (ICM) has suffered severe setbacks. It was in such a situation, that the party succeeded in developing the ideological-political line and in putting forward the Party Program by the time of the Ninth Congress held in 2011by considering these changes in the concrete situation. But drafting the Path of Revolution in a country like India in the first half of the 21st century, compared to the days when the Communist International (Comintern) formed in1919 under the leadership of Lenin had put forward the strategic line of the ICM and the tasks of the Communist Parties in the capitalist countries as well as in the countries under imperialist domination for advancing the World Proletarian Socialist Revolution, is fraught with difficult and challenging problems. Mechanical repetition of old concepts or experience of revolutionary struggles in Russia, China or elsewhere is not sufficient. Similarly, after the setbacks suffered by the ICM and the communist movement in our country there are also no 'authorities' to seek guidance from.

1.2 The task before Communist Parties around the world is to evaluate hitherto international and national experience and develop their Path of Revolution based on the concrete analysis of the concrete conditions of today. They should dare to throw out all shades of dogmatism and opportunism, and go forward with historical and dialectical materialist perspective, developing theoretical line and practice based on Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought and proletarian internationalism. The Path of Revolution document was drafted and adopted by the Special Conference of the Party in 2009 with this understanding. Retaining all its basic features, the Tenth Congress has concretized and abridged it based on the last six years' experience.

2. International Situation

2.1 The post- Second World War situation has undergone qualitative changes, with the colonial plunder of the world replaced by neo-colonial forms of plunder and domination. The territorial control of the erstwhile colonies has been replaced in the main by control through finance capital, market forces and technology, with numerous international agencies and MNCs along with military agreements on the one hand, and UN and its various subordinate wings on the other, to enforce financial, trade, political, military and cultural hegemony, which also prepares the ground for military aggression when it is required. If colonial forces used pre-capitalist relations in the colonies or promoted them as the social base for their control, under neo-colonization capitalist relations are developed very fast integrating the economies of the countries under neo-colonial domination with the international finance system. That is, the previous feudal, semi-feudal system is being largely replaced, albeit in an uneven manner, by infiltration of finance capital and comprador bureaucratic capitalism under imperialist hegemony. Though the native corporate forces have become fabulously rich, their comprador character has not decreased. Along with this, under banners like Second Green Revolution, the corporatization of agriculture is promoted in countries under neo-colonial dependence.

2.2 All these developments have posed many complex problems to be resolved. They include: how to analyze the present situation and develop strategy and tactics to capture political power, how to develop all forms of struggle without becoming victims of reformism and parliamentary cretinism, how to build a Bolshevik style party in the new situation, how to develop class and mass organizations mobilizing millions of members, how to develop the concept of democratic centralism, that is, centralism always based on democracy, how to develop proletarian democratic concepts transcending bourgeois democracy, how to combat degeneration of socialist countries under proletarian dictatorship to bureaucratic state capitalism, how to develop the concept of Cultural Revolution rejecting decadent values and creating conditions for emergence of socialist values; how to put proletarian internationalism in command while leading revolutionary struggles in different countries etc. It is not possible to resolve all these complex problems as a pre-condition for launching revolutionary struggles. But these and many more such issues shall continuously come up during pre- and post- revolutionary periods. It was at such a time the Communist International was dissolved in 1943. The ICM disintegrated and subsequent steps to reorganise an international platform of Communist parties proved to be inadequate. The significance of the formation of the International Coordination of the Revolutionary Parties and Organizations (ICOR) and its development in which the CPI(ML) Red Star is playing an important rule should be seen in this context'. All these problems have to be addressed while developing the approach towards the Path of Revolution.

3. National Situation

3.1 The crushing defeat inflicted on the fascist forces during World War II under the leadership of the Soviet Union, weakening of British and other colonial powers, and the upsurge of national liberation movements all over the world including mass revolutionary upsurge in the post-War years in India, compelled the colonial powers to replace the direct colonial rule with neo-colonial forms of plunder, and to transfer political power to subservient local classes. The British colonial rulers, in continuation to their 'divide and rule' policy, communally divided the country provoking violent fratricidal killings and bloodshed and transferred power to the comprador classes represented by Congress and Muslim League. Thus this country was transformed from a colony of British imperialism to a country under neo-colonial domination by various imperialist powers, especially US imperialism, with limited political independence.

3.2 In the post-1947 years, while pursuing a policy of ruthless suppression of Telengana and other struggles led by the Communists in particular, and all people's movements for various demands in general, the Congress government pursued reformist policies like abolition of Zamindari Act and introduction of land ceiling acts on the one hand, and implemented various welfare policies in the context of the Keynesian policies introduced by US-led imperialist camp to confront the challenge posed by the socialist camp, on the other. The Indian state, beleaguered by the Food Movement and other mass movements, introduced the Green Revolution under US dictates and utilized the land ceiling acts to replace the feudal landlords with a new class of landlords ready to utilize the modern inputs, to promote capitalist mode of production in the agrarian sector and to speed up the integration of the Indian economy with the global imperialist system. Implementing the directives of the Bombay Plan and in the context of the existence of a powerful socialist camp, industries, infrastructure building and service sector were developed on a major scale in the public sector. Later when socialist Soviet Union degenerated to a social imperialist superpower and the inter-imperialist contradictions between US and Soviet Union started intensifying, this contradiction was reflected in the Indian ruling classes also. In the main this inter-imperialist contradiction was utilized by the Indian State for manoeuvring for its benefits, and to pursue an expansionist policy in South Asia.

3.3 These policies of the Indian state, the state of the comprador bureaucratic bourgeois-landlord classes, led by the big bourgeoisie collaborating with imperialism went on intensifying its contradictions with the Indian people, which got manifested in various ways. The land reforms from above did not give land to the tiller, but only created a new landlord class. The economic policies followed by central and state governments went on increasing the burden on the people like price-rise, unemployment and pauperization of growing sections. It also increased the uneven development sharply. When the great Naxalbari Uprising once again brought agrarian revolution back to people's agenda, when peoples of Kashmir and Northeast intensified struggles for right of self-determination, and when workers, peasantry and other sections went on waging numerous struggles for their rights, the Congress government pursued a policy of ruthless suppression, often resorting to black laws and deployment of army. As people's upsurge and the contradictions among the ruling classes went on intensifying, the internal emergency was clamped down during 1975-77. This led to further contradictions among the ruling classes and among the political parties representing them coming to the fore, and led to the end of Congress monopoly of power at the centre and in the states. The 1980s witnessed economic crisis as reflected in the acute balance of payments problems on the one hand, and intensification of communal, caste based divisions on the other. India, which was mortgaged to imperialist powers under neo-colonization, came under acute turmoil. Imposition of imperialist globalization on the one hand, and demolition of Babri Masjid like acts and later Indian State becoming active partner in the 'War on Terror' of US imperialism on the other hand, followed. The Indian State came under ever-increasing sway of the 'neo-liberal' policies promoted by US Imperialism in its bid for world hegemony.

3.4 During the last two decades, the Indian State has almost abandoned all welfare state policies. The ruling classes are trying to snatch away all rights won by the working class and impose contract labour system and 'hire and fire' policy in all sectors. The government procurement of food grains and public distribution system (PDS) is almost demolished. MNCs and corporate houses are allowed almost total domination in industries, services, infrastructure building and in wholesale and retail trade. They are allowed uninhibited entry to agrarian sector, intensifying the land accumulation in fewer and fewer hands. More and more sections are thrown out of land through SEZs, new industrial centres, real estate lobby and land mafias. Commercialization of education, health-care, services, etc. is taking place at a ruthless pace. As a result of these policies, the integration of the Indian economy with the global imperialist system is going ahead at a furious pace. The grave consequences of this integration at the behest of imperialist powers, especially US imperialism, are now felt in all fields following the global financial crisis with its epi-centre in the US. The recession and depression have spread fast to India-like countries, exposing the hitherto tall claims of the ruling classes and their political representatives. While those responsible for it are bailed out by the state at people's expense, millions of workers are thrown out of jobs and all sections of people are further pauperized. The coming to power of BJP led by Narendra Modi, with a clear majority in the 16th Lok Sabha elections, has further aggravated all these problems.

3.5 Largely abandoning the progressive aspects of the Indian foreign policy and sacrificing the sovereignty of the country, the Indian state under the leadership of the comprador bureaucratic bourgeoisie is intensifying its strategic ties with US imperialism. At the same time, the gap between the rich and poor has widened phenomenally. Almost half the people are under the poverty line, with almost 25% reduced to destitution, when 60-70% of the wealth is accumulated in the hands of less than 10%. The present price rise has unprecedentedly intensified the misery of the vast masses. Contrary to ruling class claims the prices of essential commodities are continuing to rise. The adivasis, dalits, women and all other oppressed classes and sections are facing acute devastation. Along with these, the imperialist dictated 'development policies' have devastated ecology, leading to global warming like impacts. The overall objective situation is one of ever-intensifying neo-colonial plunder and oppression and sharpening of internal contradictions, a situation which demands an all-out offensive by the Communist Party to overthrow the existing anti-people, reactionary state and usher in a people's democratic state.

4. Class Analysis of Indian Society

4.1 On the class approach to the PDR, the Party Program states: (5.1). ''The Indian state is the organ of class rule, that is the dictatorship of the comprador bureaucratic bourgeois-big landlord classes serving imperialism, over the working class, the peasantry and all sections of exploited and oppressed masses. This reactionary state can be overthrown and be replaced by the People's Democratic State only by mobilizing the working class as the leader of the revolution, forging its alliance with the peasantry and building the People's Democratic Front based on this worker-peasant alliance, uniting the middle classes and all patriotic sections including national bourgeoisie, which is a vacillating ally".

4.2 Mao Tsetung emphasised the importance of the question of determining the enemies and friends of revolution in many of his writings. One of the basic reasons why the revolutionary struggles could not win victory so far is the failure to make a correct class analysis according to the concrete conditions in the country. It led to failure to establish the leadership of the working class, to mobilize the peasantry through agrarian revolution, to forge worker-peasant alliance, and thus to unite with the real friends to attack the real enemies.

4.3 The comprador bureaucratic bourgeoisie is the leading class among the ruling classes. While the Indian big bourgeoisie and the bureaucratic class have contradictions with imperialism, which is often reflected in their manoeuvres to utilize the inter-imperialist contradictions for their benefit, their collaboration with imperialism is basic as reflected in their collaboration with the neoliberal policies. Their making huge investments in other countries, or some of the heads of these corporate houses finding a place among the richest in the world, do not change the basic fact that they are continuing to collaborate with imperialism and to obstruct the independent development of productive forces in the country. So whether one calls it a junior partner of imperialism or dependent bourgeoisie, its basic character remains the same – it is a comprador class serving imperialist interests in the main, reaping big benefits in the bargain.

4.4 On the contrary, the stand taken by all those forces, who define it as an independent capitalist class and India as an independent capitalist country (which inevitably means another imperialist country in this era of imperialism) and the stage of revolution as socialist, has been proved inconsistent with present reality, especially after the imposition of globalization and 'neo-liberal' policies. While the intensifying neo-colonization leading to increasing capitalist transformation of relations of production in the agrarian and all other sectors is a fact to be recognized, it is taking place under domination of imperialist agencies and MNCs, with even seeds production controlled by Monsanto-like MNCs. The two tasks of democratic revolution are putting an end to pre-capitalist relations and overthrowing imperialist domination. Under neo-colonial domination, the development of capitalist relations in agriculture is a growing trend at the all-India level, though there are diversities and unevenness to a large extent. The task of the Indian revolution is to overthrow imperialism, comprador bureaucratic capitalism and landlordism. These tasks are inter-related. That is why, in spite of fast and deep capitalist inroads in agriculture, the stage of revolution is still democratic, not socialist.

4.5 The big landlord class, corporate landlords/agricultural corporates, the agricultural bourgeoisie and various sections of land owning mafias comprise a deadly force in the countryside. It is integrating the agricultural sector with imperialist economy, facilitating entry of imperialist capital and MNCs into every sphere of agriculture from production of seeds to procurement of produce and their marketing, and allying with the comprador bureaucratic bourgeoisie to perpetuate the neo-colonial plunder.

4.6 The national bourgeoisie is a vacillating ally of the Indian revolution. To retain their existence, they want to remain inter-twined with the comprador bureaucratic bourgeoisie increasingly and collaborate with imperialism more than ever, especially after the imposition of neo-liberal policies. In spite of all this, their contradictions with imperialism shall be increasing with the increasing trend of monopolization in every field. With the development of the struggles of the working class and the peasantry, the possibility of the national bourgeoisie joining the revolutionary movement will increase.

4.7 The petty bourgeoisie, including the middle peasants, because of its size and class character is a significant class with the possibility of being a dependable ally of the revolution. The lower middle class which constitutes more than half of it, which may be called its left wing, is facing ever-intensifying misery under the globalization-liberalization-privatization regime, as a result of which large sections of it have fallen to the level of workers, having lost all property. Under neo-colonization the ruling class is trying to win over this class and contaminate it with the illusion of individual development and to influence it with all kinds of reactionary culture. It is a big challenge to the revolutionaries to win over larger sections of this class.

4.8 The landless, poor and middle peasants and agricultural workers, the real tillers of the land, constitute almost half of the population. They include the adivasis, dalits, and most backward and oppressed sections of society. Due to neo-liberal policies, massive changes have come about in the class structure of the agrarian sector. These new forms of class differentiation oblige us to make more intensive studies and the conclusions drawn from the same may be used to come up with more concrete/realistic slogans for revolutionary offensive.

4.9 India is a country with a large working class, without mobilizing and politicizing which as the leader of revolution, the completion of PDR and advancement to socialist revolution are impossible. Leave alone pre-revolutionary China, the working class in India is many times more numerous than it was in pre-revolutionary Russia or any other country where revolution has taken place. So the working class movement assumes far greater importance here. Under liberalization-privatization raj the population of the working class in the unorganized sector has enormously increased under the contract labour and hire and fire systems. Even the modern industrial proletariat is coming under this category increasingly. Through closures, modernization, outsourcing, VRS etc. the number of workers and employees in organized sector is rapidly reduced. By increasing regular hours of work, cutting down wages, security of service, social security etc. workers in the organized sector are under constant attack. Though the comparatively better paid workers of the organized sector form the main force of most of the trade union centres today, more attention is to be given to unorganized sectors. The task is to mobilize and lead them to local, state-wide and country-wide struggles, re-creating an atmosphere favourable for working class struggles and upsurges.

5. Building Party as Vanguard of Indian Proletariat

5.1 The present concrete conditions compared to the situation in Russia, China and other countries when revolutions took place there are vastly different. Today party building is taking place when almost all parties built up under Comintern guidance have degenerated to capitalist path with bureaucratic organizational structures. The erstwhile socialist countries have degenerated to bureaucratic state capitalism or to open capitalist/imperialist countries. The PDR is taking place now when imperialism and its lackeys have succeeded to replace class struggle with the 'clash of civilizations' to a great extent and created conditions for religious fundamentalists of all hues to gain strength enormously, with secular values greatly weakened. Besides, issues like approach to annihilation of caste system and racial hatred, adivasi question, ecology, women's liberation etc. have assumed unprecedented importance. Massive storage of nuclear weapons on the one hand and its proliferation on the other, and the plans to build new nuclear power plants are also serious issues to be taken up. The PDR is also taking place when the imperialist camp is intensifying its ideological onslaught through alien theories and NGOs, when the advantages gained under the development of science and technology are utilized by them for counter revolutionary offensive.

5.2 Though the CPI (M), CPI like parties have totally degenerated to right opportunist positions and considerably weakened in that process, they are continuing to use the communist banner and confuse the left masses. The activities of CPI(Maoist) are also destroying the image of the communist movement. Under the social democratic influence a section of the Marxist-Leninist forces have also already degenerated to parliamentary opportunism. Ideological struggle has to be intensified against both right opportunist and anarchist trends of all hues.

5.3 What is required is the building of a Bolshevik-model party surrounded by class and mass organizations and different people's movements according to present conditions. In a country of more than 130 crores of people including tens of millions of workers, landless-poor peasants and agricultural workers and other revolutionary sections, they can be successfully mobilized for countrywide campaigns and struggles only if the Leninist approach towards Bolshevik party building surrounded by class/mass organizations is developed according to present needs and studiously pursued. Concepts like 'front' organizations without a democratic program and mobilization of the masses are nothing but manifestations of sectarianism.

5.4 It should be a party with countrywide organization and political influence. The concept of 'area wise seizure of political power' and 'base areas', influence of localism etc. under the line of 'protracted people's war' are presently used as cover for 'self-satisfied' opportunism, for keeping aloof from the masses and for continuing activities reduced to certain pockets of influence. Significant changes that have taken place in the concrete situation in recent decades, especially after the launching of neo-liberal offensive by imperialism and the native ruling classes call for a countrywide offensive by the revolutionary forces mobilizing tens of millions. So, political and organizational initiative should be taken for party building at all India level uniting all communist revolutionary forces that can be united.

5.5 The possibilities available today to launch vigorous ideological and political campaigns, to win over politically advanced sections and for party building should be fully utilized. Already there are numerous instances of spontaneous struggles in different regions against consequences of neo-liberal policies, corruption, increasing attacks on women, proposed nuclear plants, displacement for 'development' projects etc. Possibilities for countrywide mass upsurges cannot be overlooked in this situation. The Party should be able to provide leadership to the coming upsurges and political and organizational work should be taken up with this perspective. At the same time, building of party fractions among the working class, organizing fractions in sensitive areas including state apparatus and within the police, para-military and military, should be given importance.

5.6 The ideological-political education and training, which keep the party politically vigorous and organizationally active, should be given prime importance. Marxism is not a dogma, but a guide to action which should be continuously developed to cope with the changes taking place in the concrete conditions internationally and nationally. The party should be capable of taking up this challenge and prepare the whole organization for theoretical offensive consciously.

5.7 Democratic centralism should be organically practiced so that the democratic atmosphere for inner-party struggle always exists. It is easy to talk about the undesirability of individual authority and bureaucratic practices. But even after serious setbacks suffered by the ICM no proper lessons are drawn from them so that the above negative factors can be combated and a lively democratic atmosphere maintained within the party and class/mass organizations. Replacement of committee system and collective functioning with individual authority, and democratic functioning with bureaucratic methods are petit-bourgeois influences in the party. Similarly, the existence of so many groups claiming to uphold Marxist-Leninist line even when in many cases there are no basic differences among their lines and the 'theory of many centres' are alien, petit-bourgeois trends, which should be vigorously fought.

6. Mobilizing Working Class as Leader of PDR

6.1 Marxism is the revolutionary ideology of the proletariat, the most advanced class engaged in the most developed, advanced and organized fields of production. The task of the Communist Party, as the vanguard of the proletariat, is to transform it from a ''class in itself'' to a ''class for itself", capable of leading the revolutionary transformation of society, by providing leadership to the people's democratic revolution.

6.2 After the imposition of imperialist globalization in 1991, under the neo-liberal regime the working class is confronting ever intensifying challenges. Almost all democratic, wage and TU rights achieved through a century of bitter struggles are being snatched away. Contract labour system and 'hire and fire' are the rules of the day. What is witnessed, are extreme forms of wage slavery. The number of workers in the organized sectors is dwindling fast, with 'labour aristocracy' dominant among their leadership. Tens of millions of workers in the unorganized sectors, whose number is increasing day by day, are denied all democratic and trade union rights. Many black laws are imposed for it. Even struggles for economic demands, right to form unions, etc. are made extremely difficult. Along with de-unionization, de-politicization and dominance of caste based, communal, parochial feelings, alcoholism, drug addiction and anarchic tendencies are increasing in some areas among the workers. The party committees have to be prepared to reverse the present situation.

6.3 While leadership of the major TU centres like BMS and INTUC are not opposing foreign investment and are actively involved in mortgaging the interests of the working class and the country to imperialist interests in the name of promoting 'development' under imperialist globalization, leaderships of TU centres like AITUC and CITU are satisfied with making a show of ritualistic opposition to imperialist globalization. There are NGO-led trade unions and their centres also. Some of the communist revolutionary cadres have reduced trade union work to fighting individual worker's cases in labour courts. The TU centres led by them are also failing to forge unity and to launch active resistance against the increasing attacks on the working class, as well as to politicize them to take up political tasks. This is not a task which can be left to the TU centres and their committees. The Party should prepare a program for politicization of the workers and propagate it through extensive fraction work not only among the unions led by the party cadres, but also in the trade unions as a whole.

6.4 An important task of politicising the working class lies in organising it to stand and act in support of peasants' struggles, all democratic movements and struggles of the oppressed sections of society.

7. Building Revolutionary Peasant Movement

7.1 The Naxalbari uprising took place challenging the reformist path practised by the CPI and the CPI(M) and once again bringing agrarian revolution back to the agenda. The revolutionary agrarian struggles started emerging in many areas. But for a long time the hangover of the sectarian line stunted the growth of these struggles. Undaunted by these, fighting against reformism and sectarianism continued, and today the peasant question is once again coming to the forefront of the political scene.

7.2 The tasks before the Party are: Firstly, take up the study of the vast changes that have taken place in the agricultural sector under more than six decades of neo-colonization, speeded up by the neo-liberal policies, and chalk out an agrarian program based on these. Secondly, organise the peasantry, especially the agricultural workers, landless and poor peasants – the most oppressed sections. Build up the peasant movement at state level and co-ordinate them at all India level. In line with the agrarian revolutionary program, form land struggle committees starting from village level with the initiative of agricultural workers and middle, poor and landless peasants' organization to launch struggles with land to the tiller slogan, and to organise movements for taking over plantations and farms.

7.3 Immediate slogans against forced labour, usury, communal and caste and gender based oppression, for higher wages, for distribution of banjar land, against forest contractors etc. should be raised and struggles organized. While taking up campaigns and struggles for immediate demands, the link between immediate and basic demands should be established. These sections should be organised at the all India level to fight for their immediate demands as well as for the basic slogans. Similarly relation with the numerous peasant movements against displacement should also be developed, participating in their struggles.

8. Mobilizing Women for Liberation

8.1 Marxism teaches us that "the first class antagonism which appears in history coincides with the development of antagonism between man and woman in monogamous marriage and the first class oppression with that of female sex by male. Monogamy was a great historical advance, but at the same time it inaugurated, along with slavery and private wealth that epoch lasting until today, in which the well-being and development of one group are attained by the misery and repression of the other". As Mao Tsetung pointed out after the first wave of Cultural Revolution in China, the seizure of political power in pre-revolutionary countries and socialist transformation in post-revolutionary societies shall face ever surmounting problems so long as effective ways for the liberation of these 'first slaves' remain elusive. All the religions preach perpetuation of this slavery. Their enslaved conditions make women carriers of the superstitions and reactionary traditions, customs and ideologies which are transferred to the children. Though most of them still remain a private property of men in practice, and the private property system has become most barbarous under imperialism, women under the present family system are forced to become the most important propagandists of the perpetuation of the ideologies which perpetuate their own slavery.

8.2 In spite of many steps taken for emancipation of women, failure of the post-revolutionary societies to comprehensively deal with the question of women's liberation along with weaknesses in the struggle to eliminate patriarchal values, religious stranglehold and imperialist culture including commodification of women played an important role in the stagnancy of the women's liberation movement. This helped alien theories to dominate this field. In spite of these experiences, even today the weakness of the communist movement in mobilizing the women, who constitute 50% of the population, in the party, class and mass organizations, and in various fields of activities is sharply manifested in different forms.

8.3 The condition of women in India like countries is much more backward compared to that in the imperialist countries. The resistance to bring forward even superficial changes like providing 33% reservation in the elected bodies ensures that it is still not implemented. The influence of Manu Smriti's declaration that 'women do not deserve independence' is still dominant. The caste system and religions perpetuate women's backwardness. The rule of capital and market system under neo-liberalism has intensified women's miseries. Woman and their body are made commodities increasingly. The present family system, even after its transformation to the nuclear one, still remains basically male dominated and conservative. While dowry system and denial of equal right to family property is rampant, even decadent systems like child marriage, devadasi system etc. still continue in some areas. The growth of communal forces and religious fundamentalism sponsored by the ruling system has worsened women's condition. Under the influence of the neo-colonial culture, as more and more female foetus are destroyed before birth in Haryana, Punjab like states, number of women compared to men is dwindling in these areas. As a result, a new type of women trafficking is taking place to these areas, 'married' from other states to do household work and to produce children. Not only do women bear the brunt of oppressive patriarchal institutions, they are also subjected to shameless commodification. Today, in our society on one hand advertisements objectify women and on the other hand various fanatical religious organizations exhort them to produce 10 or more babies. Though the bourgeois feminist movements have pockets of influence in urban areas, they do not address the real issues of the masses of women like relation between the stranglehold of private property in all fields and women's enslavement.

8.4 The situation calls for conscious efforts to organize women at different levels to take up the task of their liberation, involving ever larger number of women. The Party should take active steps to assist the development of a women's mass movement.

9. Mobilizing Youth for Revolution

9.1 The youth in our country have a glorious history of actively participating in the social renaissance movement, in the independence struggle and later in the anti-imperialist, anti-feudal struggles led by the Communist Party and other progressive movements. The role of Ashfaqullah Khan and Bhagat Singh and other revolutionary youth who challenged the colonial forces still inspire the youth. But with the transfer of power in 1947 and with the emergence of revisionist tendencies in the Communist Party, the youth started getting frustrated and influenced by retrogressive ideologies and the revisionists misled the youth, causing them to get disenchanted and disillusioned and turn towards reaction. Many joined reformist and even reactionary forces. When the Naxalbari uprising created a revolutionary upheaval, once again thousands of youth joined the revolutionary movement. But influence of sectarian tendencies once again caused setback to this upsurge. The communist revolutionary movement failed to mobilize the youth into a countrywide organization with a revolutionary program. Though there were spurts of progressive activism during and after the internal emergency period, these were short-lived. At all India level the participation of the youth in the left movement went on decreasing.

9.2 In the meantime under increasing neo-colonization, especially after the imposition of neo-liberal policies, the challenges faced by the youth have intensified. Unemployment and under-employment have become rampant. Even the already employed have started losing employment. At the same time vested interests are promoting imperialist culture, drug addiction and criminalization among them to prevent the frustrated youth from joining progressive movements. As a result, large sections of youth are influenced by retrogressive thinking and recruited in large numbers by communal, casteist and chauvinist forces on the one hand, and by the ruling classes as their storm troopers and in mafia gangs on the other.

9.3 A similar situation is rampant at the international level also. It is a fact that large numbers of them are joining the anti-imperialist, anti- dictatorial upsurges around the world. But compared to the present intensity of the contradiction between imperialism and world people, the role played by the youth is not significant. Weakening of the socialist forces with the degeneration of the erstwhile socialist countries to capitalist path, the severe setback suffered by the ICM, and the weaknesses shown by the Marxist-Leninist forces in confronting and challenging the counter-revolutionary offensive of imperialists and their lackeys have a major role in creating this situation.

9.4 The Communist Party should seriously take these international and national realities into consideration and launch a vigorous offensive to politicize the youth with a militant program so that the youth can be aroused once again.

10. Organizing Students' Movement

10.1 The students as a social stratum are a major force in our country. The neo-liberal policies of globalization-liberalization-privatization have reduced education to a mere commodity, increasingly depriving it of the progressive social character and orientation it once had. The commercialization of education system and the neo-liberal syllabi are taking a large section of students undergoing higher education away from social realities. The commercialization has transformed higher education as an elite sector reserved for mostly the upper caste, upper class students. The syllabus, methods of education and the atmosphere prevalent in these 'centres of excellence', especially in the professional colleges, are basically a continuation of the colonial education system, though its present content and forms have changed to serve the neo-colonial needs. The present system is organized so as to make the students and youth serve imperialist globalization, the capital-market raj. It is well established that the content and form of the education system in a society in a particular period are determined by and implemented for protecting the interests of the then ruling classes. The education system is utilized by them to mould the students in accordance with their ideology and political-administrative needs.

10.2 A large section of the students, especially the elitist and middle class sections among them, are attracted to communal, casteist, chauvinist ideas and organizations led by BJP-like leading ruling class parties or RSS. They are imitating the corruption and cultural degeneration of their political elders. Most of them are influenced by neo-liberal values. They compete to divide the students communally, caste-wise, and in the name of reservation policy. They refuse to fight commercialization of education, criminalization of the campus life, increasing dominance of reactionary culture etc. This is one of the most important challenges faced by the democratic students' movement.

10.3 Combating these tendencies and still prevailing sectarian tendencies, students' organisations have developed in some of the states and have come together with a broad based democratic program. The hitherto history of the ICM and experience in India shows that efforts for organizing a powerful student movement at all India level, especially in the present situation, is a crucial requirementto develop the revolutionary movement. It will influence the society at a broader level, give rise to militant movements and provide a continuous flow of cadres to the revolutionary movement.

11. Tasks in the Cultural Front

11.1 We are living in a period when imperialism and reaction are developing and implementing class strategies in newer and newer forms for exploitation and oppression of the world people. The universal and all-pervading hegemony of capitalism and capitalist relations of production are establishing their domination over all sectors of human thought and scientific knowledge. To serve their reactionary goals they are utilizing religion, caste, race, linguistic divisions etc. and art, literature and cultural forms extensively. Culture is commercialized and turned into a commodity to dominate all progressive ideas. The quantum revolution that took place in the field of physical sciences in the beginning of the 20th century and the technological advances that followed along with the development in other fields of science and technology including that of organic sciences, telecommunication, cybernetics, information technology (IT) etc. are utilized to serve imperialist interests. Human developments in the intellectual fields are also utilized in this way. The spread of knowledge is taken to an irrational and religious level. Similarly, people's achievements in the fields of art and literature, in the cultural and scientific fields in general are suffocated, vulgarized and commodified to serve imperialist interests. The hegemony of the ideology of private property and imperialist culture along with continuing influence of feudal culture, religion and caste system are utilized to subvert revolutionary advances in various fields and to serve the imperialist system. We must oppose the imposition of imperialist culture and at the same time reject the old conservative ideas and blind faith and strive to develop a socialist culture throughout the country. As revolutionaries it is our duty to provide alternative progressive content and material to the people.

11.2 We are putting forward the Path of Revolution to complete the tasks of PDR, to realize People's Democracy and to advance towards socialist revolution at a time when drastic changes in the socio-political-cultural fields have taken place unlike the Russian situation during October Revolution, or the conditions in China and other countries when revolutions took place there. Drastic changes in the fields of culture have taken place during the last five decades in India compared to the condition during the struggle against British imperialism and during the Telengana-Tebhaga struggles etc. Though the socialist forces had reached a challenging position by the early 1950s, they have degenerated to revisionism and social democracy due to various weaknesses and failure in continuing the class struggle in the fields of philosophy, politics, culture etc. All these developments point towards the need of linking the revolutionary struggles for seizure of political power with mighty efforts to fight and defeat the pre-capitalist, petit-bourgeois and bourgeois mode of thinking and culture prevalent in society, and which were and are trying to gain domination in newer and newer forms. It is in this context Lenin had called on all Communist Parties to wage continuous struggle against religion, superstitions and private property etc. as part of party education.

11.3 Presently with the degeneration of a major part of the erstwhile Communist movement in India to capitalist path, emergence of 'New Left' and other pseudo-left ideologies aiding alien tendencies and increasing influence of imperialist promoted ideologies like post-modernism, identity politics, empowerment theories, NGO-ism etc., the progressive and revolutionary values influencing society are seriously eroded. The growth of RSS-Parivar has led to all religious fundamentalists and communal forces gaining dominance in fields of education, culture etc. Progressive ideas like "annihilation of caste" are replaced by caste-based vote-bank politics. Imperialist culture including consumerism, alcoholism, criminalization etc. is dominating. Social consciousness is violently replaced with individualism, selfishness and male chauvinism in more vulgar forms. Commodification and commercialization of everything have become the order of the day. Without challenging these retrogressive, fundamentalist, imperialist and reformist trends, without unleashing uncompromising struggles against them, conditions for growth of progressive values and revolutionary movement cannot be created. International corporations have hegemony over most of the broad based cultural movements. They finance and control most of the cultural activities in the bigger cities.

11.4 Though Naxalbari uprising triggered a new earthquake in the cultural field also, it was short-lived. Soon, similar to what happened in the economic and political fields, in the art, literature and cultural fields also the neo-colonial, imperialist onslaught intensified in newer forms. The table of these reactionary trends is very long including new imports in art, literature and cultural fields, commercialization of education and all welfare sectors, neo-colonial projects in the field of research, cultural projects of World Bank and many other new incarnations of religious fundamentalism, advocacy of caste system and racism in new forms, attacks on women's liberation, black acts to curb art and literature etc. They are obstructing people's upsurges in all fields. What is required is an all-out offensive to reverse this situation.

11.5 Though many efforts are made to take up revolutionary cultural activities opposing the counterrevolutionary trends, they are localized, not widespread or protracted. They remain superficial or confined to immediate slogans, do not go to basic ideological issues involved. There are many among the revolutionary ranks who do not recognize the significance of a revolutionary cultural offensive; of transforming human thoughts and culture as a continuous process, as a basic task to be taken up right from the beginning. So while developing revolutionary activities the emphasis to be given to the work in the cultural field should be underlined. The content of cultural movement should be seriously debated and developed. Forms of organizations to be built in the cultural field also should be developed. While this task should be taken up at state level and regional level providing all the emphasis it needs, vigorous efforts are called for to build an all India cultural movement taking up its theoretical and practical aspects seriously. The steps taken to launch the cultural offensive at all India level have led to the formation of an All India Coordination of cultural activists with this perspective. Both at state and central level the offensive should be carried forward to serve the revolutionary transformation of society.

12. Separating Religion from Politics

12.1 The ascendance to power of the BJP government is distinctly different from the NDA coming to power in 1998. Then also the dominant BJP forces in the NDA government had initiated the implementation of the program of the RSS Parivar to communalize all walks of life and to create conditions for turning India into a Hindu Rashtra, as is done by the BJP-led state governments wherever they are in power. But with the clear majority obtained through a communal campaign spearheaded by the full strength of the RSS, the Modi government has already launched vigorous moves to implement the RSS agenda. The dangers involved in this extreme rightist turn of Indian politics should be seen in the present international scenario when the US-led imperialists have succeeded to replace class struggle and national liberation movements against imperialist domination with 'clash of civilizations' in vast regions, promoting religious fundamentalism of all hues, and even Sunni-Shia conflicts in West Asia.

12.2 Though the Constitution calls India a secular republic, from the beginning Congress has pursued appeasement of all religious forces under 'sarva dharma samabhav'. Soon the Congress, and emulating it other ruling class parties also, started promoting communal vote banks. Jan Sangh and Muslim League like communal parties got registration also. From this time onwards, majority fundamentalism and fundamentalism of minority religions started gaining strength colluding, while combating, with each other. The Rajiv Gandhi government promoted the majority fundamentalists by allowing Shilanyas at Babri Masjid while promoting the Islamic fundamentalists by enacting laws in favour of Shariaat. Utilizing this situation, the RSS Parivar launched an all India offensive from the end of 1980s against the Mandal Commission Report, soon expanding it to a campaign which went on to demolish the Babri Masjid in 1992 with the connivance of the Congress government. The Modi government has come to power at the culmination of the communalization process promoted by all the communal as well as communal appeasement parties.

12.3 This situation calls for uncompromising struggle against both majority and minority fundamentalism and the communalization promoted by all of them. Secularism means separating religion from politics. But today while many communal parties are vying with each other, all other mainstream parties are promoting communal vote banks as proved in the 16th Lok Sabha elections. The communal organizations from RSS Parivar to all others have increasing influence in various fields like education, health and real estates. They control many TV channels and publication centres openly interfering in the political scene. With the advent of Modi government, the RSS is intensifying the saffronization process to create conditions for transforming India into a Hindu Rshatra. The party and class/ mass organizations should launch uncompromising struggle against this growing danger. Many of the religious functions/programs are financed by corporations and the manpower consists of RSS cadres. Movements have to be launched to compel the state institutions to de-recognize such organizations.

13. The Caste Question

13.1 The Party Program states: "Continue campaigns and democratic movements for the abolition of the caste system fully and of all other social inequalities. As part of it, stop all caste-based oppression, caste discrimination, untouchabiltiy and Khap panchayat-like reactionary institutions. Implement reservation like democratic rights till all social inequalities are abolished. Ensure land to the dalits based on the slogan 'land to the tiller'." In spite of the efforts from the period of social renaissance movements for the annihilation of this social plague, in newer and newer forms it still persists, making life miserable for the oppressed castes. The mechanical understanding that once revolution takes place caste question will get weakened and disappear still dominate many of the so-called left forces. It may weaken, but will come back in new forms more fiercely. Fighting caste based oppression and campaigning for caste annihilation should be made an integral part of the agenda. Caste annihilation has to be taken up as part of class struggle.

13.2 The caste system has strengthened in new forms during the last six decades. It is incorporated in the ruling system through caste based parties serving ruling class interests, and through the creation of caste based vote banks. Along with these, identity politics and tribalism like reactionary ideologies are promoted by imperialist centres to channelize the struggles against oppression based on caste, tribal system etc. to harmless paths, to keep these downtrodden sections away from the revolutionary path. The weakness of the communist movement so far in developing uncompromising struggle against caste system also helped these efforts to institutionalize caste system and tribal oppression through various means by the imperialists and the ruling classes. In India casteist oppression was intensified by keeping dalits away from land ownership, reducing them to tillers without land and doing all menial jobs for upper caste sections. So backbone of the caste system can be broken through agrarian revolution which ensures land to the tillers. Campaigns should be taken up against various forms of caste based oppression on dalits and adivasis and other backward sections including untouchabiltiy which is still prevalent in various forms. While fighting all caste based discrimination against the dalits inter-caste marriages should be promoted. The reservation based on caste should be defended and struggle against diluting it should be waged, as a democratic right of the socially backward and oppressed classes.

13.3 It is with this perspective the Party took the initiative along with other progressive forces to launch the Caste Annihilation Movement with a Program. The enthusiastic response it has received during the last two and half years shows the necessity to carry it forward vigorously.

14. Developing People's Movements on Questions like Ecology, Displacement and Slums

14.1 The neo-colonization speeded up by neo-liberal policies and the so-called 'development' paradigm pursued by the central and state governments have given rise to new issues like ecological destruction leading to global warming, energy policy including the question of anti- nuclear movement, displacement of tens of millions from their habitats for loot of the natural resources and corporate projects, protection of the rights of many millions in the slum areas etc. These are new issues which have surfaced during the post-Second World War period, and are intensifying day by day affecting large number of people. So, while chalking out the Path of Revolution, serious attention should be given to the question of mobilizing the people affected by these and for leading their struggles.

14.2 The ecological destruction and consequent 'global warming' is leading to many catastrophes like the one witnessed in Uttarakhand in 2013 and similar calamities in many other areas. The ever increasing manner in which the ecologically fragile Himalayan Ranges are opened for devastating neo-liberal development schemes is threatening the vast Himalayan and Terai regions of India, Nepal and Bhutan and the water availability for Bangladesh. Similarly the Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats regions in South India are also confronting ecological destruction by corporate, mining mafias, real estate barons etc. The Party has taken initiative for studies on Himalayan, Terai regions as well as to work actively inSave Western Ghats Movement. Similarly at state level also studies are undertaken to advance struggles for environmental protection.

14.3 The movement against nuclear arms and against the existing and proposed nuclear plants is also taken up joining hands with scientists and environmentalists. The struggle against nuclear arms and nuclear power has to be intensified based on the Bhopal Call issued by the Conference of the All India Initiative against Nuclear Power.

14.4 As the migration to the urban areas is increasing day by day and there is mushrooming growth of slums in all urban areas, based on the experience obtained in leading the slum movement in Bhubaneswar, initiative has been taken in other cities and towns to coordinate the slum movements based on the Charter of Demands issued. Mobilizing and leading the millions of people in the slums is going to be an important part of the urban struggles in coming days.

14.5 In the name of neo-liberal projects, for looting the natural resources, for Narmada-like big dams, for real estate clusters, and for many infrastructural projects, millions of families are displaced from all over the country. Already many people's resistance movements have broken out against them, in many cases successfully blocking them. Some of these struggles like the movement against Kalinga Nagar and POSCO projects have turned into people's upsurges. Active steps are needed to coordinate these movements as part of launching countrywide movements in coming days.

15. The Nationality Question

15.1 On the resolution of the nationality question, the Party Program states: "Ensure right of self-determination for all nationalities up to secession. The People's Republic shall strive to unite people of various nationalities not by force, but by their voluntary consent. Settle the Jammu and Kashmir and Northeast questions by withdrawing army from there forthwith and through political means ensuring the right of self-determination." India is a multi-national country, where even for the reorganization of the provinces which were constituted under British rule and by the princely states on linguistic basis bloody struggles had to be waged by the people in the 1950s. During the last five decades consecutive central governments have taken away many of the Constitutional rights of the states, propagating chauvinistic slogans like ''national integration' or Akhandvad.

15.2 British colonialists who had forcefully 'united' the princely states into a colony for facilitating their plunder had pursued 'divide and rule' policy utilizing religious, caste, racist ideologies and the feudal forces. The unity achieved during the anti-colonial struggles are now subverted by the ruling classes after transfer of power. Against this the Communist Party should struggle for unity of all nationalities based on their right of self-determination.

15.3 With the development of capitalist mode of production, especially after imposition of imperialist globalization which speeded up the entry of FDIs, FIIs, MNCs etc. and strengthened the capital- market raj, uneven development, pushing up or pushing down various regions in the ladder of 'development' is becoming a stark reality. Instead of opposing the imperialist dictated 'development' policies implemented by the central and state governments responsible for it, different ruling class parties as well as comprador and petit-bourgeois classes are raising demands for statehood to these backward regions. In spite of the negative experience of these already formed small states where living conditions of the vast masses have not undergone any positive changes, demands for new states are continuously raised.

15.4 As Marxism teaches, the nationality question and the various movements emerging directly or indirectly linked with it are bourgeois questions. As many of the demands for new states are raised to divert people from the cardinal issues confronting them, the Communist Party should seriously guard against becoming a tail of these movements, At the same time, an approach of unity and struggle should be pursued, in order to win over the masses of people influenced by these struggles, with the perspective that along with demand for new states the basic issues of the people also must be raised.

16. Utilizing Parliamentary Forms of Struggle

16.1 Elections to provincial and central legislative assemblies were introduced from the colonial days in India. After the transfer of power, under the Constitution adopted in 1950, the parliamentary system was adopted at all levels. Today, elections to Lok Sabha to Panchayat level and even to co-operative societies and various other institutions are held regularly, drawing an ever increasing number of people. Even in pre-revolutionary Russia, experience in participation in the elections was partial and limited. In China and other countries where revolution took place, there were no experiences of utilizing parliamentary system as a form of struggle to develop class struggle. Still drawing from the experience of Second International and of the Communist parties in West European countries, Lenin had pointed out the need to struggle against parliamentary cretinism on the one hand and politics of boycotting elections on the other.

16.2 There is a revolutionary way and a reformist way of participating in elections. The CPI and the CPIM have over long decades demonstrated the latter. They have not utilised their governments to advance the class struggle but rather to impose reactionary, ruling class policies on the people. Revolutionary transformation of society has long ceased to be part of their election agenda. Taking a wrong lesson from this, the CPI(ML) adopted 'boycott of election' as a strategic line after its formation and, later, though many sections of the communist revolutionaries abandoned this line, the Maoist trend continues to practise it. If the CPI-CPIM's reformist way of participating in elections has exposed its ideological bankruptcy and entrenched it in right opportunist positions, the boycott experience, on the other extreme, has proved totally negative. Even after giving the boycott call, the CPI (Maoist) has adopted opportunist tactics like supporting some of the ruling party candidates clandestinely, or openly, as of late. In very few places has it succeeded to 'enforce' its call for boycott. The methods it resorts to to enforce boycott only alienate it further from the masses. In recent years the polling percentage in almost all parts of the country has been quite high. In the concrete situation in our country parliamentary struggle is one of the important forms of struggle. Giving primary importance to extra-parliamentary struggles, we must take up parliamentary struggle with due importance. For the development of extra-parliamentary struggles it is extremely important to properly use the platforms of parliament and assemblies.

16.3 Struggling against both right opportunist parliamentary cretinism and dogmatic boycott line, our party has tried to utilize the elections as a form of struggle to propagate party line among the masses since the 1999 Lok Sabha elections. It is a fact that the ruling class parties resort to manipulation of elections utilizing money and muscle power on the one hand, and creating communal, casteist, racist, parochial vote banks on the other, utilizing the state machinery and monopoly media. Still participation of the people in the elections is continuously increasing. The experience of our party, however limited it may be, shows that they can be utilized, combined with continuous development of workers and peasant struggles to mobilize the people for advancing class struggle, putting forward a people's alternative against the ruling class and by campaigning for it.

16.4 Though people are getting disillusioned with the bourgeois parliamentary institutions, they have no other option other than supporting one or the other among the ruling class parties. In theory and practice the CPI(M)-led LF in spite of coming to power in three states for many terms failed to put forward any alternative and got alienated from the people, defaming the communist movement. Overcoming this negative experience, only when the Communist Party succeeds to develop country-wide movements to focus on people's issues, to mobilize the masses in their millions against the ruling system and to put forward a people's alternative against the ruling class alternatives, along with building the party from grass root onwards, it can once again get support from the people in the elections. After the degeneration of erstwhile socialist countries, how to replace the bourgeois parliamentary system with more developed system of proletarian democracy which can lead to socialist transformation is a major challenge before the ICM. Debate on the parliamentary system should be developed with this perspective.

16.5 India is a country of more than 130 crores of people with the bourgeois parliamentary system well entrenched in every nook and corner for many decades at all levels. The Communist Party should utilize the bourgeois parliamentary system along with all other forms of struggle to develop class struggle in all fields, to unleash mighty people's upsurges so that it can advance towards the revolutionary seizure of political power and put into practice people's democracy.

17. On Building Tactical to Strategic United Fronts

17.1 The Party should continuously develop its united front tactics to serve revolution. In order to take up the numerous issues confronting the people, issue based joint activities have to be taken up uniting like-minded forces. These joint activities are possible in the working class field, in the agrarian front and in all mass movements uniting with other trade unions or TU centres to struggle for workers' problems, in the agrarian front uniting with other like-minded forces. A broad-based, democratic approach should be developed to take up issues through these joint fronts or forums. Though these are based on issues and may continue only for a brief period, they help to highlight various people's issues. Such joint activities will help the Party and class/mass organizations to spread out their activities to more areas also.

17.2 Experience shows that under slightest provocation the state machinery imposes black laws and uses terror tactics against the people. Democratic rights are taken away. Even peaceful mass movements are brutally suppressed. Functioning of party and class and mass organizations are obstructed. Against such day to day developments united democratic and civil right movements should be developed according to concrete conditions.

17.3 Advancing a step forward from these issue-based joint activities, as these struggles and the strength of the class/mass organizations further increase, possibilities for formation of platforms or united fronts at state or country levels, lasting for a longer period, to take up more basic issues can be developed. Possibilities shall emerge to build intermediate level fronts, which shall help the development of class struggle. Every such possibility should be fully utilized.

17.4 In the present situation as the Modi government is intensifying the imposition of neo-liberal policies, communalization and fascist acts it is an urgent task to develop the Democratic People's Forum or reorganize it as a broader forum of struggling left and democratic forces to take up state level and all India level movements mobilizing the masses. The party will have to take immediate initiative for it at state and all India levels.

17.5 For overthrowing the Indian state of the comprador bureaucratic bourgeois-landlord classes serving imperialism and to create conditions for establishing people's democratic power, protracted efforts should be made according to concrete situation and level of development of people's struggles by the Party to build up the strategic united front based on worker-peasant alliance and uniting with all genuine anti-imperialist, patriotic, democratic classes and sections.

18. Agrarian Question and Agrarian Revolutionary Program

18.1 When the transfer of power took place, India was a vast agrarian county with 80% of the people dependent on agriculture. The historic Telangana struggle, Tebhaga movement and other revolutionary agrarian movements against the dominating feudal, semi-feudal relations were sweeping across the country under the leadership of the Communist Party. It compelled the government to enact land ceiling laws with the declared objective of abolishing the Zamindari system. The Congress government was utilizing a two-pronged drive to crush these struggles: promoting reformist Bhoodan movement of Vinobha Bhave, and launching brutal attacks on them. Soon under neo-colonial domination, faced with pressure from below and on the basis of advice of US imperialist experts, land reform was introduced, initiating the replacement of the feudal landlords with a new generation of landlords who were ready to embrace the Green Revolution launched under imperialist guidance. Conditions were created for the entry of capital, along with fertilizers, chemicals, new seeds and other inputs into the agrarian sector. Under colonialism, imperialism had used feudalism as its social base. But under neo-colonial domination capitalist relations are being promoted in the agrarian sector giving rise to a new class of capitalist landlords. In this way imperialism is tightening its grip over the entire agricultural sector.

18.2 The land reforms introduced were not revolutionary land reforms from below based on "land to the tiller" but were imposed from above creating a new class of landlords. The land ceiling proposed was flouted in practice through various methods allowing the landlords to own huge land holdings far above the ceiling. The real tillers including the adivasis, dalits and other oppressed sections continued to remain landless or own only small housing plots.

18.3 The 'green revolution' set in the following tendencies: firstly, it created conditions for the entry of modern inputs and capital to agrarian sector; secondly, it increased the area under cash crops; thirdly, it introduced and intensified capitalist mode of production; and fourthly, it paved the way for furthering overall land concentration with about 60% land held by the landlords who constitute 5-10% of the population linked to agriculture. Overall impact was further integration of the agrarian sector in the imperialist capital-market system. With the introduction of neo-liberal policies, increasing number of poor, marginal and middle peasants are displaced from their land for major projects, number of farms and plantations have increased, concentration of lands with landlords and corporate has increased, agrarian sector is brought under increasing corporatization and capitalist relations have grown very fast.

18.4 The significance of the Naxalbari struggle was that it brought back the agrarian revolutionary struggle abandoned by the CPI leadership in the early 1950s to the agenda. After the disintegration of the movement under left adventurist line, though a rectification was initiated by sections of CPI (ML), and significant mobilization of the poor and landless peasants and agricultural workers took place in Bihar and AP in the land struggles, there were no efforts to take up the study of the vast changes taking place in the agricultural sector under neo-colonization or to develop the agrarian struggles according to the concrete conditions.

18.5 Agrarian revolution means wiping out landlordism, including still surviving remnants of feudal and pre-capitalist land relations, and making revolutionary changes in the land relations based on land to the tiller slogan and establishing the collective ownership of the plantations and farms, and developing the co-operativization and social control of agriculture. Launching of agrarian revolutionary struggle should be done with the propagation of agrarian revolutionary programme to make revolutionary changes in land relations along with mobilising them for immediate slogans and struggles to realise them. Then develop the movement to campaign for the urgent distribution of land declared surplus under ceiling laws, government land lying vacant, forest land lying fallow, land used for bio-fuel cultivation and farm lands whose lease period is over, land illegally occupied by plantations and farm owners and land mafia, etc. to the poor and landless farmers and agricultural workers.

18.6 How much time will be taken to advance from campaigning to land occupation in different areas will depend upon the concrete conditions in each area and on the extent of subjective preparations including the strength of the land struggle committees. By taking this line of agrarian revolutionary movement to the most oppressed dalits, adivasis, and other oppressed sections, campaigning for distribution of above mentioned government and forest lands to the landless, and proceeding to the capture of land, a revolutionary atmosphere can be created among the masses to proceed towards the second phase.

18.7 The next phase starts with putting forward the agrarian programme to make revolutionary changes in land relations, that is, implementation of land to the tiller, confiscation of land of the landlords and distribution of those lands primarily among agricultural workers, and landless and poor peasants. This can happen only when peasants can overthrow the authority of the landlord classes and establish the authority of the peasantry and rural masses. This can happen only when rural masses are able to overthrow the existing power structure and establish political power of the overwhelming rural masses.

18.8 The state committees under the guidance of the CC should select areas where our party and mass organization is fairly strong to initiate the land struggle. Social and political condition of the area, class divisions, state of class contradictions etc. should be studied and the first and second phases should be planned and the slogans for the campaign should be formulated after discussion in the party committees and in the committees of peasant organizations.

18.9 The experience of the great land struggles of the past show that whether starting from partial demands or land issue, all of them ultimately lead to the fundamental question of land, to the question of throwing out all pre-capitalist relations and making revolutionary changes in the land relations based on land to the tiller slogan. It develops to contradictions with big bourgeois-big landlord state and with the imperialists behind it. So the Party should lead the agrarian struggle, in whichever form it may have started, to the fundamental question of land and vigorously try to expand it to more and more areas, to more and more states according to concrete conditions there, firmly upholding revolutionary mass line, uncompromisingly struggling against reformist and sectarian tendencies which shall be trying to dominate the movement always. Utilize all forms of struggles and organizations, always be prepared to be flexible enough to change from one form of struggle to another according to concrete conditions, and try to maintain initiative in the struggle.

18.10 Developing the revolutionary agrarian movement in such a vast country like India with so much diversity and unevenness is an unprecedentedly difficult task. This great size and its vast population themselves can be turned into great advantages for revolution once they are correctly understood and scientifically utilized, always relying on revolutionary mass line. In the past and present when any Path of Revolution has been drafted by different forces, it has always been seen that all of them agree on the basic differences between the concrete conditions of China and India not only during 1920-1940 period, but also, in a more profound way, between present India and pre-revolutionary China. But after starting discussion on developing the agrarian movement all of them hastily go on to assert that despite all dissimilarities, the path of Indian revolution should be path of protracted people's war. As a result, none of them give any importance to utilize the concrete conditions in this vast country by expanding the party all over the country, by launching the countrywide struggles of the working class including their massive struggles including raising of barricades, as in the past, and launching agrarian struggles in all regions according to concrete conditions and by depending upon the vast masses as the greatest shield against the enemy. Once the agrarian revolutionary movement among the 60-70 crores of adivasis, dalits and oppressed sections, the agricultural workers and middle, landless and poor, peasants is consistently expanded, and once the leadership of the 15-20 crores of the working class on the agrarian revolution is increasingly established, consistently following the revolutionary mass line, no force on this earth can stop the onward march of Indian revolution. Discussion on developing volunteer squads, self- defense squads or any other forms of squads, unarmed or armed, should be taken up in the context of development of the agrarian revolutionary movement to more and more areas, in the context of utilizing all forms of struggle, and after studying how the contradiction between the agricultural workers, landless, poor and middle peasants, and the powerful working class, the leading class of Indian revolution, on the one hand, and the ruling classes on the other is going to sharpen in coming days.

19. The Path of Indian Revolution

19.1 India is a very vast country of 1.3 billion people. It has extreme diversities and unevenness. The objective conditions of the country are becoming more and more favourable for social change, for a social revolution to overthrow the reactionary Indian State.

19.2 Putting forward the revolutionary path for India today is a much more complex and difficult task to be taken up compared to taking up such a job in the 1920s or 1930s when the Communist movement was in its infant stage in the country and when there was the Communist International with experience of Russian Revolution to guide it, or in the post-1947 years when the country was going through a revolutionary ferment, or in 1967 after Naxalbari uprising when once again a revolutionary wave was witnessed in many areas. Today, in spite of almost five decades of intensive struggles, the CPI(M)-led LF, though decimated in the latest LS elections, still continues to defame the communist movement through its social democratic practice helped by the corporate media. Though the influence of the anarchist trend represented by CPI(Maoist) is confined to some pockets in four or five states, the Indian State and the corporate media give extensive coverage to them to use it as a bogey to attack the communist movement. Besides, there are a good number of right opportunist or sectarian trends, posing as Marxist-Leninists in different states. Even the groups advocating post-modernism, identity politics, empowerment theories, NGO-ism, etc. are harming the revolutionary movement. The communist movement in India today is more splintered than it was in Tsarist Russia. It is an extremely difficult task to wage ideological struggles against all these numerous trends and to establish the revolutionary Marxist-Leninist positions in present day conditions.

19.3 The communist movement has weakened so much during the last few decades that even if the difficult but obligatory task of uniting all the Marxist-Leninist forces who advocate mass line and who have apparent identity of views on many issues are united, the Marxist-Leninist Party will not be strong enough to take up the gigantic task of completing PDR in a vast country like India. There is almost the same condition all over the world. These challenges have to be boldly faced and the subjective forces of revolution have to be strengthened, in which building up a powerful Bolshevik model party with all India influence is the most cardinal task. The Party has to build up a revolutionary people's alternative challenging the ruling class alternatives, which are basically united in serving the existing ruling system. The Party has to utilize all forms of struggle effectively, with the perspective of seizure of political power, to complete the tasks of the People's Democratic Revolution.

19.4 Evaluating the general orientation of the Path of Revolution, the Party Program states:

"(1) The Indian state is the organ of class rule, that is the dictatorship of the comprador bureaucratic bourgeois-big landlord classes serving imperialism, over the working class, the peasantry and all sections of exploited and oppressed masses. This reactionary state can be overthrown and be replaced by the People's Democratic State only by mobilizing the working class as the leader of the revolution, forging its alliance with the peasantry and building the People's Democratic Front based on this worker-peasant alliance, uniting the middle classes and all patriotic sections including the national bourgeoisie, which is a vacillating ally.

(2) The character of the Indian revolution is bourgeois democratic in nature, not socialist. However, it is a new kind of democratic revolution which on the one hand will pave the way of capitalist development by uprooting imperialism, comprador bureaucratic capitalism and landlordism, and will pave the way of socialist revolution on the other. The inevitable culmination of this revolution will be the socialist revolution. The Indian revolution will establish the democratic dictatorship of the Indian people under the leadership of the working class by overthrowing imperialism, comprador-bureaucratic capitalism and landlordism. The People's Democratic Revolution of India is a part of World Proletarian Socialist Revolution. The CPI (ML) upholds Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought as its guiding ideology, applying it to the concrete conditions of the country and integrating it with the concrete practice of revolution. It is committed to complete the People's Democratic Revolution and to advance towards socialist revolution.

(3) The path of Indian revolution will be determined by the concrete condition, the present socio-economic situation in India. The lessons of Russian and Chinese revolutions are obviously very much important for our revolution. However, in the concrete condition of our country, the working class will play a direct role while the Indian peasantry will also play its role. One of the important tasks of the Indian revolution is to overthrow imperialism and Indian monopoly capitalism and at the same time another important task is to overthrow all pre-capitalist relations in agriculture and distribute the land seized from the landlords to the agricultural labourers as well as to the landless and poor peasants on the basis of "land to the tiller". Rejecting parliamentary cretinism and the line of sectarianism and individual terrorism, upholding path of revolutionary mass line, it resolves to utilize all forms of struggle and organizations to mobilize the working class and all revolutionary classes and sections for a massive countrywide people's uprising to overthrow the Indian state and to seize political power."

19.5 The great Telangana Struggle of 1946-51, in continuation to other anti-feudal struggles in different parts of the country, the naval revolt and Punappra-Vayalar uprising and numerous working class struggles of these years were the largest and most advanced revolutionary upsurges in the country. Telangana struggle taught how revolutionary agrarian struggles focusing on land to the tiller slogan led by the Communist Party and with the landless, poor peasants and agricultural workers at the helm, along with middle peasants and other sections of the peasantry, can lead toward the formation of village committees, organization of volunteer squads, development of resistance to landlords-police-goonda violence, and to the beginning of armed struggle against the reactionary state. The great Naxalbari uprising led to revolutionary uprising of landless, poor peasants and agricultural workers, including adivasis, dalits and other oppressed sections, in Midnapore, Mushahari, Lakhimpur-Kheri and Srikakulam,. Though these struggles spread to the plains of AP and Bihar later, due to the domination of the sectarian line the movement could not be carried forward. The cardinal problem before the revolutionary movement was, and is, that while assimilating the revolutionary experience of all these struggles, how to develop a Path of Revolution conforming to the present conditions when it is under neo-colonial domination.

19.6 The ICM has the glorious history of the victory of October Revolution in Russia, the victories of revolutions in East European countries during 1944-45 with the defeat of fascist forces, the victory of the great Chinese Revolution in 1949 and later victories of national liberation and democratic revolutions in Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Kampuchea and Cuba. The Marxist-Leninist forces should take appropriate lessons from these revolutions as well as from their setbacks. But taking their experiences does not mean mechanically copying the experience of any of them or pursuing an eclectic mixture of their experiences. Taking experience from them means studying their experience, taking lessons from them and applying them according to the conditions in our country. The history of the ICM shows that in all these countries where revolution took place, there was no mechanical application of the path of other revolutions, and each revolution took its own course according to conditions of each country. The theory and practice of Indian revolution should be developed entirely based on the present conditions of India, assimilating whatever experiences can be taken from all hitherto revolutions.

19.7 Presently, though Indian revolution is in the People's Democratic stage, what happened in the post-revolutionary situation in the erstwhile socialist countries, especially in Soviet Union and China, has to be evaluated and its lessons taken. For example, the experience in areas like party building, in developing the concept of democratic centralism, in developing appropriate methods for inner-party struggle, in guarding against emergence of bureaucratic tendencies, in organically developing concepts of building mass line and class/mass organizations, in avoiding the mistakes of mechanically de-linking the class struggle in economic base from that in the superstructure, in avoiding, for example in India's context, the de-linking of anti-caste like movements from class struggle, in correctly dealing with the contradictions among the people, and in drawing appropriate lessons from the Cultural Revolution.etc have to be given cognizance.

19.8 The path of Indian revolution calls for rejecting all shades of parliamentarianism and reformism and pursuing the path of revolutionary seizure of political power. It means combining the countrywide struggles of working class with the revolutionary agrarian struggles, combining all other forms of struggles with it and organizing countrywide mass uprising for seizure of power and developing the tactics of united front in all phases of struggle according to the demands of the concrete situation.

19.9 India is a very vast country of 1.3 billion people with extreme diversities and unevenness, a country under neo-colonial domination where neo-colonial plunder is taking ever-intensifying forms under the neo-liberal policies, where the principal contradiction is between the alliance of imperialism, comprador bureaucratic bourgeoisie and landlordism on the one hand and vast masses of the people on the other. The task of revolution is to overthrow the rule of comprador bureaucratic bourgeois-landlord classes serving imperialism, completing the People's Democratic Revolution, and advancing towards socialist revolution. It involves the tasks of mobilizing the people, and launching and developing the countrywide class struggle in all spheres leading to mass upsurges, mass insurrections including armed uprisings interspersed with other forms of struggles wherever necessary, leading to the capture of political power.

20. Conclusion

20.1 The Path of Indian Revolution is put forward by our Party when the objective situation at the international level is once again becoming favourable for advancement of the revolutionary forces and anti-imperialist resistance struggles are taking place around the world. In India, a very vast country with extreme diversities and unevenness, in spite of nine decades of Communist activities with a history of many historic struggles involving tens of millions of people, presently the strength of our Party is still not considerable. The challenge posed by right opportunist and anarchist trends is still very serious. Though Naxalbari uprising once again brought back PDR to the forefront of the people's agenda, the Marxist-Leninist movement during the last four decades has not made any significant advances in this direction yet.

20.2 Fighting against all alien trends, the CPI (ML) Red Star is putting forward the Path of Indian Revolution according to present conditions. It stresses the great significance of building a communist party based on the Bolshevik model, surrounded by class/mass organizations at all India level, utilization of all forms of struggle to develop class struggle, and an advance towards the capture of political power starting from mass upsurges to mass uprisings and countrywide insurrections. Victory of the PDR is possible by developing the path of Indian revolution according to the different conditions of the neo-colonial phase of imperialist onslaught, assimilating the experience of all hitherto revolutionary struggles at the international level and in our country.

20.3 This Path of Revolution is not charted as an A to Z of Indian revolution. It gives emphasis on building the Party uniting all like-minded forces, on building class and mass organizations with countrywide influence, on developing countrywide campaigns, struggles, movements, putting forward a revolutionary people's alternative against the ruling class alternatives, on mobilizing and politicizing the working class as the leader of revolution, on developing agrarian revolutionary movement according to present conditions arousing the revolutionary section of the peasantry and on preliminary steps to build people's resistance including armed resistance wherever possible against state oppression as part of creating conditions for countrywide uprising of the people leading to seizure of political power. It also emphasizes developing the understanding on utilizing all forms of struggle. In its present form it is a guide for consolidating the existing forces and for developing people upsurges in the present phase of revolution. As and when the situation undergoes changes, based on these guidelines the path can be further developed and the struggle can be explained accordingly. CPI (ML) Red Star places this Path of Indian Revolution before the Communist Revolutionaries and the left masses for a serious discussion on it, and calls on them to join the efforts to pursue the Path charted in it so as to learn more from practice and to lead the People's Democratic Revolution forward.

 

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The Communist movement in India has a history of almost a century after the salvos of October Revolution in Russia brought Marxism-Leninism to the people of India who were engaged in the national liberation struggle against the British colonialists. It is a complex and chequered history.