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Party Program and Party Constitution

28 April 2015

PARTY PROGRAM

Adopted by Ninth Congress of 2011 and updated by the Tenth Congress of February-March, 2015

Chapter One

From Colonisation to Neo-Colonisation

1.1 Our country, India, is one of the biggest countries of the world inhabited by more than 1.3 billion people. It is a multi-national, multi-ethnic, multi-lingual and multi- religious country with vast diversities and complex character. The caste system continues as a distinctive inhuman feature of the Indian society.

1.2 During its millenniums long pre-colonial history, it had evolved its own specific socio-economic village system with its own mode of production, which was largely self-sufficient and had specific agrarian relations and other features. For long it was pursuing its own course of development through a process of various pre-capitalist phases of class relations, as was happening in various other countries or regions also.

1.3 But the advent of colonial forces from early mercantile capitalist days interfered with and started violently changing this course of development. The indigenous development of productive forces taking place in the sub-continent was violently crushed. It was through more than a century long ruthless colonization process, formally starting with battle of Plassey of 1757, British imperialism ultimately succeeded in formally transforming India in to its colony after defeating the First War of Independence of 1857. From the very beginning the British colonialists started transforming the agrarian relations through the introduction of Zamindari and Ryotwari systems. Through these steps feudal, semi-feudal relations were consolidated to serve as the social base of colonial domination. To facilitate the plunder of the vast resources and to help capitalist accumulation, a merchant class was promoted as middlemen who later got transformed in to the comprador bourgeois class who served the integration of Indian economy with the British colonial system. Through the introduction of English education system, a comprador bureaucratic class to serve the colonial state apparatus also was developed. Along with these, while the colonial policies contributed to erosion of the stringent character of the caste system in some fields in at least superficial ways, it promoted it to utilize it as a support base to colonial rule. To safeguard colonial rule the 'divide and rule' policy was also promoted by fomenting communal strife.

1.4 From the time British imperialism started establishing its colonial domination, starting with adivasi revolts in many regions, various sections of people had launched numerous agitations against them. Different streams of renaissance movements on the one hand and the bourgeois democratic influences on the other started playing their role in creating socio-political awareness against the colonial rule according to the concrete conditions and the level of social development in different areas. The First War of Independence of 1857 was the first organized patriotic revolt of the Indian people against colonial rule. Though it was brutally suppressed through heinous ways including communally dividing the people, a series of people's upsurges in different areas took place continuously challenging the colonial rule. It was in this situation, under the active involvement of the colonialists, the Indian National Congress was formed as a safety valve to contain people's anger against the colonial rule. Even when the emerging comprador bourgeoisie, big landlord class and bureaucratic sections had their sway over the Congress, at the same time, it became an arena for the national movement against the colonial rule. As a result, the Congress started spreading its influence all over the country. But because of its class character it did not unleash the revolutionary zeal of the masses against the colonial rulers. It was satisfied with demanding dominion status within the British common wealth.

1.5 The industrial development taking place at various centers had led to the growth of the working class and to the trade union movement by the last decade of 19th century. Soon they started entering the political arena. The October Revolution in 1917 gave new impetus to national liberation movements all over the world. The communist movement emerged, and under its initiative the demand for full independence became the rallying point, which the Congress also had to adopt. The 1920s also saw emergence of different revolutionary forces like the one led by Bhagat Singh. The outbreak of working class struggles and anti-feudal movements also started becoming a feature of these decades. The Communist International had put forward the guiding principle of People's Democratic Revolution under the leadership of the working class to be followed in countries like India which were under various forms of colonial domination. The growing anti-feudal and anti-colonial struggles had created conditions for the growth of the revolutionary forces. In spite of all these, the leadership of the CPI failed to make concrete analysis of the comprador character of the emerging big bourgeoisie and its influence over Congress and develop a revolutionary line analyzing the concrete situation of India. It failed to establish the leadership of the working class over the independence struggle. Instead, by and large, it surrendered the leadership of the national movement to the Congress and to the Muslim League. Even after the great victory of the anti-fascist forces led by the Soviet Union in the Second World War, in spite of the great upsurge of the national liberation movements and the outbreak of the Naval Revolt, the Telengana-Tebhaga movements and powerful working class struggles, the leadership of the CPI failed to rectify its erroneous line.

1.6 The post- Second World War period brought momentous changes at the international level. Under the leadership of the Soviet Union the socialist camp and the national liberation movements had emerged as a powerful force. On the other hand, British imperialism had weakened and the US emerged as the leader of the imperialist camp. In this situation, in order to counter the challenge of the socialist camp and to spread its hegemony at the global level, the US-led imperialist camp initiated the transformation of colonial forms of plunder and domination into neo-colonial forms, building necessary tools for it and transferring power in the colonies to the representatives of the comprador bureaucratic bourgeois and landlord classes. British imperialism facilitated this policy by resorting to communal partition of the country and transferring power to the Congress and the Muslim League which were representing the comprador bourgeois-big landlord class interests in India and Pakistan. Thus India achieved political independence, though limited in character.

Chapter Two

Intensification of the Crisis under Neo-Colonisation and New Challenges

2.1 In the post- Second World War (SWW) period, even while the era still continued as the era of imperialism and proletarian revolution, under the imperialist system in its neo-colonial phase, the major contradictions at the international level continued as the contradiction between imperialism and the oppressed nations and peoples of the world, the contradiction between capital and labor, the contradiction among the imperialist countries and among the monopoly groups, and the contradiction between the imperialist system and the socialist forces. At the same time, during this period, especially after the crisis of the 1970s, with the mad rush for exploitation of natural and human resources utilizing the unprecedented technological advances under the imperialist perspective of development, ever- intensifying ecological devastation has started becoming a major factor both at the international and the national level. It has given rise to a new, fifth major contradiction, at both international and national levels, the contradiction between capital and nature, along with the other four major contradictions. Among these five major contradictions, the contradiction between imperialism and the oppressed peoples and nations continues as the principal contradiction at the international level.

2.2 After the 1947 transfer of power, the Congress government serving the interests of comprador bureaucratic bourgeois-big landlord classes serving imperialism opened the country for the penetration of foreign capital from all imperialist countries on a larger scale. While refusing to implement the land reforms based on "land to the tiller" as promised during the independence struggle, it went for 'land reforms from above' in the name of land ceiling laws etc, initiating the replacement of old feudal land relations. As a result, a new type of landlord class started emerging and coming in to dominance which started to open the agrarian sector to capital-market forces and technological innovations under 'green revolution' like policies.

2.3 With the transfer of power India, which was a colonial and semi-feudal country, was transformed in to a dependent country under neo-colonial domination with agrarian relations subjected to fast changes, as imperialism had abandoned its colonial policy of utilizing feudalism as its social base. The four major contradictions in the country during the colonial period were the contradiction between imperialism and the nation, between feudalism and the broad masses of people, between capital and labor, and contradiction among the ruling classes with the contradiction between imperialism and the nation continuing as the principal contradiction. Under neo- colonization they transformed in to the contradiction between imperialism and the people, the contradiction between capital and labor, the contradiction between the landlord classes and the broad masses of the peasantry and the contradiction among the ruling classes. As explained above, the contradiction between capital and nature has emerged as a fifth major contradiction in recent times. And the principal contradiction has transformed to the contradiction between the alliance of imperialism, comprador bureaucratic bourgeoisie and landlord classes on the one hand and the broad masses of people on the other.

2.4 During the post-1947 years, under the Keynesian policies pursued under neo-colonization by the imperialist system and under the impact of the powerful socialist camp coming to existence during the 1940s and of the mighty national liberation movements and growing working class struggles, the Congress government, representing the interests of Indian ruling classes, initiated many welfare policies, went for nationalization of core production sectors and for building of a powerful public sector. But by 1970s as stagflation became the commanding phenomenon and the imperialist system started facing serious crises. The imperialist countries led by US started replacing the hitherto Keynesian policies with 'neo-liberal' policies through the much advertised globalization-liberalization-privatization regime utilizing the IMF-World Bank-WTO trio, the MNCs and numerous other imperialist agencies. With the formal imposition of these changes in India in 1991, a reversal of the earlier policies was initiated fast. A sea change has taken place in the financial sector and in all other socio-economic-cultural fields.

2.5 Under 'neo-liberal' policies, all public sector undertakings are already privatized or are in that process. All public and government undertakings in the field of banking, insurance etc and other service sectors including transportation, communications, energy etc are also being privatized at a fast pace. During this process the state controlled enterprises are forming joint ventures with the MNCs. The corporate houses and MNCs are given monopoly in all fields including control of water, forest, land, mining etc. allowing them to wantonly loot the natural and human resources.

2.6 Under these new economic policies all the hard won rights of the working class are snatched away. The contract system, casualization of labor, and 'hire and fire' are the rules of the day. Even eight hour work time, minimum wages and other democratic rights are denied. While the dalits, adivasis and other backward sections who are the actual tillers are not provided land, even whatever land is owned by the poor and marginal peasantry are snatched away for various 'neo-liberal' projects and by land mafias. Corporatization of agriculture is increasing with the corporate houses - MNCs given full entry to the agrarian sector. It is forcing hundreds of thousands of peasants to commit suicide and millions of poor peasants and agricultural workers to migrate to cities. Right to public distribution system, free education, housing, healthcare, water, electricity, transport and employment is denied to the masses. 'Futures trading', entry of corporate houses and MNCs and state withdrawing from procurement-distribution sectors along with hoarding and black marketing becoming rampant, leading to sky-rocketing price rise. Many millions of retail traders are pauperized as a result. All these have led to unprecedented pauperization of the masses.

Chapter Three

Neo-Colonisation Intensifies All Major Contradictions

3.1 Analyzing the emerging class relations following the October Revolution, Communist International (Comintern) had explained that firstly, whatever progressive character the bourgeoisie in the capitalist countries had was disappearing in the monopoly capitalist or imperialist stage, and secondly, the bourgeoisie which had emerged in the Afro- Asian- Latin American countries under colonization is basically collaborating with imperialism and is incapable of completing the tasks of national and democratic revolution. In the neo-colonial phase, though this bourgeois class which has become the most influential section of the ruling class in the neo-colonies is contending to some extent with the imperialist powers for its enrichment according to the extent of their development, it is basically collaborating with imperialism. The comprador bourgeoisie is not only the agent of the imperialists, but also is a conscious part of monopoly capital who goes on to take decisions for the interest of the monopoly capital. In that sense it can still be called comprador in character. The comprador bureaucratic bourgeoisie and the big landlord class constitute the ruling class in India.

3.2 British colonialists promoted upper caste Hindus to strengthen their colonial state apparatus. At the same time, they were pursuing 'divide and rule' policy fomenting communal rivalry between Hindus and Muslims. The communal division of India amidst communal massacres and the communal appeasement policy of Congress governments from the very beginning went on increasing the communal strife. It provided a fertile ground for the Hindu fundamentalist forces mainly spearheaded by the RSS through its political arm, Jan Sangh, presently BJP, to grow, and for the Muslim communalist forces also to gain strength in response. The role played by the CPI(M)-led forces in the Janata Dal-led alliance during 1989 general elections along with BJP also helped the strengthening of the Sangh Parivar. The heinous and dangerous policy of the Congress government in 1992 which allowed the RSS Parivar to demolish Babri Masjid to divert attention from the imposition of imperialist globalization policies, has led not only to the communal fascist BJP coming to power at center in 1998 and consolidation of its grip in few states, but also to the growth of all religious fundamentalist forces, especially the Hindu fundamentalists. These policies have led to the communalization of society to a large extent. In spite being described as secular in Indian Constitution, the Indian state has increasingly become a Hindu state for all intent and purposes, where the rights and security of the religious minorities are under constant threat. The increasing pauperization of the masses under the decade long rule of UPA led by Congress through speeding up of neo-liberal policies provided fertile ground for the growth of the fundamentalist forces, derailing the anger and discontent of the masses. The BJP government coming to power in 2014 Lok Sabha elections has led to replacement of rightist rule of Congress led UPA with ultra rightist rule, intensifying corporate raj and communal fascism unprecedentedly.

3.3 As part of the attempts to resist social change, Congress and all ruling class parties utilize caste based vote bank politics, against the spirit of the annihilation of the caste system raised during the renaissance movement and independence struggle. The very purpose of the reservation policy was defeated with the ruling class parties trying to perpetuate the caste system with an eye on vote bank politics. As a result, anti caste campaigns and caste annihilation demands became weaker. Though the Mondal Commission Report provided new enthusiasm for the backward sections to demand their rights, in order to divert attention from its central recommendations like land reforms and ensuring social justice, the dominant caste forces and remnant feudal social formations like khap panchayats etc soon intensified the caste based strife to unprecedented levels. As a result, contrary to the spirit of the recommendations in the Report, it was utilized for carrying forward the caste based politics. The caste system, which is a special feature of the dominant Hindu religion, continues all over India still as a result, taking newer forms in some places, with many specific characteristics in different areas and influencing all the religions to some extent with its ugly features like caste hatred, caste discrimination, caste oppression, untouchability etc. Under privatization and liberalization policies, existing democratic rights like reservation are also diluted and snatched away. For this purpose new formulations like "creamy layer" and "reservations based on economic backwardness" are coming to the fore. A vigorous struggle is required for eradication of the caste system and stigma of untouchability, utilizing the weapon of class struggle and a revolutionary program for awakening the masses.

3.4 Contrary to the promises during the independence struggle, though more than six decades passed after transfer of power, consecutive governments have refused to recognize the right to self determination of all nationalities. Even for achieving linguistic states the people had to wage long struggles. Military is deployed in Jammu and Kashmir and Northeast for six decades or more refusing to implement their right of self determination through political settlement. As the uneven development under neo-colonization is intensifying, giving rise to demand for separate states, they are either ruthlessly suppressed or opportunistically utilized to divide the people. In the absence of progressive decentralization, devolution and democratization of political power, people's strife based on nationality and ethnic questions is also intensifying.

3.5 The adivasis who constitute nearly 10% of the Indian population have a great history of struggling against the British colonialists and fighting for their rights after the transfer of power. But consecutive central and state governments have not established even their autonomous councils in a progressive manner or protected their right to their land. On the contrary in the name of expanding mining and establishing corporate projects they are displaced in ever larger numbers. They are exploited massively as the cheapest source of labor under the 'neo-liberal' policies. Further, as a result of discriminatory policies and absence of efforts from the government side to uplift the condition of the adivasis, they are being kept away from participating in advanced production relations and from improving their living conditions. It is as if they are doomed to either depending on the forests or continuing as the cheapest source of labor.

3.6 The women who constitute half of the population were victims of worst forms of exploitation under feudal and colonial domination and under religion and caste system. As a result of numerous struggles many laws like the one against domestic violence are enacted and 50% reservation in local bodies is implemented, though the ruling class parties are reluctant to extent this reservation to state assemblies and parliament. These cosmetic reforms too have largely remained confined to paper. Under neo-colonization new types of attacks are mounting against women. The enslavement under patriarchy and the system of private property has taken new forms. Along with gender discrimination, female infanticide and sexual harassment are also intensifying day by day. Even the female body is wantonly commercialized.

3.7 Under neo-colonization, due to the policies implemented in the name of development which actually serve the interests of imperialists and their lackeys, ecological devastation has become an ever intensifying factor. 'Global warming' like phenomena and the nuclear catastrophe created by the nuclear arms race, existing nuclear plants which are 'nuclear time bombs' as once again proved by the meltdown of Fukushima nuclear plant in Japan. Refusing to learn from the intensification of the contradictions with Pakistan following the nuclear arms race started by it from Pokhran nuclear blast, presently Indian government has signed the nuclear agreement with the US imperialists, further surrendering whatever sovereignty the country had. The construction of new nuclear plants under imperialist dictates threatens further environmental disaster. The imperialists are dumping industrial and nuclear waste in countries like India. All these developments have made the struggle for ecological protection one of the basic components of social progress.

3.8 In order to perpetuate the reactionary ruling system and to promote neo-colonization, along with medieval and feudal culture and various forms of superstitions, the imperialist cultural values are also promoted brazenly, commercializing and commodifying culture. Utilizing extensive growth of information technology and electronic media, culture is increasingly linked with the market interests of imperialist system and its lackeys and turned in to an industry. The education system is commercialized and used for subordinating the new generation to neo-colonial system and to spread imperialist cultural values. The communal forces colluding with imperialists and their lackeys are communalizing all spheres of social life including culture. All these are intended to create a sense of national servitude and for destruction of all progressive and democratic cultural consciousness.

3.9 Along with price rise, unemployment/underemployment, and all round criminalization of the society, corruption has become one of the worst malaises, destroying the social fabric. It has taken gigantic proportions with the speculative capital playing all pervasive role under 'neo-liberal' policies. The corruption in the state apparatus including the government machinery from top to bottom, the defense and police services, the electoral system, and even the judiciary have reached unprecedented levels. So are the political leaders and most of the so-called elected members of various bodies. All these explain the extent to which the ruling system has degenerated and become anti-people under more than six decades of neo-colonization, exposing its heinous and pernicious character. Though the media almost entirely controlled by the corporate houses and the ruling establishment appears to expose the evils of the ruling system, in reality it is serving to perpetuate the hegemony of the imperialists and their lackeys in all fields.

Chapter Four

Fight Deviations in the Communist Movement and Struggle for PDR

4.1 The role played by the Communist movement in India during various phases of its nine decades of its existence should be evaluated on the basis of concrete conditions of the colonial past and neo-colonial present. A glance through the activities of the communist movement during the colonial days show that though the Party developed organizationally, it failed to establish the leadership of the working class over the national liberation movement. It refused to recognize the comprador character of the big bourgeoisie developed under imperialist patronage. When Dr. Ambedkar launched the dalit movement calling for annihilation of caste, linking it with the question of nationalisation of land and industries, and when other such movements were going on all over the country of various oppressed sections in society, due to having a mechanical and merely economic understanding of the class struggle, the Communist Party of India was not able to sharpen these fights based on a united front. Along with this, the Party's approach to the Quit India Struggle exposed the lack of the understanding of the concrete situation by the Party. These deviations and short comings on the part of the communist movement helped the British colonialists to communally divide the country and transfer power to Congress and Muslim League leaderships. Though the Second Congress of the Party in 1948 tried to correct this right deviation exposing the reactionary character of the transfer of power, it adopted a line of left deviation which caused immense setbacks. Following inner party struggles the first Party Program, tactical line and policy statement were adopted in 1951for advancing the PDR. But the rightist leadership first diluted and then abandoned this line. Upholding Soviet revisionist positions, the CPI leadership interpreted the stage of revolution as National Democratic, and the Congress leadership as one serving national bourgeois interests. It called for peaceful completion of NDR and transition to socialism collaborating with Congress. As a result, the inner party struggle intensified and in 1964 the first split took place and CPI (M) was formed.

4.2 But the leadership of CPI (M) did not make a break with the Soviet revisionist positions. Its Seventh Congress in 1964 analyzed the dual character of the big bourgeoisie, but refused to see its predominant comprador character. Following parliamentary cretinism, it refused to work towards implementation of the Party Program whenever voted to power. On all basic questions it took 'centrist' position. In this situation, the Communist Revolutionaries (CRs) launched ideological struggle against its centrist line. When the CPI (M) led governments were formed in Bengal and Kerala in early 1967, they refused to implement radical land reforms.

4.3 The Communist Revolutionaries launched the Naxalbari Uprising in May 1967 for capture of land and against the revisionist CPI and CPI (M) leaderships. The all India coordination of CRs (AICCCR) and then CPI (ML) was formed in April, 1969, upholding Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought as guiding ideology. But, very soon it came under influence of the Lin Biaoist left adventurist line which had dominated the CPC during its Ninth Congress in 1969. This led to sectarian positions causing severe setbacks, splintering the movement by 1971.

4.4 As a result, when mass uprisings broke out against Indira Gandhi government before and during the internal emergency, and when Congress was routed in 1977 elections, it was the BJP and other rightist forces who succeeded to occupy this space. During the last two decades, the line of CPI (M) -led Left Front wherever it came to power had become synonymous with the ruling class parties. And with the advent of ultra rightist BJP government coming to power they are once again taking the line of supporting Congress in the name of opposing BJP. On the other hand, the CPI (Maoist), analyzing 'Maoism' as the Marxism-Leninism of the new era, is stubbornly pursuing anarchist line.

4.5 There are number of CPI (ML) groups who still persist in the 'semi-colonial, semi-feudal, protracted people's war line'. There are other groups who advocate India is a capitalist country and stage of revolution as socialist, refusing to recognize the increasing domination of imperialist forces in the country. The developments during the last six decades after the Second World War show that colonial forms of direct control and plunder are replaced by neo-colonial forms by imperialism. The power was transferred to the Indian ruling classes and their main political party, Congress, as part of this neo-colonization. The comprador character of the bourgeoisie in the countries under neo-colonial domination is further exposed. India is turned in to a 'junior partner' of the imperialist system, especially US imperialism.

4.6 Under imperialist globalization attacks on international proletariat and oppressed peoples have further intensified, demanding closer unity of the Communist parties at the international level. In this situation, the dissolution of the Comintern in 1943 and the failure of the international communist movement to reorganize it for such a long time have adversely affected the anti-imperialist movement at global level. If the historic advances made by the international communist movement by 1950s was one of the important factors which led the imperialist camp to qualitatively transform the hitherto colonial forms of plunder to neo-colonial forms, the failure of the ICM to recognize this new imperialist offensive and to develop its general line accordingly was one of the basic reasons for the serious setbacks suffered by it. The significance of founding the International Coordination of the Revolutionary Parties and Organizations (ICOR) as a step towards rebuilding the Communist International of a new type should be seen in this context.

4.7 The six decades of neo-colonization which has made significant changes at global level in all spheres calls for developing the theory and practice of world proletarian socialist revolution according to present situation. Under neo-colonialism, especially after the initiation of 'neo-liberal' policies and the consequent global expansion of rule of speculative finance capital, the whole world is experiencing de-industrialization and the unprecedented phenomena of jobless growth. This has led to many upsurges of the working class and the oppressed people in many countries. The Party Program for the PDR in India is put forward at such a critical time, trying to address these challenges before the Indian people.

Chapter Five

Path of Indian Revolution

5.1 The Indian state is a state of the comprador bureaucratic bourgeois and landlord classes led by the comprador bureaucratic bourgeoisie. It is the organ of class rule, that is the dictatorship of the comprador bureaucratic bourgeois-big landlord classes serving imperialism, over the working class, the peasantry and all sections of exploited and oppressed masses. This reactionary state can be overthrown and be replaced by the People's Democratic State only by mobilizing the working class as the leader of the revolution, forging its alliance with the peasantry and building the People's Democratic Front based on this worker-peasant alliance, uniting the middle classes and the national bourgeoisie, a vacillating ally.

5.2 The historical developments and concrete conditions of the country in the present neo-colonial phase of imperialism determine the present stage of revolution which is People's Democratic. The CPI (ML) upholds Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought as its guiding ideology, applying it to the concrete conditions of the country and integrating it with the concrete practice of revolution. It is committed to complete the People's Democratic Revolution and to advance towards socialist revolution.

5.3 The Path of the PDR in India is determined not by mechanical application of the Soviet or Chinese or any other path as happened repeatedly in the past, but by the concrete conditions of the country and international situation. While developing this revolutionary path, the experience of the revolutionary people's movements of the country and the experience of all hitherto revolutions that had taken place at international level should be assimilated. Rejecting parliamentary cretinism and the line of sectarianism and individual terrorism, upholding path of revolutionary mass line, it resolves to utilize all forms of struggle and organizations to mobilize the working class and all revolutionary classes and sections for a massive countrywide people's uprising to overthrow the Indian state and to seize political power.

5.4 The CPI (ML) reiterates the declaration of The Communist Manifesto: "The communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win". The path of Indian revolution calls for rejecting all shades of parliamentarism and reformism and pursuing the path of revolutionary seizure of political power. It means combining the countrywide struggles of the working class with the revolutionary agrarian struggles, combining all other forms of struggles with it.

Chapter Six

Program of People's Democracy

6.1 The People's Democratic State will be distinguished by a Constitution providing for progressive abolition of the right to private property and implementation of the principle of social ownership of all the means of production. Such a Constitution will be drafted by a Constituent Assembly to be elected on the basis of universal suffrage and truly representing the workers, peasants and other oppressed masses arising from the committees which have grown out of the struggle along with all other revolutionary sections. Such a Constitution will be based on the principle of all powers to the people, with the power being transferred to the various committees of the workers, peasants and oppressed people which have arisen out of the revolutionary struggle at all levels from the village to the national level. Such a Constitution shall provide for the right to recall at all levels to ensure the accountability of the elected representatives and shall do away with the schism between the executive power and the legislative power. This means that all officials at all levels, including judges, police chiefs, municipal officials etc. will be elected and all of them subjected to recall.

6.2 The president of the union shall be elected by members of the People's Congresses at Union and State level and shall function under the rules and policies promulgated by the People's Congress of the union. The principles of the representative system of government shall be followed. The present army shall be dissolved and replaced by a People's Army constituted and led closely linked with the People's Democratic State and shall be linked to production. The police, para-military and numerous other repressive arms of the present ruling system shall be replaced by People's militia under the control of the local elected bodies. The entire central and state laws continuing from colonial days and later introduced, which are anti-people, shall be replaced by new people's laws.

6.3 Confiscate all imperialist capital, liquidate all imperialist debts and scrap all unequal treaties or agreements with imperialist countries and agencies which are against people's interests. Quit IMF, WB and WTO and initiate international trade based on equality and well being of all nations. Prohibit operations of MNCs. Stop flow of all speculative foreign capital to the country. Free the country from all forms of imperialist exploitation, interference and bullying. Educate the people against NGOs and all such imperialist promoted agencies and put an end to their functioning.

6.4 Nationalize all enterprises, capital and properties of the comprador bureaucratic bourgeois class or corporate houses and mafias. Stop all avenues for corruption from top to bottom. Get back all deposits of scamsters in foreign banks and in other institutions and confiscate them. Unearth and confiscate all black money including that deposited in mutts and similar institutions. Confiscate the wealth of mutts and all religious institutions. Punish all corrupt.

6.5 Implement revolutionary land reforms based on "land to the tiller". Abolish all pre-capitalist relations in the agrarian sector and confiscate and distribute all land with the landlords. Establish the collective ownership of those working in the plantations and farms owned by the corporate houses, MNCs and mafias. Abolish all forms of bonded labor and usury. Stop corporatization of agriculture, entry of agro- MNCs in to agricultural sector and develop agriculture with the perspective of food security for all, giving full attention to ecological conservation.

6.6 Implement six hour working day and five day week progressively in all sectors. Redefine need based minimum wage and implement it. End contract labor system, casualization of labor and 'hire and fire'. Ensure right to organize, to collective bargaining and to wage strike and other struggles as fundamental right of the working class.

6.7 Implement comprehensive national industrial policy. Develop healthy relation among heavy, medium and small industries, and between urban and rural regions. Progressively abolish dependence on foreign technology by developing indigenous research and development policy. Develop the service sector including banking, insurance and credit institutions putting people's interests in command. Develop infrastructural projects taking the overall interests of the community in to consideration.

6.8 Ensure universal public distribution system, free and compulsory education, healthcare for all, housing and employment for all. Develop a comprehensive sports policy and implement it with people's participation. Develop a people's cultural policy.

6.9 Abolish all black laws. Ensure democratization of the administration and society at all levels. Abolish death penalty from the statutes.

6.10 Stop all forms of gender discrimination. Create conditions for women to liberate from the grip of patriarchy and religious-caste based oppression. Stop all forms of attack on women at work places and elsewhere. Stop female infanticide. Ensure women's equality in all fields, property right to women and equal pay for equal work. All women shall be employed in socially productive labor. Measures shall be taken to ensure the abolition of the present family system which serves as the economic unit of the society and to build a progressive democratic family system.

6.11 Guarantee protection, healthcare and education for all children and abolish all forms of exploitation of children including child labor. Ensure the protection of senior citizens in all respects.

6.12 Ensure right of self-determination for all nationalities up to secession. The People's Republic shall strive to unite people of various nationalities not by force but by their voluntary consent. Settle the Jammu and Kashmir and Northeast questions by withdrawing army from there forthwith and through political means ensuring the right of self determination to all nationalities. Ensure right of the people to receive education in their mother tongue, equal treatment for all languages and such other democratic rights.

6.13 Abolish all forms of exploitation and oppression of adivasis. Protect their right over the natural resources, when progressive development projects are taken up. Establish autonomous councils with full powers and ensure their democratic rights.

6.14 Ensure genuine secular character of the state structure. Abolish all discriminations based on religious ground and protect the religious minorities. End all efforts by religious fundamentalist forces for communalization of the society. Prevent mixing of religion in state affairs and political life of the country. Stop religious institutions from entering public domain like education, healthcare and such other fields. Evolve secular, democratic and progressive common civil code as part of democratization of the society. The People's Democratic state shall strictly implement the secular principle of separation between state and religion.

6.15 Continue campaigns and democratic movements for abolition of the caste system fully and of all other social inequalities. As part of it, stop all forms of caste based oppression, caste discrimination, untouchability, and khap panchayats like reactionary institutions. Implement reservation like democratic rights till all social inequalities are abolished. Ensure land to the dalits based on the slogan of "land to the tiller".

6.16 Based on the understanding that the contradiction between capital and nature has become a major contradiction at both national and international level, concrete plans should be worked out to protect environment and to develop the perspective on development taking this important question in to consideration.

6.17 Implement secular, gender-friendly, democratic and scientific education system accessible to all. Stop commercialization and privatization of education. Ensure free, uniform and compulsory education for all children, ensure facilities for higher education to all. Abolish all elitist schools, stop discrimination and differentiation in the field of education. .

6.18 Develop people's democratic and gender-friendly culture fighting against the influence of feudal and imperialist cultural values. Promote scientific outlook in all fields. As imperialism and its lackeys are utilizing the influences in the superstructure to subjugate people to their plunder and hegemony, the question of developing Cultural Revolution based on hitherto experience of the former socialist countries as a continuous process should be given great significance, especially in the context of the capitalist restoration in all these socialist countries.

6.19 Based on equality and peaceful co-existence, establish closest relations in all fields with the neighboring countries. Resolve all boundary disputes through friendly negotiations.

6.20 Uphold proletarian internationalism. Strive for the unity of the Marxist-Leninist parties at international level. Unite with all progressive and anti- imperialist forces all over the world and strive to establish fraternal relations with the revolutionary forces against imperialism, especially US imperialism, and its lackeys. Actively struggle against US led aggressions and barbaric hegemonic moves creating havoc everywhere.

6.21 Extend solidarity with people all over the world in the struggle for democracy and socialism. As several institutions and agencies built up during the post-Second World War period including the UNO are serving as the tools for intensification of neo-colonial plunder and hegemony, the People's Democratic Republic should initiate active moves to progressively build alternative international centers of People's Democratic and socialist countries based on the principles of proletarian internationalism.

Chapter Seven

Strengthen the Party and Advance along the Path of PDR

7.1 The struggle for the People's Democratic Revolution is continuing for more than nine decades in India, from the very beginning of the Communist movement here. During these decades momentous developments have taken place internationally and nationally. Even when the present era continues to be the era of imperialism and proletarian revolution, in the post-SWW period, imperialism with US imperialism taking over its leadership has replaced the colonial forms of plunder and domination with neo-colonial forms. The challenge before the CPI (ML) in this neo-colonial phase of imperialism is to carry forward the task of completion of the PDR and advancing to socialist revolution according to the present conditions.

7.2 The CPI (ML) is presenting this draft Party Program not only before its members, but also before the membership and supporters of what can be broadly called the left movement in general and all the progressive democratic forces with the hope of initiating a broad discussion based on it and active steps to put it in to practice. It is our hope that such a step along with the continuation of the unity efforts to bring together the Marxist-Leninist forces based on the ideological political line put forward, shall help to speed up the historic task of reorganization of the Communist movement at all India level, providing a new fillip to advance towards the completion of the People's Democratic Revolution and to march forward for the realization of socialism and communism. 

PARTY CONSTITUTION

Article I

Name : The name of the Party shall be the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Red Star.

Article II

Emblem : The emblem of the Party shall be a crossed hammer and sickle in white against a red background, with five white stars forming a quadrant on the left side of the hammer and sickle as symbol of proletarian internationalism.

Article III

Flag : The Flag of the Party shall be the Red Flag of rectangular shape the ratio of length and breadth being 3:2 with hammer and sickle and the five stars in a quadrant in white inscribed in middle of the top one quarter (near the pole).

Article -IV

Guiding Ideology and General Program

1. The CPI (ML) Red Star, the vanguard, that is, the advanced detachment, of the Indian proletariat, upholds Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought as its guiding ideology, and seeks to apply it to the concrete conditions of India and to integrate it with the concrete practice of Indian revolution, uncompromisingly struggling against both revisionist and sectarian tendencies of all hues.

2. It is committed to complete the tasks of People's Democratic Revolution (PDR) and to establish the People's Democratic Dictatorship. The task before the Party in the stage of the People's Democratic Revolution is to overthrow the rule of comprador ­bureaucratic bourgeois-landlord classes serving imperialism and replace the present reactionary Indian state with the Peoples Democratic State led by the proletariat. The basic Program of the party is to complete the PDR, to advance towards socialist revolution, and to march forward under the guiding principles of dictatorship of the proletariat for the realization of socialism and communism.

3. The CPI (ML) Red Star upholds proletarian internationalism. Equality and fraternity shall be the principles guiding the relations between all Marxist-Leninist parties and organizations the world over.

4. The CPI (ML) Red Star strives to build up communist party based on Bolshevik principles, uniting all the Communist Revolutionaries into a single Party.

Article V

Party Membership

1. Any Indian citizen, eighteen years of age or above, who accepts the Program and Constitution of the Party, agrees to work in one of the Party committees, pays the Party membership fees and levy regularly and carries out decisions of the Party shall be eligible for Party membership.

2. New members are admitted to the Party on individual application and through Party Branch or other Party committees on the recommendation of two Party members. The Party committees at local or town, taluk or block or area, district, state and central levels also have the power to admit new members to the Party. The Party members who recommend an applicant must furnish the Party committee concerned truthful information about the applicant, from personal knowledge and with due sense of responsibility. All applications for Party membership after their recommendation and approval must be placed before the next higher committee within a month of their presentation and recommendation.

3. Barring exceptional cases, Party members should be recruited from those who have worked in class/mass organizations and have been tested in some organizational work and class struggle, who have worked in an activist/sympathizers group functioning under a party committee. Special caution must be maintained against careerists, conspirators and double dealers, bad characters and enemy agents from sneaking into the Party.

4. The meeting of the Party committee concerned where the application is presented shall decide the admission of the new members. If applicant is admitted to the Party, she/he will be regarded as a candidate member. A candidate member will have to undergo a minimum period of candidature of one year. The period of candidature will be two years for those coming from the capitalist, landlord and other exploiting classes.

5. The Party committee admitting candidate members shall arrange for their elementary education on the Party Program, Party Constitution and the current policies of the Party and observe their development.

6. By the end of the period of candidature, the Party Committee concerned shall discuss whether the candidate member is qualified to be admitted to full membership. The party committee concerned may admit candidates to full membership or prolong the period of candidature for another term not exceeding six months. If a candidate member is found unfit, the Party committee may cancel her/his candidate membership. A report of recruitment shall be regularly forwarded by the Party Committee concerned to the next higher Party committee.

7. The higher committee may on scrutiny of the report, alter or modify any such decision after consultation with the Party committee which has submitted the report. The District and State Committees shall exercise supervisory powers over the recruitment of candidate members and over admissions to full membership and have the right to modify or reject the decision of the lower committees in this respect.

8. The membership fee will be Rs. 10/- annually. Levy shall be collected by the committee to which the member belongs after assessing the capacity of the member concerned.

9. A Party member can transfer her/his membership from one committee to another with the approval of the committee from which transfer is sought and by presenting a letter of introduction from the same to the new committee she/he wishes to join. In case of transfer outside the district or state, approval by the district or the state committee concerned shall be necessary. This shall be subject to the approval of the next higher committee.

10. Members once expelled from the Party can be readmitted only by the decision of the Party committee which confirmed their expulsion, subject to the approval of the next higher committee.

11. When a leading member from another political party from local, area, district or state level wants to join the Party, it is necessary to have the sanction of the next higher committee in addition to the sanction of the local, area, district or state committee, before the concerned member is admitted to membership of the Party. In exceptional cases the central committee or the state committee can admit such members to the full membership of the Party. In case of the state committee taking such a decision, it shall obtain previous sanction from the central committee.

12. Party membership should be subjected to renewal every year. Party members who are failing to take active part in activities decided by the concerned Party committees and higher committees, to carry out the decisions of the Party, to maintain Party discipline, or to pay membership fee or levy for the whole year without any satisfactory reason should be asked to withdraw their membership, and failing which their name shall be removed from the membership roll subject to the approval of the next higher committee.

13. Every party member shall declare her/his assets at the time of confirmation of membership and shall submit details if any new assets are obtained later during the membership renewal.

14. All party members working in higher committees up to the Central Committee shall be members of a basic party committee, that is a branch or Local or Area Committee active in place of his/her residence or functioning in nearby areas and shall attend its meetings and the functions whenever she/he is available in the area without in anyway affecting the performance of her/ his responsibilities in the higher committee. The opinion of of these committees shall be sought at the time of the renewal of their party membership.

Article –VI

Party Pledge

Every member jointing the Party shall take the Party Pledge.

The Pledge shall be:

"I accept Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought as the guiding ideology of the Party.

"I accept the Program of the Party and agree to abide by its Constitution and work sincerely to implement the decisions of the Party. I pledge to be loyal and honest in words and deeds to them.

"I shall strive to live up to the ideals of Communism and selflessly serve and fight for the proletarian cause and revolution always placing the interest of the Party, People and Revolution above personal interests and strive to uphold the honor and dignity of the Party.

"I will fight communalism, casteism, revivalism, national chauvinism and gender discrimination in life and society".

Article -VII

Distribution of Party Levy and Membership Fee

1. Party levy collected from Party members by concerned Party committees shall be distributed as follows:

10 percent for the Central Committee; 40 percent for State Committee and the remaining 50 percent shall be divided among the District committee and the lower committees as decided by the district committee concerned.

2. All membership and renewal fees shall go to the Central Committee.

Article - VIII

Responsibilities of Party Members

Responsibilities of Party members are as followings:

1. Strive to develop the understanding of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought and learn to integrate theory with the practice.

2. Regularly participate in all the activities of the Party committee in which one is a member and faithfully implement the policies, decisions and instructions of the Party.

3. Read Party paper and publications. Help to regularly bring them out and to actively propagate them.

4. Follow the Party Constitution and maintain discipline. Live and behave in accordance with the great principles of Communism and in accordance with the spirit of proletarian internationalism.

5. Subordinate one's own personal interests to the Party and people interests.

6. Serve the masses devotedly and strengthen relation with them continuously and always be ready to learn from the masses and participate in the struggle of the people. Report their necessities and opinions to the Party. If not exempted for specific reasons, function in one of the class/mass organizations under the instructions of the Party.

7. Strengthen comradely relation among members. Constantly develop fraternal relations within the Party.

8. Regularly carry out criticism and self- criticism for improving one's own and collective activities and for helping each other.

9. Never betray the confidence reposed by the Party. Behave with openness and sincerity in the Party.

10. Protect the unity and strength of the Party; maintain vigilance against the enemies of the proletariat and the people.

11. Fight consistently against all oppressions and discriminations based on religion, caste, nationality and gender and firmly oppose such disruptive tendencies as communalism, fundamentalism, casteism, provincialism, parochialism and patriarchy.

12. Be uncompromising towards all deviations from Marxism-­Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought as well as from ideological and political line of the party. Fight against all non -proletarian ideas and trends of revisionism, left and right opportunism, liberalism, sectarianism, anarchism and dogmatism.

13. It is the task of the Party committee to guide the Party members in implementing above mentioned responsibilities and to help them in whichever way possible to implement them.

Article IX

Rights of Party Members

1. Rights of the Party members are as follows:

a) To elect Party committees and to get elected to them.

b) To participate freely in discussions in order to contribute towards the formulation of Party policy and of the decisions of the Party.

c) To make proposals regarding one's own work in the party to get work assigned to oneself in accordance with one's ability and situation in life.

d) To make criticisms about Party committees and Party functionaries at Party meetings.

e) To demand to be heard in person when a Party committee discusses disciplinary action against or evaluates their personal character or work in connection with serious mistakes which she/he is alleged to have committed.

f) When any Party member disagrees with any decision of a Party committee or any organization under the Party leadership, she/he has right to submit her/his opinion to the higher committee, including and up to the Central Committee and the Party Congress. In all such cases the Party member shall, of course, carry out the party decision and the differences shall be sought to be resolved through the test of practice and through comradely discussions;

g) To address any statement, appeal or complaint to any higher Party committee up to and including the Central Committee and the Party Congress, provided that such statement or complaint shall be addressed by each member to her/ his primary committee in the first place. Such primary committee may take a decision on such a statement or complaint. If the member is not satisfied with such a decision, or if no decision is taken thereon for three months, the member concerned shall have the right to appeal to the next higher committee and in the same manner up till and including the Central Committee or the Party Congress.

2. It shall be the duty of Party committee and Party functionaries to see that these rights are respected.

3. The candidate members are entitled to all rights of a full-fledged member except the right to vote and to be elected.

Article-X

Organizational Principles of the Party

1. The structure of the Party is based on, and its internal life is guided by the principles of democratic centralism. Democratic centralism means central leadership based on full inner - Party democracy and inner- Party democracy under the guidance of the centralized leadership.

In the sphere of the Party structure, the guiding principles of democratic centralism are:

a) All Party committees from top to bottom shall be elected.

b) The minority shall carry out the decisions of the majority, the lower Party committees shall carry out the decisions and directives of the higher Party committees, the individual shall subordinate herself/himself to the collective. All Party committees shall carry out the decisions and directives of the Party Congress and of the Central Committee.

c) All Party committees shall periodically report on their work to the Party committees immediately below and all lower committees shall likewise report to their immediate higher committees.

d) All Party committees, particularly the leading Party committees shall pay constant heed to the opinion and criticism of the lower Party committees and the rank and file Party members.

e) All Party committees shall function strictly on the principle of collective decisions and check-up, combined with individual responsibility.

f) All questions concerning international affairs, questions of all India character, or questions concerning more than one State or questions requiring uniform decisions for the whole country, shall be decided upon by the Central Committee. All questions of a state or district character shall be ordinarily decided upon by the concerned Party committees. But in no case shall such decisions run counter to the decisions of higher Party committees. When the Central Committee has to take a decision on any issue of major importance concerning a state, it shall do so after consultation with the State Committee concerned. The State Committee shall do likewise in relation to districts.

g) On issues which affect the policy of the Party at all India level, but on which the Party's stand point is to be expressed for the first time, only the Central Committee of the Party is entitled to make a policy statement. The lower committees can and should send their opinions and suggestions in time for consideration by the Central Committee.

2. Basing itself upon the experience of the entire Party membership and of the popular movement, in the sphere of the internal life of the Party the following guiding principles of democratic centralism are applied:

a) Free and frank discussion within the Party committee on all questions affecting the Party, its policy and work.

b) Sustained efforts to activate the Party members in popularizing and implementing the Party policies, in raising their ideological political level and improving their general education so that they can effectively participate in the life and work of the Party.

c) When serious differences arise in a Party committee, every effort should be made to arrive at a common understanding. Failing this, the decision should be postponed with a view to resolve the differences through further discussions, unless an immediate decision is called for by the needs of the Party and the mass movement.

d) Encouragement of criticism and self-criticism at all levels, from top to bottom especially criticism from below.

e) Consistent struggle against bureaucratic tendencies at all levels.

f) Impermissibility of factionalism and factional grouping inside the Party in any from.

g) Strengthening of the Party spirit by developing fraternal relations and mutual help, correcting mistakes by treating comrades sympathetically, judging them and their work not on the basis of isolated mistakes or incidents, but by taking into account their whole record of service to the Party.

3. Differing views should be given representation in the respective committees.

4. In extraordinary situations, organizing committees may be formed at all levels.

5. The primary committee will be the link between the Party and people. The opinions of the people and the committees will be carefully studied, summed up, assimilated and used to improve and formulate the party's policies.

6. The Central Committee and State Committees shall be constituted of capable and dedicated comrades based on cadre policy. This principle should be followed in the case of lower committees also as far as possible. The Party shall undertake the responsibility to develop the professional revolutionaries.

Article - XI

Criticism and Self-Criticism

Criticism and Self-Criticism is one of the most important principles of Party committee system. It is absolutely essential for the Party in general, the leadership, the committees and party members in particular to conduct it.

1. Criticism and self - criticism must be based on the Party line and its practice.

2. Criticism must be made within the Party and the concerned unit, not outside it.

3. Criticism regarding the higher committees or against their decisions should be sent to the concerned committee.

4. The unity of the Party is achieved through the principle of unity-struggle-­unity, i.e., through the process of criticism and self-criticism.

Article –XII

Party Discipline

1. Discipline is indispensable for preserving and strengthening the unity of the Party, for enhancing its strength, its fighting ability and its prestige, and for enforcing the principles of democratic centralism. Without strict adherence to the Party discipline, the Party cannot lead the masses in struggle and actions, nor discharge its responsibility towards them.

2. Discipline is based on conscious acceptance of the aims, Program and policies of the Party. All members of the Party are equally bound by Party discipline irrespective of their status in the Party organization or in public life.

3. Violation of the Party Constitution and decisions of the Party as well as any other action and behaviour unworthy of a member of the Communist Party shall constitute a breach of Party discipline and are liable to disciplinary actions.

4. The disciplinary actions are

1. Warning.

2. Censure.

3. Public censure.

4. Removal from the post held in the Party.

5. Suspension from full Party membership for any period but not exceeding one year.

6. Removal from the Party rolls.

7. Expulsion

5. If any member of any committee of any committee fails to attend three consecutive meetings of the said committee then that committee shall have the authority to call for an explanation from that member and, after hearing that member on his explanation, if that explanation is not found to be satisfactory, to remove that member from that committee, subject to ratification from the State Committee or the Central Committee, provided that the member so removed shall have the right to appeal to the Control Commission.

6. Disciplinary action shall normally be taken where other methods, including methods of persuasion, have failed to correct the comrade concerned. But even where disciplinary measures have been taken, the efforts to help the comrade to correct herself/himself shall continue. In cases where the breach of discipline is such that it warrants an immediate disciplinary measure to protect the interests of the Party or its prestige, the disciplinary action shall be taken promptly.

7. Expulsion from the Party is the severest of all disciplinary measures and this shall be applied with utmost caution, deliberation and judgment.

8. No disciplinary measure involving expulsion or suspension of a Party member shall come into effect without confirmation by the next higher committee. In case of suspension or expulsion, the penalized Party member shall, however, be removed from the responsible post that she/he may hold pending confirmation.

9. The comrade against whom a disciplinary measure is proposed shall be fully informed of the allegations, charges and other relevant facts against her/him. She/he shall have the right to he heard in person by the Party committee in which her/his case is discussed.

10. Party members found to be strike-breakers, habitual drunkards, moral degenerates, betrayers of Party confidence, guilty of financial irregularities or members whose actions are detrimental to the Party and the working classes, shall be dealt with by the Party committees to which they belong and be liable to disciplinary action.

11. There shall be right of appeal in all cases of disciplinary action.

12. The State Committee has the right to dissolve or take disciplinary action against a lower committee in cases where a persistent defiance of Party decisions and policy, serious factionalism, or a breach of Party discipline is involved.

13. A Party member who desires to resign from the Party shall submit her/his resignation to the Party committee concerned, which, by a decision of its committee meeting may accept the same and decide to strike her/his name off the rolls and report the matter to the next higher committee.

Article -XIII

All India Party Congress

1. The supreme organ of the Party for the whole country shall be the All India Party Congress.

a) The regular Party Congress shall be convened by the Central Committee ordinarily once every three years. However, in no case shall the convening of the Congress be delayed beyond the period of three years by more than one year.

b) The date, venue, agenda and functions of the Party Congress shall be decided by the Central Committee at a meeting specially called for the purpose.

c) The Party Congress shall be composed of delegates elected by the State Conferences as well as by Conferences of party Units directly under the all India Party Centre.

d) The basis of representation at a Party Congress shall be decided by the Central Committee.

e) The members of the Central Committee and of the Central Control Commission shall have the right to participate as full delegates in the Party Congress, whether regular or extraordinary.

f) The number of membership from any State for which the membership fee quota to the Central Committee has been fully paid shall be taken as the basis for calculating the number of delegates from that State at the Party Congress.

2. Functions and powers of the Party Congress are as follows:

a) To discuss and act on the political and organizational report of the Central Committee.

b) To revise and change the Party Program and the Party Constitution.

c) To determine the Path of Revolution and the policy of the party in the current situation.

d) To elect the Central Committee by secret ballot,

e) To hear and decide on the report of the Central Control Commission as well as on appeals.

f) To hear and decide on the audit report submitted by the Control Commission.

g) To elect Central Control Commission.

h) To elect a Presidium and Steering Committee for the conduct of its business.

3. a) An extra ordinary Party Congress shall be called by the Central Committee at its own discretion or when it is demanded by the State Committees representing not less than one third of the total party membership. When such an extra-ordinary Party Congress is requisitioned it shall be called within six months of receiving the said requisition.

b) The date, venue, functions and agenda of the extra-ordinary Party Congress shall be decided by the Central Committee at a meeting specially called for the purpose.

c) The basis of representation to the extra-ordinary Party Congress shall be decided by the Central Committee at a meeting specially called for the purpose.

d) The members of the Central Committee and of the Central Control Commission shall have the right to participate as full delegates in the extra-ordinary Party Congress.

Article -XIV

Discussions Prior to Party Congress

1. The Central Committee shall release the draft documents for discussion by all party members/ candidate members three months before the All India Party Congress. It is obligatory on the part of the state committees to render it into respective languages and forward the required number of copies to all committees up to branch committees in the shortest possible time after its release by the Central Committee. Amendments to the resolutions shall be sent directly to the Central Committee which will place its report on them before the All India Party Congress.

2. From the area committee level, the conferences as part of Party Congress shall take place on the basis of the draft documents of the Central Committee and the reports and resolutions submitted by the respective committees and committees above it up to the state committees.

3. In the branch and local committee level conferences a comrade from the higher committee shall present a report on the documents to be presented to the Party Congress. All the Party members/ candidate members shall be delegates to the Area conferences.

Article - XV

All India Party Conference

The central Committee may convene All India Party Conference as and when required.

Article- XVI

Party Plenum

1. When need arises for wider discussion and decision on any important policy matter and organizational question, the Central Committee may convene an All India Plenum.

2. The Central Committee and Central Control Commission members shall be ex-officio delegates to the Plenum. Other delegates shall be elected by the committees as per the criteria fixed by the Central Committee.

3. The Central Committee shall decide the agenda of the Plenum.

4. The Plenum's decisions shall be binding on the Central Committee.

Article- XVII

Central Committee

1. a) The Central Committee shall be elected at the Party Congress, the number of members being decided by the Party Congress.

b) The outgoing Central Committee shall propose to the Congress a panel of candidates.

c) The Panel of candidates shall be prepared with a view to creating capable leadership, closely linked with the masses, firm in the revolutionary outlook of the working class and educated in Marxism- Leninism-Mao's Tung Thought. The panel shall bring together the best talents, experience from the states, from mass fronts and other fields of Party activity.

d) Any delegate can raise objection with regard to any name in the panel proposed as well as propose any new name or names.

e) Anyone whose name has been proposed shall have the right to withdraw.

f) The panel finally proposed, together with the additional nominations by the delegates shall be voted upon by secret ballot.

2. The Central Committee shall be the highest authority of the Party between two all - India Party Congresses.

3. It is responsible for enforcing the Party Constitution and carrying out the political line and decisions adopted by the Party Congress.

4. The Central Committee shall represent the Party as a whole and be responsible for directing the entire work of the Party. The Central Committee shall have the right to take decisions with full authority on any question facing the Party.

5. The Central Committee shall elect from among its members the General Secretary and a Political Bureau (PB) including the General Secretary. The number of members in the PB shall be decided by the Central Committee. The PB carries on the work of the Central Committee between its two sessions and has the right to take political decisions in between two meetings of the Central Committee. The election of the Party leadership also shall be based on secret ballot.

6. The Standing Committee of the PB shall carry out its day to day works.

7. a) The Central committee shall remove any member from itself for gross breach of discipline, misconduct or for anti-­Party activity by two-thirds of the members present and voting and in any case by more than half the total strength of the Central Committee voting for such removal.

b) It can fill up any vacancy occurring in its composition through co-option by simple majority of its total members.

c) In case a member or members of the Central Committee are arrested, the remaining members of the committee by a two-thirds majority can co-opt substitute members and they shall have full rights as the original members. This is applicable to lower level committees also.

8. The Central Committee shall fill up any vacancy that may occur in the Control Commission by two-thirds of the members present and voting and in any case by more than half the total strength of the Central Committee voting for the candidate.

9. The time gap between two meetings of the Central Committee shall not exceed four months and it shall meet whenever one third of its total members make a requisition.

10. The Central Committee shall discuss and decide political and organizational issues and problems of mass movement and guide the State Committees and All India Party Fractions in mass organizations.

11. The Central Committee shall submit its Political and Organizational Report before the Party Congress, whenever it is convened.

12. The Central Committee shall appoint Editorial Boards for its organs which shall function under its guidance and control.

13. The Central Committee shall make arrangements for the building up of the organization that can withstand all eventualities. This method shall be followed from the higher to the lower committees.

Article XVIII

State, District, Area, Local, Branch Committees and Party fractions

1. The highest organ in the State, District, Area, Local or Branch shall be the State, District, Area, Local or Branch Conference which elects a State, District, Area, Local or Branch Committee.

2. a) The organizational structure, the rights and functions of the State, District, Area, Local or Branch committees are similar to those enumerated in the articles concerning the Party structure and functions at the all - India level, their functions being confined to the State, District, Area, Local or Branch levels and their decisions being within the limit of the decisions taken by the next higher Party committee.

b) The State, District, Area, Local or Branch Committee shall elect a Secretary and an executive committee wherever necessary.

3. a) The primary organ of the Party is the Branch committee organized on the basis of profession or territory.

b) Party members are to be organized on the basis of their occupation or vocation, when they are working in a factory, an institute or any industry. When such units are organized the members of such units shall be associate members of the Party units in place of their residence or organized as auxiliary units there. The work to be allotted in their place of residence shall not be detrimental to the work allotted to them by their basic committees in the factory or institute or occupation;

c) The number of members in a Branch, its structure and functions and other matters relating to a Branch or unit will be determined by the State Committee.

4. State organs and publications shall be in conformity with the political and organizational line of the Central Committee.

Article – XIX

Control Commissions

1. There shall be a Central Control Commission of three members elected by the Party Congress. It shall elect a convener from among themselves.

2. The central Committee shall propose a panel of names for the Central Control Commission to the party Congress. In proposing the names for nomination, the party standing of the candidate, which shall not be less than ten years, and his experience in the Party organization and personal integrity shall be taken in to account.

3. The procedure of election shall be the same as in the case of the Central Committee.

4. The members of the Central Control Commission shall participate in the meetings of the Central Committee with the right to vote except when the question concerning disciplinary actions are taken up.

5. The Central Control Commission shall take up:

a. Cases referred to it by the Central Committee or Polit Bureau;

b. Cases where disciplinary action has been taken by the Central Committee;

c. Cases involving expulsion from the party decided upon by the Central Committee against which an appeal has been made by the member concerned;

d. All disciplinary measures taken by the Central Committee should be reported to the Central Control Commission.

6. The central Control Commission shall report its decisions to the central Committee. These decisions shall be ordinarily final and be implemented by the central Committee unless they are set aside by two-thirds majority of the members present and voting and in any case by more than half of the total strength of the Central Committee ( not counting the members of the Control Commission).

7. Every state conference shall have the right to set up a State Control Commission. The provisions of clauses 2to 7 above shall also apply to the State Control Commission, limited however, to the state. Any reference to "Central committee" or "Polit Bureau" in those clauses shall be construed as a reference to the "State Committee" with respect to the State Control Commission. All disciplinary measures taken by any party body in that state shall be reported to the State Control Commission.

8. All disciplinary actions by party committees below the level of the state committee may be appealed to the next higher committee till the state committee.

9. In all cases of disciplinary action, the final decision of the State Committee taken after the decision of the State Control Commission shall be appealable to the Central Committee and the final decision of the Central Committee taken after the decision of the Central Control Commission, shall be appealable to the Party Congress.

10. The Central Committee and the State Committee may make rules to define the detailed functioning of the Central and State Control Commissions respectively.

Article XIX A

Zonal Coordination Committees

1. There shall be a Zonal Coordination Committee for each zone, namely eastern, southern, western and northern.

2. The Central Committee shall constitute respective zonal coordination committees.

3. The members of the zonal coordination committees shall be as follows:

a. Central Committee Members from the states included in the zone;

b. Secretaries of the State Committees or State Organizing Committees representing the states included in the zone; and

c. Central Control Commission Member/s from the states included in the zone.

4. A Polit Bureau member as may be decided by the Central Committee shall be the convener of each Zonal Coordination Committee.

5. The Zonal Coordination Committee shall meet bi-monthly or in between two Central Committee meetings or as and when required.

Article-XX

Party Members in Elected Public Bodies

1. Party members elected to different public bodies including Parliament, Assemblies, corporations, municipalities, panchayats etc. shall function under the appropriate Party committee. If there is more than one member, they shall constitute themselves into a party group and function in strict conformity with the line, policies and directives of the Party. They shall always reflect the mass movement, uphold' and popularize the policy of the party and defend the interest of the people unswervingly. They shall maintain a high standard of personal integrity, lead an unostentatious life and display modesty in all their dealing and contact with the people and place the party above self.

2. They shall pay regularly and without default a levy on their earnings fixed by the appropriate party committee.

3. They shall make regular reports of their work to the electors and the people and seek their suggestion and advice.

4. All nominations of Party candidates for election to Parliament shall be subject to approval by the Central Committee. Nominations of Party candidates to the State Legislatures or the councils of centrally-administered areas shall be finalized and announced by the State Committee concerned. Rules governing the nomination of Party candidates for corporation, municipalities, district boards, local boards and panchayats shall be drawn up by State Committee.

Article XX (A)

Mandatory Provision as in Section 29A (5) of the Representation of the People Act, 1951

"The Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) shall bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established and to the principles of socialism, secularism and democracy and would uphold the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India."

Article-XXI

Inner Party Discussions

1. To unify the Party and for evolving its mass line inner Party discussion shall be a regular feature of Party life. Such discussion shall be organized on all -India scale or at different levels of the Party organization depending on the nature of the issue.

2. Inner - Party discussion shall be organized:

(a) On important questions of all India or State importance, where immediate decision is not necessary, by the Central or the State Committees of the party as the case may be, before the decision is taken;

(b) Whenever there is no sufficient majority inside the Central Committee or in the State Committees on an important question of Party policy.

(c) When an inner-Party discussion on an all India scale is demanded by a number of State Committees representing one­-third of the total Party membership or at the State level by District committees representing the same proportion of the total membership of the State concerned.

3. Inner-Party discussion shall be conducted under the guidance of the Central or the State committee which shall formulate the issues under discussion. The Party Committee which guides the discussion shall lay down the manner in which the discussion shall be conducted.

4. On certain ideological and political issues debates and discussions may be carried on even outside the organization with the knowledge of the Central Committee provided such actions do not cause damage to the unity of the Party and to the cause of Indian Revolution.

Article-XXII

Party members working in mass organizations

Party members working in mass organization and their executives shall organize themselves into fractions or fraction committees and function under the guidance of the appropriate Party committee. They must always strive to strengthen the unity, mass base and fighting capacity of the mass organizations concerned.

Article-XXIII

Finance

1. The financial resources of the party comprise of membership fees and levies of the Party members, contributions from the masses, mass organizations and individual sympathizers.

2. In order to run the Party's central apparatus, the Central Committee shall decide each year, or as the case may be, the quantum of funds each state shall pay to it through Party fund or special Party fund drive.

3. The Polit Bureau shall submit yearly accounts to the Central Committee for its approval.

4. At state and district level the secretariat of concerned committees shall submit yearly accounts to the Slate and District Committees for their approval. A copy of the approved accounts should he submitted to the next higher committee.

5. The Central Committee and the State Committee, as the case may be, may frame rules for accounting procedure ad for other matters.

6. The yearly audit of accounts of the Central Committee and State Committee shall be audited by any two members of the respective committee and the audit report shall be palced before the Congress and the Conferences for discussion and for taking further action. The accounts of the lower committees shall be audited by a panel of state committee members not less than two.

Article-XXIV

Bye-laws : The Central committee may frame rules and bye-laws under the Party Constitution and in conformity with it. Rules and bye - laws under the Party Constitution and in conformity with it may also be framed by the State Committees subject to confirmation by the Central Committee.

Article-XXV

Amendment : The Party Constitution shall be amended by the Party Congress only. The notice of proposals for amending the Constitution shall be given two months before the said Party Congress. 

 

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The Communist movement in India has a history of almost a century after the salvos of October Revolution in Russia brought Marxism-Leninism to the people of India who were engaged in the national liberation struggle against the British colonialists. It is a complex and chequered history.