Official Website of Communist Party of India, Marxist - Leninist (ML) Redstar - Documents
THE POLIT BUREAU of the Party which met on 7-8 May analyzed the national and international situation. It noted that during two years of its rule, Modi government has intensified the corporate raj and saffronization. Under these policies the vast masses, especially the dalits, adivasis, women and other oppressed classes and sections have impoverished further. The PB meeting called for intensification of the resistance struggles in all fields and for organizing campaigns focusing on following urgent questions:

A. Intensifying Draught Situation All Over the Country

Reports from different states show that the draught conditions are becoming increasingly serious. Not only agriculture and livelihood of the people are severely affected, even drinking water is becoming scarce. The neoliberal development policies have aggravated this man made draught situation. A campaign should be organized by all party committees against the neoliberal polices which devastate people’s life, and for immediate relief to affected people.

B. Oppose Action against JNUSU Leaders

The JNUSU leaders persecuted by JNU administration are continuing their indefinite hunger strike for revocation of the punishments imposed on them. The PB meeting has appealed to all student and youth organizations and progressive forces to extend support to the striking student leaders. It appeals for organizing solidarity campaigns wherever possible. [Though the struggle is now suspended following Delhi High Court staying the punitive measures announced by the JNU authorities, the mobilizations and campaigns against the saffronization of higher centres of education should be continued]

C. Significance of the Spontaneous Strike of Bangalore Garments Workers

More than half million garment workers in Bangalore city created history on 18-19 April by coming out on the streets in a spontaneous strike and paralyzing the city demanding the reversal of the orders of Modi government on PF rules. The strike not only forced the Modi government to reverse its orders, but also to highlight their living condition, earning paltry Rs. 6000 to 6500 per month for more than 10 hours of hard work. The PB meeting congratulated the garment workers for their significant struggle and extended all support to their future struggles.

D. Justice to Jisha

Jisha, a dalit girl, a student of Ernakulam Law College, was brutally assaulted and killed in her hut at Perumbavur, Kerala. Since she was staying with her mother in this small hut near a canal, the police and administration did not bother to give any serious attention to this rape and murder case. They and the corporate media gave any importance to the investigation only when through new social media people got organized and started protesting. While CPI (ML) Red Star activists joined the protest march to police station on 9th May, it fully supported and participated in the hartal call given by the dalit organizations on 10th May. The PB meeting condemned the atrocious attitude by the police of the state government n towards the murder of Jisha and has called for stringent action against the perpetrators of this crime.

E. Hands off Nepal

If last year for months the Indo-Nepal relations had faced severe crisis, with the Indian government blocking the movement of all essential commodities to this land locked Himalayan country, once again Modi government is interfering in the internal affairs of Nepal de-stabilizing consecutive governments there. The PB meeting severely condemns this big-brotherly and expansionist attitude of the Modi government towards Nepal, and calls on all party committees to organize campaigns against it.

F. World Peasants’ Conference

The PB meeting called on all Party committees to help the AIKKS committees to actively participate in the World Peasants’ Conference held at Kathmandu on 3rd, 4th and 5th June to exchange country report on the agricultural situation in different countries, to analyze the consequences of the neoliberal-corporatization policies in the agricultural sector and to develop the agrarian program to combat this. 
Resolution On Launching Theoretical Offensive For Communist Resurgence

RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE TENTH CONGRESS OF CPI(ML) RED STAR

PRESENTLY the situation in India has changed drastically. The rightist Congress led government has given way to the ultra-rightist BJP-led Government. But that is not the phenomenon only in India. The world today presents a mixed picture. On the one hand, in many Latin American countries the Left are being voted to power, and the recent success of the Syriza in Greece is quite as spectacular. On the other hand, in several countries across the globe the Right and the Ultra-Right are being returned to power with a vengeance. In Turkey, the Erdogan regime got a larger percentage of the vote after the struggle at Taksim square than before. In Nepal, the government of the UCPN (Maoist) has been replaced by the openly rightist Nepali Congress government. In Egypt, the leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood was stopped, but only by the army taking over power once again. Still, the youth in general do not appear to be attracted by the ideas put forward by the revolutionary left. Rather, their opposition to rightist regimes and policies is reflected in their gravitation towards sundry alternatives like the Aam Aadmi Party in India or the Greens, NGOs, etc., which have no radical alternatives to put forward against the reactionary ruling system which is speeding up imposition of the neo-liberal policies.

2. The situation in around 1950s was exactly the opposite. The upsurge of the international communist movement was so powerful that half of the land of the world and a third of the population were living in socialist countries. Powerful national liberation movements were challenging the vestiges of colonial domination. Strong communist parties were leading the movements of the working class and oppressed peoples in a number of countries. Since then, however, there has been a decline. It was usual for us, earlier, to blame Khruschevite revisionism for this decline. However, even the Chinese Party, even though it led the opposition to Khruschevite revisionism, itself fell prey to left deviation and, subsequently, revisionism. Many of the Marxist-Leninist parties which emerged in a large number of countries all over the world finally accepted that both the USSR and China were not socialist any more but had degenerated as imperialist countries, colluding and contending for power with US and other imperialists. However, many of these Marxist-Leninist parties have simply vanished without a trace, while many have degenerated all over the world either into becoming neo-revisionists or left adventurists. The problem with the international and national communist movement therefore is clearly not only the problem of Khruschevite revisionism or neo-revisionism or the left sectarianism that the Chinese leadership succumbed to. The solutions must be sought even deeper than this.

3. In 2004, fighting against a section within the party which wanted to go closer to the CPI(M), the then CPI(ML) Red Flag had reached a conclusion that it was necessary to unite all sections of the ML forces who were opposed to both right revisionism and left sectarianism. It undertook an experiment in this regard of forging a unity “with differences”. It was guided by the understanding that the Communist party must have a mechanism for solving all problems of programme, strategy and tactics on the basis of a democratic procedure, once the basic ideas of class struggle, dictatorship of the proletariat and democratic centralism are accepted. That our understanding and faith was misplaced is a testament of history. The section with whom the unity was forged based on the agreement that through a Conference the majority line shall be evolved and will be accepted by all as the general line for practice, rejected it, making this experiment a failure. There were gains from this experience, may not be so much in terms of membership and spread, but in terms of learning the problems that the movement faced.

4. In the subsequent All India Special Conferences in Bhopal in 2009 and in the Ninth Party Congress held at Bhubaneswar in 2011 we have succeeded to address many questions related to problems faced by the communist movement and put forward some new developments of thought. We were able to put forward our understanding of the neo-colonial phase of imperialist domination as distinguished from the colonial phase. We accepted that there has been a growth of capitalistic type of relations even in the agricultural sector while remnants of feudal relations still existed. We accepted the reality that new classes were developing in the rural areas. We were able to clearly show that Mao himself said that the foot must not be cut to fit the shoe, but rather the path of revolution in each country must follow the concrete conditions of that country. We were able to openly and without hesitation or apology reject the path of protracted people’s war for India. We have put forward the necessity to link the struggle for protection of nature with the class struggle.

5. With this new understanding also came glimpses of what was the problem with the communist movement in the world. It was no coincidence that the decline of the International Communist movement had started taking place since around 1950s, the same time as imperialism had changed from the colonial phase to the neo-colonial phase of plunder. When Marx was writing about capital, it was the stage of free competition and he naturally could not foresee that capitalism would develop into a new phase – imperialism. Around the turn of the 20th century, when capitalism was developing into imperialism and free competition was giving way to monopoly, Lenin who, having read all the literature on the subject, laid bare the machinations of the new capitalist cartels and exposed that imperialism was nothing but a higher stage of capitalism. In continuation to this the basic contradictions of this era were then put forward by the Communist International as: (1) between imperialism and the oppressed nations and peoples of the world; (2) between capital and labour; (3) between socialism and imperialism; and (4) among the various imperialist countries.

6. It was Lenin who extended the theory of the workers in the imperialist countries uniting to liberate themselves from their wage-slavery to the peoples of the exploited countries liberating themselves from imperialism. It was the Bolshevik party under the leadership of Lenin which put forward the thesis of turning the world war into civil war in Russia and of the essential link between the movement of the workers for socialism in the imperialist countries and the movement of the peoples of the oppressed nations for national liberation. It was on the basis of this understanding that the original slogan of the Communist Manifesto, ‘Workers of the World Unite’, was subsequently developed to ‘Workers and Oppressed Peoples of the World, Unite!’

7. We may well criticize this understanding of the world, in retrospect, as being inadequate. It did not say anything about the environment and ‘sustainable development’. It did not put forward a new paradigm of ‘development’. It did not give a clear enough understanding of the problem of women’s liberation. It did not even have a whiff of the need for fighting against caste, colour, ‘race’, etc. However, such a judgment would clearly smack of idealism. We would be trying to judge the leaderships and movements of those times on the anvil of today’s social structure and understanding.

8. Based on this General Line the international communist movement grew from strength to strength till the 1950s. The main thrust behind this growth was the basic line laid down by the understanding of imperialism put forward by Lenin. No doubt, this understanding had to develop – and it was developed to a very great extent. This understanding was also able to grip the masses and become a social force. Even, till after 1950s, when many countries of the world had come under neo-colonial domination, even the ruling classes in the countries under neo-colonial domination had agreed, at least in words, that colonialism and neo-colonialism must be opposed. The writings of Nkrumah on neo-colonialism, the acceptance of the Bandung Declaration and the starting of the Non-Aligned Movement were all testaments to this felt need. There was a profound change in the situation in the world around 1950s. Bretton Woods Conference had given rise to a new economic system of which the WB and the IMF were the pillars. There was a massive proliferation of MNCs. ‘Green revolutions’ started taking place in many countries all over the world. Connected to this was the political system put in place. Not only the formation of the United Nations Organization as a world body, but also the acceptance of the UN Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 which then became the basis for most of the Constitutions written during that period (though each Constitution did have its own particularities). New blocs were formed like SEATO, CENTO, NATO, Warsaw Bloc, etc. Soon discussions started on the GATT and finally in 1995 the WTO was formed. On the philosophical front, post modernism took on an ever growing role and became the theoretical backbone for the proliferation of reactionary schools of thought and became the basis of formations like NGOs.

9. The International Communist Movement responded to these changes in two ways. Firstly, under Khruschev, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union took the line that with the disappearance of colonies, imperialism itself had become very weak and that there was now no more need of revolutionary change. The Socialist camp and the imperialist camp would now peacefully coexist, compete peacefully on the market and finally, seeing the innate superiority of the socialist system, the newly independent colonies would peacefully transform themselves to socialism. The Chinese Communist Party opposed this analysis and put forward that the disappearance of colonies did not herald the disappearance of imperialism. They put forward that the old colonial system had given way to a new neo-colonial system, which, they emphasized, was more pernicious than the earlier colonial system. However, beyond this short analysis made in Apologists of neo-colonialism, the CPC did not take this further forward. The General Line document made an attempt to put forward a strategy for the communist movement in the new situation. Though it was not developed further, its contents are relevant in today’s communist movement too.

10. This clearly outlines the need for a theoretical offensive. At the international level we are one of the few parties which are now willing to see the real concrete situation. We are willing to make a self-criticism of our past and are also willing to make an attempt to rectify these mistakes. We are therefore in a stronger and more advantageous situation for undertaking such a theoretical offensive. What does such an offensive entail? a) We have to undertake a thorough study and analysis to identify the causes of the collapse of the erstwhile socialist countries, especially Soviet Union and China; b) We have to launch a vigorous ideological struggle to establish across society the superiority of communism over the present ruling system as well as over various alien trends; c) We have to develop Marxism-Leninism on the basis of a concrete analysis of the concrete situation.

11. We have already made certain theoretical gains. We have a deeper understanding today of the neo-colonial system. We have found that in India and in many other countries under neo-colonial domination, there has been an ever more capitalistic system being introduced in agriculture. We have understood the importance of the environmental question and given it the importance it deserves. Many more questions still face us, such as further studies on the nature of imperialism today, the meaning of a new paradigm of development and the building of socialism with greater democracy. We have to face such questions fearlessly and study them.

12. We must take up a clear, unsparing and scientific analysis of our past! Without this we cannot make a correct objective analysis of the present. This will mean asking a lot of uncomfortable questions and shedding some of our dearly held conceptions. This is necessary even to begin a theoretical offensive. Even during such an offensive we may, many times, come to the conclusion that many of the positions put forward by us in the past were wrong. We must be able to boldly put forward a clear and pointed self-criticism including how and why we went wrong. This requires that we must build up an atmosphere of trust, openness and frankness within the party. We must not be scared of analyzing the situation of ours and of others around us and must go, in practice, to wherever such an analysis takes us.

13. We must develop a system of propagating our ideas to the masses. To do that requires not only a good development of our publications but also a more systematic use of the social media. We have to develop such a style of writing which will help the people to clearly understand what we stand for in the concrete situation of today.

14. A party does not consist of a few thinkers and a mass of doers. Today there is a great gap in the consciousness of a few leading cadres and of the rest of the cadres in the party. A systematic method of developing the party study schools etc. must be undertaken to build up the party as a whole.

15. Even with party study schools, etc. we will not be able to propagate the ideas for a theoretical offensive on our own. We have to take the help of mass organizations like cultural organizations, anti-caste organizations, trade unions, peasants’ organizations, etc. for this purpose. We must involve all such organizations into the debate on the real questions which are facing the people today and must use their resources to propagate radical solutions for such questions.

16 The task before us is to take up the building of the communist movement in India and to play an active role in doing so in the rest of the world. A major part of this task is to take such a theoretical offensive as we have outlined above. We must boldly seize the real questions of the people in today’s situation and must scientifically search out the solutions. We must unsparingly lay bare our own history, the history of the communists in India and all over the world. We must make a base for combining with all sections of the people who are fighting against the injustice caused by the present imperialist-capitalist system – whether in intensifying human exploitation, in all forms of environmental damage, gender injustice, caste and racial injustice, persecution of minorities, etc. We must fervently organize the workers and peasants to face the new situation. Students, youth etc. must be rallied on the basis of the new understanding. It is precisely if we develop the correct theory, that we will not have to go behind the workers, peasants, youth, women, etc. – they will be drawn forward to the correct theory. This true measure of the theoretical offensive has to be grasped and carried forward. 
[Adopted by the CC Meeting of CPI(ML) Red Star held on 12-13 October, 2015]

1. THE CC OF CPI (ML) RED STAR congratulates the people of Nepal for getting the Constitution promulgated in spite of all obstacles confronted during the last seven years. At the same time, it condemns the interference of the Indian government in the internal affairs of Nepal. By arm-twisting the Constituent assembly members and the Nepal government, the Indian government was trying to make Nepal a Hindu Rashtra. The involvement of the Indian Government was clearly exposed in a letter demanding seven changes in the Constitution which the Indian government later tried to play down as “suggestions”. As a result of blockade of all its land routes from India using Madhesh struggle as a cover, a crippling situation has been created in Nepal. Our party has already issued a statement condemning the interference of the Indian government in Nepal. We also initiated a joint statement signed by various parties, organizations and individuals. The Central Committee of CPI(ML) Red Star appeals to all left and democratic forces to bring pressure on the government to stay out of the internal affairs of Nepal.

2. The developments in Greece show that the Tsipras government has sold out. Still it could win in the latest elections as there is no alternative force committed to fight austerity measures, rejecting the neo-liberal raj. When more than 60% voted against austerity measures in the referendum, in the present elections people massively abstained from voting, showing their continuing opposition to neo-liberal policies. The Central Committee of CPI(ML) Red Starextends full support to the people of Greece to take forward their struggle against the troika of IMF-European Central Bank-European Union, who are imposing the austerity measures.

3. On 5th October 2015, the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) became a reality. This is a trade partnership between 12 countries on the Pacific Rim including the US, New Zealand, Australia, Canada and Japan. The clauses of this pact have been shrouded in secrecy, and it seems it includes clauses on further extending patents and Intellectual Property Rights. It presents “grave risks” and “serves the interests of the wealthiest” according to progressive forces. In 2014, Noam Chomsky warned that the TPP is “designed to carry forward the neoliberal project to maximize profit and domination, and to set the working people in the world in competition with one another so as to further lower wages to increase insecurity”. The Central Committee of CPI(ML) Red Star calls on all progressive forces to expose and resist this treaty.

4. The migration question in Europe is an ongoing crisis. The face of the young Aylan Kurdi has become the face of the migration problem. There were many attempts to trick the migrants in trains entering Europe by diverting whole trains. The surfacing of this problem shows the deteriorating state of affairs in the regions of North Africa, Central Asia and West and South Asia from where most of the migrants are coming. The problem is a creation of imperialist – mainly US imperialist – intervention and aggression in the region and still the imperialists refuse to take responsibility of even a small section of the millions of refugees. This exposes the barbaric nature of these forces. Instead of treating the migrants with humanitarian concern, they are being treated in a rude and ham-handed manner by the US and European authorities. The Central Committee of CPI(ML) Red Star severely condemns this inhuman attitude of imperialists and calls on all progressive forces to support the cause of the migrants and their right to get asylum as refugees from imperialist aggression.

5. The UN summit on sustainable development has turned out into a big tamasha. Following the 8-point millennium development goals (MDGs) set up in 2000, and after further deliberations at the Rio Summit on Sustainable Development (Rio + 20), the UN has now adopted a charter of around 17 goals which are to be achieved over the next 15 years to bring forth sustainable development. Going from such platitudes as ending hunger and poverty and the right to water the goals are aimed, unlike the MDGs of 2000, not at governments alone but mainly at the private corporations. So now the saving of the environment (and removing poverty and hunger) has been left to the tender mercies of “corporates’ social responsibility”. Without a word of criticism about the non-achievement of the MDGs of 2000, the imperialists and their lackeys are conveniently stepping over to the new ‘17 commandments’ of the sustainable development goals. The Central Committee severely condemns these imperialist moves under the banner of sustainable development and calls on all progressive forces to oppose the present development perspective of the imperialist system which devastates nature and to campaign for a people-oriented development which only can protect nature and ecology.

6. The election of Jeremy Corbyn, a left wing leader, as the leader of the Labour Party in the UK shows the frustration of the working class there with leaders who compromise with the established imperialist policies. Corbyn is an advocate of the re-nationalisation of public utilities including the railways, abolishing university tuition fees and restoring student grants, a unilateral policy of nuclear disarmament, ‘People’s Quantitative Easing’ to fund infrastructure and renewable energy projects, and reversing cuts to public sector and welfare funding made since 2010; proposing combating tax evasion and avoidance by corporations and wealthy individuals, and reducing business subsidies, as an alternative to the government’s austerity programme. The cutting of social welfare and social spending in the UK has clearly had its effect on the labour voters. The Central Committee of CPI(ML) Red Star welcomes this as a sign of the left swing slowly taking place in many European countries.

7. The Malabar Exercise this year has seen the Japanese Navy also being involved in this in the Bay of Bengal for the first time. Earlier, India hosted this exercise when the US was the only other participant. The exercise, whenever it involved others, was off the coast of Japan. This shows the increasing closeness of the Indian government with the US imperialists’ alliance. The Central Committee of CPI(ML) Red Star condemns this exercise and subservience of Indian govt. to US imperialism and demands its dissolution
1. The CC of CPI(ML) Red Star congratulate the people of Nepal for getting the Constitution promulgated in spite of all obstacles confronted during last seven years. At the same time, it condemns the interference of the Indian government in the internal affairs of Nepal. By arm-twisting the Constituent assembly members and the Nepal government it was trying to make Nepal a Hindu Rashtra. As a result of blockade of all its land routs from India using Madhesh struggle as a cover, a crippling situation is created in Nepal. The involvement of the Indian Government was clearly exposed in a letter demanding seven changes in the Constitution which the Indian government later tried to play down as “suggestions”. Our party has already issued a statement condemning the interference of Indian government in Nepal. We also initiated a joint statement signed by various parties, organizations and individuals. The CC appeals to all left and democratic forces have to bring pressure on the government to stay out of the internal affairs of Nepal.

2. The developments in Greece show that the Tsipras government has sold out. Still it could win in the latest elections as there is no alternative force committed to fight austerity measures, rejecting the neo-liberal raj. When more than 60% voted against austerity measures in the referendum, in the present elections people massively abstained from voting, showing their continuing opposition to neo-liberal policies. The CC extends full support to the people of Greece to take forward their struggle against the troika of IMF- European Central Bank- European Union who are imposing the austerity measures..

3. On 5th October 2015, the Trans Pacific Partnership has become a reality. This is a trade partnership between 12 countries on the pacific rim including the US, New Zealand, Australia, Canada and Japan. The clauses of this pact have been shrouded in secrecy, and it seems it includes clauses on further extending patents and Intellectual Property Rights. It presents "grave risks" and "serves the interests of the wealthiest" according to progressive forces. In 2014, Noam Chomsky warned that the TPP is "designed to carry forward the neoliberal project to maximize profit and domination, and to set the working people in the world in competition with one another so as to further lower wages to increase insecurity". The CC calls on all progressive forces to expose and resist these treaty.

4. The migration question in Europe is an ongoing crisis. The face of the young Aylan Kurdi has become the face of the migration problem. There were many attempts to trick the migrants in trains entering Europe by diverting whole trains. This problem surfacing shows the deteriorating state of affairs in the regions of North Africa, Central Asia and West and South Asia from where most of the migrants are coming. That it is a creation of imperialist, mainly US imperialist, intervention and aggression in the region and still they refuse to take responsibility of even a small section of the millions of refugees expose the barbaric nature of these forces. Instead of treating the migrants coming with humanitarian concern, they are being treated in rude and ham-handed manner by the US and European authorities. The CC severely condemn these inhuman attitude of imperialists and calls on all progressive forces to support the cause of the migrants and their right to get asylum as refugees from imperialist aggressions.

5. The UN summit on sustainable development has turned out as a big tamasha. Following on the 8 point millennium development goals set up in 2000, and after further deliberations at the Rio Summit on Sustainable Development (Rio + 20), the UN has now adopted a charter of around 17 goals which are to be observed over the next 15 years to bring forth sustainable development. Going from such platitudes as ending hunger and poverty and the right to water the goals are aimed, unlike the MDG of 2000, not at governments alone but mainly at the private corporations. So now the saving of the environment (and removing poverty and hunger) has been left to the tender mercies of “corporates’ social responsibility”. Without a word of criticism about the non-achievement of the MDG of 2000, the imperialists and their lackeys are conveniently stepping over to the new 17 commandments of the sustainable development goals. The CC severely condemns these imperialist moves under the banner of sustainable development and calls on all progressive forces to oppose the present development perspective of the imperialist system which devastates nature and to campaign for a people oriented development which only can protect nature and ecology.

6. The election of Jeremy Corbyn, a left wing leader, as the leader of the Labour Party in UK shows the frustration of the working class there with leaders who compromise with the established imperialist policies. He advocates the re-nationalisation of public utilities and of the railways, abolishing university tuition fees and restoring student grants, a unilateral policy of nuclear disarmament, "People's Quantitative Easing" to fund infrastructure and renewable energy projects, and reversing cuts to public sector and welfare funding made since 2010; proposing combating tax evasion and avoidance by corporations and wealthy individuals, and reducing business subsidies, as an alternative to the government's austerity programme. The cutting of social welfare and social spending in the UK has clearly had its effect on the labour voters. The CC welcomes this as a sign of the left swing slowly taking place in many European countries.

7. The Malabar Exercise this year has seen Japanese Navy also being involved in this in the Bay of Bengal for the first time. Earlier, India only hosted this exercise when the US was the only other participant. The exercise, whenever it involved others was off the coast of Japan. This shows the increasing closeness of the Indian government with the US imperialist’ alliance. The CC condemns this exercise and subservience of Indian government to US imperialism and demand its dissolution.

Central Committee, CPI (ML) Red Star.
The CC meeting has called to Observe 6th December as “Anti- Saffronisation Day” with slogans “Resist conspiracy to turn India into Hindu Rashtra” and “Fight to save Right to Freedom of Thought, Food and Culture”. Recognizing the gravity of the intensifying communal danger with under currents of increasing fascist threats to the polity, the CC has called for chalking out plans independently and wherever possible joining with like minded forces by the Party committees and make the campaign and 6th December programs militant and vigourous.

 

The Central Committee meeting of CPI (ML) Red Star calls on all Party Committees to Observe 7th November, the 98th anniversary of the Russian revolution with the slogan “Peace, Bread and Democracy” (Shanti, Roti and Janwad), starting from grass root level campaigns and culminating with state level mobilizations. In the context of the year long campaign planned from 7th November 2016 to celebrate the Centenary of the October Revolution with revolutionary zeal, the CC calls on the Party committees to take up this campaign linking spirit of proletarian internationalism with the people’s issues.

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vUrjjk"Vªh; ifjfLFkfr

1-1       o"kZ 2008 ds mÙkjk/kZ esa vkfFkZd ladV ds QwV iM+us ds yxHkx Ng lky ckn vkt Hkh vUrjjk"Vªh; ifjfLFkfr oSlh gh fujk'kktud cuh gqbZ gS A pwafd iwathoknh lap; dks xfr iznku djus okyh dh pkfydk 'kfDr] ;kuh fd] iwath fuos'k dh j¶rkj vc Hkh lqLr gS] blfy, lkezkT;okn ds lcls vk'kkoku vkdyuksa esa Hkh bl ckr dks [kkfjt dj fn;k x;k gS fd ladV ls igys tks fodkl nj Fkh mls fQj ls izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gS A lHkh txg ds 'kkld oxksZa us ladV ls NqVdkjk ikus dk cgkuk cukdj ekuotkfr ds Åij ftu uo&mnkjoknh uhfr;ksa dks ykn fn;k gS mlus iwjh nqfu;k dks lêsckth] eqnzkLQhfr ¼egaxkbZ½] csjkstxkjh] ferO;f;rk ¼tu dY;k.k ds enksa esa dVkSrh½] eUnh] lkekftd lM+u vkSj lkaLd`frd v/k%iru ds xrZ esa /kdsy fn;k gS A gkykafd o"kZ 2010&2012 ds nkSjku lkezkT;oknh [kses }kjk ^igys dh fLFkfr esa okilh* ¼fjdojh½ dk [kwc <ksy ihVk x;k Fkk] ysfdu la;qDr jk"Vªla?k ¼UN½] vUrjjk"Vªh; Je laxBu ¼ILO½ vkSj ;gka rd fd czsVuoqM~l tksM+h ¼fo'o cSad vkSj vUrjjk"Vªh; eqnzk dks"k½ lesr fofHkUu vUrjjk"Vªh; ,tsfUl;ksa }kjk fiNys fnuksa tkjh fd;s x;s vkadM+ksa us bl <ksy dh iksy dks [kksy fn;k gS A budh fjiksVksZa esa dgk x;k gS fd vc Hkh mRiknu esa Bgjko vkSj csjkstxkjh dh fLFkfr cuh gqbZ gS A reke lwpdkad bl vksj b'kkjk dj jgs gSa fd fudV Hkfo"; esa mRiknu esa Bgjko vkSj eqnzkLQhfr ¼Bgjk&LQhfr ½ ls lacaf/kr lHkh udkjkRed #>ku vkSj T;knk izcy gksaxs A lewps lkezkT;oknh txr esa vkSj lkFk gh uo&mifuosf'kd izHkqRo ds ekrgr ns'kksa esa jkstxkj dk l`tu djus okys mRiknd {ks=ksa esa rktk iwath fuos'k [krjukd xfr ls de gks jgk gS rFkk foÙkh; iwathifr;ksa ¼FkSyh'kkgksa½ dh ,dek= :fp iSlk&drkbZ ds lêk dkjksckj ds xqCckjs dks Qqykus esa gS A blds QyLo:i O;ikd turk dh miHkksx {kerk ?kV jgh gS ftlus xSj&cjkcjh vkSj xjhch dks Hk;kog Lrj ij igqapk fn;k gS vkSj cktkj dks ladqfpr dj fn;k gS A

1-2       vkt ds uo&mnkjokn dk ,d lkQ utj vkus okyk y{k.k gS csjkstxkjh vkSj v)Z&csjkstxkjh dk og Hk;kog Lrj ftldh iwathokn ds bfrgkl esa nwljh felky ugha gS A blus vkt lewph nqfu;k dks ^csjkstxkjksa ds dpj[kkuk* esa cny fn;k gS A ,d rjQ c<+rh csjkstxkjh ftlds QyLo:i jk"Vªh; vk; esa esgrud'k turk dh fgLlsnkjh vis{kkd`r de gks xbZ gS] vkSj nwljh rjQ thouksi;ksxh oLrqvksa dh dherksa esa o`f)] ;s nksuksa feydj ,d ,sls /kwrZ ;a= dk fuekZ.k djrs gSa tks lkezkT;oknh ns'kksa vkSj uo&mifuosf'kd izHkqRo ds ekrgr ns'kksa esa foÙk iwathifr;ksa ds i{k esa vkSj lkFk gh nwljs rjg ds ns'kksa ds ekeys esa xzkeh.k HkwLokfe;ksa ds i{k esa vkenuh dk lyhds ls iqu% Hkkx&caVokjk djrk gS A iwathokn bruk iru'khy vkSj ej.kklUu gks x;k gS fd vkt mRiknu ds ctk;] vkenuh vkSj lEink dk iqu% Hkkx&caVokjk gh mlds }kjk fd;s tkus okys lEifÙk gj.k dk vk/kkj cu x;k gS vkSj vkt blds tfj, gh iwathoknh lap; dh izfØ;k lapkfyr gks jgh gS A ,d ,sls le; esa tc mRiknu esa Bgjko vkSj eqnzkLQhfr ds pyrs jkstxkj o`f) dh nj xksrk yxkrs gq, fxj jgh gS vkSj eqnzkoknh uhfr;ksa ds pyrs vkenuh esa xSj&cjkcjh [krjukd <ax ls c<+ jgh gS] fQj Hkh uo&mnkjoknh fo'o O;oLFkk esa dkjiksjsV equkQk vkleku Nw jgk gS A ,d rjQ ^^csgn xjhc yksxksa** dh la[;k esa vHkwriwoZ o`f) gks jgh gS tks ftUnk jgus ds fy, vko';d U;wure Hkkstu] vkokl vkSj fpfdRlk lqfo/kk ls oafpr gSa] rks nwljh rjQ dkjiksjsV dqyifr;ksa }kjk lEink dk cs'keZ vkSj [kqyk izn'kZu fd;k tk jgk gS A ;s nksuksa ckrsa vkt uo&mnkjoknh /ku lap; dk vfHkUu vax cu pqdh gSa A vUrjkZ"Vªh; Je laxBu ¼vkbZ,lyvks½ ds rktk fo'o laj{k.k fjiksVZ ¼World Protection Report½ 2014&15 ds eqrkfcd] nqfu;k ds iSekus ij Hkkstu ds vHkko esa ikap o"kZ ls de vk;q ds 18000 cPpksa dh jkstkuk ekSr gks jgh gS A foxr fnuksa 200 ns'kksa esa izkFkfed LokLF; lsok] ekr` ,oa f'k'kq laj{k.k vkSj etnwjkas ,oa o`)tuksa dh fLFkfr dk vkadyu djus ds fy, ,d v/;;u fd;k x;k Fkk ftlesa ik;k x;k gS fd bu lsokvksa dh miyC/krk esa o"kZ 2012 dh rqyuk esa o"kZ 2013 esa vkSlru 37 izfr'kr dh deh vkbZ gS A fo'o Lrj ij] ldy ?kjsyw mRikn ¼thMhih½ dk ek= 0-4 izfr'kr gh cky dY;k.k ij [kpZ fd;k tkrk gS A tgka ;wjksih; la?k esa cky laj{k.k ds fy, thMhih dk 2-2 izfr'kr [kpZ fd;k tkrk gS] ogha vesfjdk esa 0-69 izfr'kr vkSj vÝhdk ,oa ,f'k;k&iz'kkar ns'kksa esa ek= 0-2 izfr'kr [kpZ fd;k tkrk gS A o"kZ 2013 esa nqfu;k esa dsoy 25 izfr'kr dk;Zjr efgykvksa dks gh ekr`Ro ykHk izkIr gqvk Fkk A vesfjdk tks vkt Hkh ,d vxz.kh lkezkT;oknh 'kfDr gS] vkseku] U;w xq,uk vkfn ds lkFk mu ns'kksa ds lewg esa 'kkfey gS tks efgyk dkexkjksa dks osru lesr U;wure ekr`Ro ykHk Hkh iznku ugha djrs gSa A o"kZ 2008 ls 2013 ds chp lkezkT;oknh ns'kksa esa csjkstxkjh 45 izfr'kr c<+ xbZ gS vkSj 48 izfr'kr dSfn;ksa dks isU'ku flLVe ls ckgj /kdsy fn;k x;k gS A foxr nl o"kksZa ds nkSjku 2 Mkyj izfrfnu ls de ij xqtkjk djus okys vesfjdh ifjokjksa dh la[;k nqxuh ls T;knk gks xbZ gS A o"kZ 2013 esa gj ikap esa ls ,d ¼yxHkx 20 izfr'kr½ vesfjdh ifjokj ^^[kkn~; vlqj{kk** ls ihfM+r Fkk A vkt vesfjdk] ftldh okLrfod vFkZO;oLFkk fldqM+dj ml Lrj ij igqap xbZ ftldh rqyuk egkeUnh ds fnuksa ls dh tk ldrh gS] vius bfrgkl ds fdlh Hkh vU; le; dh vis{kk T;knk xSj&cjkcjh lekt cu x;k gS A vkt ogka Åij ds 10 izfr'kr yksxksa ds ikl jk"Vªh; vk; dk 50 izfr'kr fgLlk gS vkSj os rhu&pkSFkkbZ jk"Vªh; lEink ds ekfyd gSa A ;g lc 2008 esa 'kq: gqbZ oSf'od eUnh ds ckn ogka ds foÙk iwathifr;ksa dks <gus ls cpkus ds fy, mBk;s x;s uo&mnkjoknh dneksa dk lh/kk urhtk gS A blls tgka vesfjdk vkSj ;wjksih; la?k esa O;kid turk dh vkfFkZd o lkekftd voLFkk cnrj gqbZ gS] ogha bl izfØ;k esa tks cqycqyk fufeZr gqvk gS og ,d ckj fQj ls QwVus ds dxkj ij gS A ekStwnk ijthoh O;oLFkk ds Hkhrj bl vUrjfojks/k dk dksbZ lek/kku ugha gS vkSj dsoy lekt ds Økafrdkjh :ikarj.k ds }kjk gh bldk lek/kku fd;k tk ldrk gS A

1-3       lkezkT;oknh ns'kksa vkSj uo&mifuosf'kd izHkqRo ds ekrgr ns'kksa dh ;g uktqd ifjfLFkfr vis{kkd`r ,d ubZ ifj?kVuk gS A ,d ,sls le; esa dkjiksjsV equkQk vius pje ij gS tc vkfFkZd ladV lcls xgjk gS ftldh vfHkO;fDr mRiknu esa Bgjko vkSj osru esa deh ds :i esa gks jgh gS A foÙkh; iwath ds tUetkr ijthohiu vkSj lM+u ds pyrs] equkQs ds ,d cM+s fgLls dk bLrseky mRiknu {kerk esa o`f) gsrq foÙkiks"k.k ds fy, ;k ykHkizn vkS|ksfxd miØeksa esa fuos'k ds fy, ugha fd;k tk jgk gS] cfYd bldk bLrseky 'ks;jksa dh [kjhn ds fy,] 'ks;jksa ds Hkko dks c<+kus ds fy, vkSj thUlksa ds ok;nk dkjksckj ds fy, fd;k tk jgk gS] ftlds pyrs lHkh oLrqvksa ds nke vkleku Nwus yxs gSa A jh;y bLVsV ¼Hkw&ifjlEink½] eqnzk] 'ks;j vkSj ok;nk cktkj esa lêsckth vkSj blds lkFk tqM+h Hkz"V lkSnsckth ds pyrs foÙkh; ijthohiu ;k ^;kjkuk iwathokn* us iwjh nqfu;k dks rsth ls viuh fxj¶r esa ys fy;k gS A vFkZO;oLFkk esa VwVu vkSj jkstxkjghurk dk nkSj tkjh gS] ysfdu lHkh txg ds 'kkld oxZ] turk ls tqM+s ewyHkwr lokyksa dks gy djus ds ctk;] vkleku Nwrs foÙkh; lwpdkadksa dks iwathokn dh thou'kfDr dk lPpk ladsr crkrs gq, mlds Lrqfrxku esa exu gSa rFkk etnwj oxZ ,oa esgrud'k turk ds da/kksa ij T;knk&ls&T;knk cks> Mkydj dkjiksjsV equkQs dh mM+ku Hkjrh nj dks tk;t Bgjk jgs gSa A dksbZ vU; jkLrk ugha jg tkus ij] lkezkT;okn }kjk ferO;f;rk ds dk;ZØeksa ds tfj, lkoZtfud lalk/kuksa dks futh frtksjh esa Hkjdj bl ladV dks gy djus dk iz;kl fd;k tk jgk gS] ftlls turk dh Ø; 'kfDr yxkrkj de gksrh tk jgh gS vkSj ladV vlk/; gksrk tk jgk gS A ;g ,d ckj fQj ls js[kkafdr djrk gS fd lkezkT;oknh O;oLFkk O;ogkfjd gS A

1-4       lkezkT;oknh ns'kksa vkSj uo&mifuosf'kd izHkqRo ds ekrgr ns'kksa ds etnwj oxZ vkSj mRihfM+r turk ds da/kksa ij bl fujarj rhoz gksrs ladV ds cks> dks Mkydj vesfjdk ds usr`Ro okys lkezkT;okn vkSj mlds vuqpjksa }kjk dkjiksjsV equkQs dks Nykax yxkdj c<+kus esa enn dh tk jgh gS A muds bl dne dk nqfu;k ds lHkh fgLlksa esa fofHkUu :iksa esa ^^oky LVªhV ij dCtk djks** tSls vkUnksyu vkSj rkuk'kkgh 'kkluksa ds f[kykQ fo'kky tumHkkj ls ysdj Hkkjr esa Hkz"Vkpkj fojks/kh vkUnksyu rd izfrjks/k gks jgk gS A vukt ,oa vU; thouksi;ksxh oLrqvksa dh vkleku Nwrh dherksa] Hkz"Vkpkj] efgykvksa ds oLrqdj.k vkSj ySafxd HksnHkko] i;kZoj.k ,oa lkaLd`frd {kj.k vkSj jktdh; neu ,oa dBksj la?k"kksZa ls gkfly tuoknh vf/kdkjksa ds guu ds f[kykQ nqfu;k Hkj esa gks jgs la?k"kZ vkSj tufonzksg vke ifjn`'; cu x;s gSa A usiky dk tufonzksg <kbZ lkS lky iqjkus jkt'kkgh dks m[kkM+ Qsadus esa lQy jgk gS A mÙkjh vÝhdk vkSj if'pe ,f'k;k esa ;s tufonzksg brus rkdroj Fks fd mlus V~;qfuf'k;k vkSj felz tSls ns'kksa esa n'kdksa ls pyh vk jgh rkuk'kkgh dh tM+kas dks m[klM+ fn;k Fkk A fdUrq rFkkdfFkr okeiaFkh rkdrksa ds oSpkfjd fnokfy;kiu ds dkj.k] ;k la?k"kksZa dks jktuhfrd fn'kk vkSj usr`Ro iznku djus esa l{ke rkdroj dE;qfuLV ikfVZ;ksa ds vHkko ds dkj.k bu ns'kksa esa foÙk iwath ds lkFk fdlh&u&fdlh :i esa tqM+s jgs ^jktuhfrd bLyke* ;k /kkfeZd dêjiaFkh rkdrksa dks fQj ls lÙkk esa vkus esa enn feyh A lkezkT;okn }kjk iwath ds 'kklu ds fo:) nqfu;k dh turk ds izfrjks/k ls fuiVus ds fy, lHkh txg izfrfØ;koknh rkdrksa dks vkxs fd;k tk jgk gS A bl izfØ;k esa og ekStwnk Vdjkoksa dks rst dj jgk gS vkSj u;s Vdjkoksa dks tUe ns jgk gS A vesfjdk ds usr`Ro okys lkezkT;okn us vÝhdk ds dbZ lkjs ns'kksa esa 'kklu O;oLFkk ds fo:) turk esa [kncnkrs vlarks"k dks vkfnoklh xqVksa ds vkilh Vdjko dh fn'kk esa eksM+ fn;k gS A vesfjdk ds usr`Ro okyk lkezkT;okn yhfc;k tSls ns'kksa esa 'kkld cnydj mldh txg vius dBiqryh dks cSBkus esa lQy jgk gS A mØsu esa vesfjdk vkSj ukVks ds gLr{ksi ds pyrs :l ds lkFk vUrj&lkezkT;oknh vUrjfojks/k rh[kk gks x;k gS A vesfjdk vkSj mlds ;wjksih; fe= ns'kksa }kjk lhfj;k esa x`g;q) tSlh fLFkfr fufeZr dh xbZ gS ftlds pyrs ?kksj dêjiaFkh bLykfed LVsV vkWQ bjkd ,.M lhfj;k ¼ISIS½ us flj mBk;k gS A vkt bjkd dks bldk xaHkhj nq"ifj.kke Hkqxruk iM+ jgk gS tks vesfjdk ds dBiqryh f'k;k 'kkldksa }kjk 'kkflr gS A blds QyLo:i lqUuh vkSj f'k;k ds chp x`g;q) yxkrkj rst gksrk tk jgk gS tks ogka ds 'ks"k cps lkekftd rkukckus dks Hkh fNUu&fHkUu djrk tk jgk gS A ;g vesfjdk dks viuh if'pe ,f'k;k j.kuhfr dks fQj ls r; djus ds fy, ck/; dj jgk gS A vesfjdk }kjk lefFkZr btjk;y ds ;gwnhoknh rkdrsa xktk iêh vkSj osLV cSad esa turk dk dRysvke dj jgs gSa A vesfjdk }kjk vQxkfuLrku ls okilh ds Lokax us ogka vkSj Hkh T;knk leL;kvksa dks iSnk fd;k gS A ,d rjQ phu dks vyxko esa Mkyus okyh vkSj tkiku dks fQj ls viuh lsuk cukus dh btktr nsus okyh vesfjdk dh ^,f'k;k dks ?kqjh* cukus dh uhfr vkSj nwljh rjQ phu vkSj :l ds chp u;k j.kuhfrd vkfFkZd o lSfud xBtksM+] ;g iwohZ ;wjksi ds leku gh iwohZ ,f'k;k esa vUrj&lkezkT;oknh Vdjko dks rst dj jgk gS A

1-5       bl chp nf{k.k vesfjdh ns'kksa esa] ftls mUuhloha lnh ls gh vesfjdk ds vkaxu ds :i esa fpf=r fd;k tkrk jgk gS] ogka vesfjdk dh opZLodkjh fLFkfr dkQh detksj gqbZ gS A nf{k.k vesfjdk ds dbZ ns'kksa esa 1980 ds n'kd vkjEHk esa vesfjdk lefFkZr lSfud rkuk'kkgh ds f[kykQ izxfr'khy yksdrkaf=d vkUnksyu mB [kM+k gqvk Fkk A blds i'pkr] 1980 ds vafre o"kksZa esa vUrjjk"Vªh; eqnzk dks"k }kjk Fkksi fn;s x;s <kapkxr lek;kstu dk;ZØeksa ds f[kykQ] ftlus ogka ^^dtZ dk ladV** iSnk dj fn;k Fkk] yxkrkj tu izfrjks/k gksrs jgs] ftls ^^vkbZ,e,Q fojks/kh naxk** dh laKk nh xbZ Fkh A blds vykok] 1990 ds n'kd esa vesfjdk dh lSU; mifLFkfr cuk;s j[kus dks tk;t Bgjkus ds fy, 'khr;q) dk gokyk nsuk Hkh ekU; dkj.k ugha jg x;k Fkk A ;s lc cM+s dkjd Fks ftlus ogka vesfjdk ds n'kdksa yEcs uo&mifuosf'kd j.kuhfr dks pqukSrh nh A urhts esa osustq,yk] cksfyfo;k] fudkjkxqvk] bDokMksj tSls ns'kksa esa jk"Vªoknh vkSj lkezkT;okn&fojks/kh :>ku j[kus okyh dbZ izxfr'khy ljdkjsa lÙkk esa vkbZ gSa tks D;qck ds lkFk feydj isVªksfy;e tSls vko';d izkd`frd lalk/kuksa dk jk"Vªh;dj.k djds vkSj fofHkUu tu dY;k.kdkjh uhfr;ksa dks ykxw djds nf{k.k vesfjdh ns'kksa esa vesfjdk ds gLr{ksi dk izfrjks/k dj jgh gSa A bl fof'k"V ifjfLFkfr esa] tks vesfjdh lkezkT;okn igys gh ladV&xzLr ?kjsyw vFkZO;oLFkk ds cks> ls ynk gS] ftls bjkd vkSj vQxkfuLrku esa ,d ds ckn ,d lSU; eqlhcrksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+k gS] ftlus pknj ls ckgj rd ikao ilkj fy;k gSa vkSj ftlds fy, f}rh; fo'o ;q) ds ckn dkQh ifjJe ls fufeZr uo&mifuosf'kd Hkw&jktuhfrd O;oLFkk dks lEHkky ikuk dBhu gks jgk gS] vkt og nf{k.k vesfjdk esa fd;s x;s vius lSU; fuos'k ds ,d cM+s fgLls dks if'pe ,f'k;k] mÙkjh vÝhdk] ,f'k;k&iz”kkUr {ks= dh vksj vkSj gky esa :l ds lkFk c<+rs Vdjko ds eÌsutj iwohZ ;wjksi dh vksj eksM+us ds fy, ck/; gks x;k gS A

1-6       blds lkFk&lkFk] ,d rjQ rks vU; lkezkT;oknh 'kfDr;ksa ds cjvDl vesfjdk vkfFkZd rkSj ij rqyukRed :i ls detksj gqvk gS] ogha nwljh rjQ phu ,d lkezkT;oknh 'kfDr ds :i esa mHkjdj lkeus vk;k gS vkSj nqfu;k ds nwljs uEcj dh lcls cM+h vFkZO;oLFkk ds :i esa mldh fLFkfr dks lHkh Lohdkj djrs gSa A ;g ,d u;k fodklØe gS A lLrs Je ds vius vikj lzksr ds cy ij phu lLrh etnwjh okys fofuekZ.k gc ds :i esa mHkjk gS A og vius fy, fu;kZr ds cktkj vkSj dPps eky ds lzksrksa dks rjk'kus esa lQy jgk gS vkSj mlus ,f'k;k] iz'kkar ,oa vÝhdk esa viuk uo&mifuosf'kd izHkko {ks= dk;e fd;k gS A bl dkj.k phu ds ukSdj'kkg jktdh; btkjsnkj iwathokn dk vU; lkezkT;oknh 'kfDr;ksa ds lkFk] fo'ks"k :i ls vesfjdk vkSj tkiku ds lkFk Vdjko c<+k gS A vkt nqfu;k esa phu dk lcls cM+s fu;kZrd ds :i esa LFkku gS A vesfjdk ds lkFk mldk c<+rk O;kikj vf/k'ks"k bruk T;knk gks x;k gS fd ;g vFkZ'kkL= ds fyf[kr bfrgkl esa lcls Åaps Lrj ij igqap x;k gS A blls vesfjdk dh eqnzk Mkyj ij voewY;u dk ncko iM+ jgk gS A lkFk gh] viuh uo&mifuosf'kd egRokdka{kk ds eÌsutj] phu viuh lsukvksa dks lqn`<+ cuk jgk gS ftlds dkj.k tkiku ds lkFk mldk Vdjko c<+ jgk gS A vkSj lcls cM+h ckr gS fczDl lewg ¼czkthy] :l] Hkkjr] phu vkSj nf{k.k vÝhdk ds lewg½ esa phu dh usr`Rodkjh Hkwfedk A bu ckrksa us lkezkT;oknh 'kfDr;ksa dh vkilh izfr}fU}rk esa u;k vk;ke tksM+ fn;k gS A vesfjdk }kjk tkiku ds lkFk feydj phu ds f[kykQ dh tk jgh viuh lkft'kksa esa Hkkjr dks] tks bl vapy esa mlds tqfu;j ikVZujksa esa ,d gS] ,oa vU; ns'kksa dks 'kkfey djus dk iz;kl fd;k tk jgk gS A blls lEiw.kZ nf{k.k ,f'k;k vkSj iwoZ ,f'k;k Vdjko&xzLr {ks= esa rCnhy gksrk tk jgk gS A gkykafd uo&mifuosf'kd O;oLFkk ds vxz.kh lkezkT;oknh f[kykM+h ds :i esa vkt Hkh lHkh txg vesfjdk dh izR;{k ;k ijks{k Hkkxhnkjh utj vkrh gS] fdUrq lkezkT;oknh O;oLFkk ds vUnj rqyukRed Qsjcny vk tkus ds dkj.k 'khr&;q) ds ckn tks nqfu;k vesfjdk ds izHkqRodkjh Hkwfedk ds lkFk ,d&/kqzoh; gks xbZ Fkh] vkt og cgq&/kqzoh; gksrh tk jgh gS vkSj lkezkT;oknh 'kfDr;ksa dk vkilh vUrjfojks/k rhoz gks jgk gS A

1-7       bu lcds ifj.kkeLo:i] fo'o Lrj ij lHkh izeq[k vUrjfojks/k lkezkT;okn vkSj mRihfM+r turk ,oa jk"Vªksa ds chp vUrjfojks/k] iwath vkSj Je ds chp vUrjfojks/k] lkezkT;okn vkSj lektoknh rkdrksa ds chp vUrjfojks/k rFkk lkezkT;oknh ns'kkas ,oa btkjsnkj xqVksa dk vkil esa vUrjfojks/k  vf}rh; :i ls rst gks x;s gSa A blds vykok] vkt izd`fr dh ywV foÙk iwath }kjk lap; dk ,d izeq[k tfj;k cu x;k gS A foÙk iwath ds vUrjjk"Vªh; Lo:i xzg.k djrs tkus ds dkj.k vkt ekuotkfr i;kZoj.k dh foink dk ml Lrj ij lkeuk dj jgk gS tks mlds fy, vc rd vutkuk Fkk A QyLo:i] nqfu;k esa turk dk vius vkokl LFkyksa ls foLFkkiu ds f[kykQ rst gksrk izfrjks/k vkSj Åij ls Fkksih xbZ vkinkvksa] tSls fd rkts ikuh ds vHkko] catj gksrh tehu] ouksa ds fouk'k] jlk;uhd iznw"k.k vkSj lcls c<+dj ijek.kq m|ksx }kjk QSyk;s tk jgs jsfM;ks&,fDVo iznw"k.k ds f[kykQ vkUnksyu] ftudk dkjiksjsV iwath dh fgUld ywV ds lkFk vfHkUu laca/k gS] ;s lHkh vkt oxZ la?k"kZ ds ,d izeq[k j.k{ks= cu x;s gSa A blfy,] mijksDr pkj izeq[k vUrjfojks/kksa ds lkFk gh iwath vkSj izd`fr ds chp vUrjfojks/k ikapoka izeq[k vUrjfojks/k cu x;k gS rFkk vU; pkj ds lkFk&lkFk bl vUrjfojks/k dk lek/kku djuk Hkh vUrjjk"Vªh; loZgkjk dk ,d izeq[k dk;ZHkkj gks x;k gS A

1-8       vUrjjk’Vªh; Lrj ij ,d&/kqzoh; nqfu;k dh txg cgq&/kqzoh; nqfu;k lkeus vk;h gS A lkezkT;oknh rkdrksa ds chp vUrjfojks/k rh[kk gks x;k gS A ,d rjQ lkezkT;okn] fo”ks’k :i ls vesfjdh lkezkT;okn vkSj nwljh rjQ mRihfM+r jk’Vªksa ,oa turk ds chp vUrjfojks/k Hkh rh[kk gks x;k gS A iwath vkSj Je ds chp vUrjfojks/k Hkh rh[kk gks x;k gS A rFkkfi] vkt Hkh “kfDr dk larqyu lkezkT;okn vkSj izfrfØ;kokfn;ksa ds i{k esa vkSj fo”o turk ds fojks/k esa >qdk gqvk gS A if”peh gok vc Hkh iwohZ gok ij gkoh gS A bl ifjfLFkfr esa ,d vkSj fo”o ;q) dh lEHkkouk cuh gqbZ gS] gkykafd bls jksdus okys dkjd Hkh ekStwn gSa A pwafd lkezkT;okn }kjk vuojr :i ls tkjh iwathoknh ladV ds cks> dks turk ds da/kksa ij Mkydj iwathoknh lap; dh izfØ;k dks vkxs ys tk;k tk jgk gS] blfy, mls dM+s izfrjks/k dk lkeuk djuk iM+ jgk gS vkSj gky ds o"kksZa esa ÝkUl] Lisu] xzhl vkSj fczVsu tSls ns'kksa esa etnwj la?k"kksaZ dks rst gksrs ns[kk x;k gS A Hkkjr tSls ns'kksa esa] gkykafd jktuhfrd usr`Ro detksj gS] fQj Hkh etnwj oxZ vke gM+rkyksa esa Hkkx ysus ds fy, vkxs vk jgk gS A blesa dksbZ 'kd ugha gS fd vkfFkZd ladV tSls&tSls rhoz gksxk vkSj 'kkld oxZ tSls&tSls osru vkSj tuoknh vf/kdkjksa esa dVkSrh dj etnwj oxZ vkSj mRihfM+r turk ij igys ls T;knk Hkkjh cks> Mkyus dk iz;kl djsxk vkSj lkFk gh izd`fr ds fueZe ywV dk lgkjk ysxk] oSls&oSls ;s mHkjrs la?k"kZ vkSj T;knk rhoz gksrs tk;saxs A

1-9       bl i`"BHkwfe esa] teZuh dh ekDlZoknh&ysfuuoknh ikVhZ ¼MLPD½ ds lkFk feydj Hkkdik¼ekys½ jsM LVkj dh igy ij vDVwcj 2010 esa vkbZdksj ¼Økafrdkjh ikfVZ;ksa ,oa laxBuksa dk vUrjjk"Vªh; leUo;½ dh LFkkiuk us ekDlZoknh& ysfuuoknh ,oa Økafrdkjh ikfVZ;ksa ds fy, nqfu;k dh ekStwnk ifjfLFkfr esa Økafrdkjh dk;ZHkkj dks vkxs ys tkus ds fy, vuqdwy gkykrksa dk fuekZ.k fd;k gS A vkbZdksj ds usr`Ro esa vUrjkZ"Vªh; vk;ke ds lkFk etnwjksa] fdlkuksa vkSj efgykvksa dks laxfBr djus rFkk i;kZoj.k laj{k.k vkSj ijek.kq&fojks/kh vkUnksyu [kM+k djus ds fy, mYys[kuh; dne mBk;s x;s gSa A ;g nkok djrs gq, fd ^^iwathokn ds ikl nqfu;k ds etnwjksa vkSj O;kid turk dks nsus ds fy, dksbZ Hkfo"; ugha gS**] vkbZdksj ds LFkkiuk nLrkost esa dgk x;k gS fd %

  ^^vkbZdksj dh LFkkiuk ds ihNs ;g le> dke dj jgh gS fd vR;Ur laxfBr] fo'o Lrj ij ijLij tqM+h vUrjjk"Vªh; foÙkh; iwath vkSj bldh lkezkT;oknh fo'o O;oLFkk dk ,d u;s pht ls eqdkcyk djus ds fy, ljgnksa ls ijs O;ogkfjd xfrfof/k;ksa ds ijLij leUo; ,oa lg;ksx ds ,d u;s pj.k esa vUrjkZ"Vªh; ØkfUrdkjh o etnwj oxhZ; vkUnksyu vkSj O;kid turk dh laxfBr rkdr ls eqdkcyk djus ds fy, le; ifjiDo gks x;k gS A

  ^^viuh uo&mifuosf'kd O;oLFkk ds lkFk lkezkT;okn dsoy ladV izo.krk dks c<+kdj gh vkxs viuk vfLrRo cuk;s j[k ldrk gS A blus ekuotkfr ds vfLrRo ij gh ukVdh; <ax ls iz'ufpUg [kM+k dj fn;k gS A 2008 ds oSf'od vkfFkZd o foÙkh; ladV] mRiknu vkSj iqu:Riknu dh iwathoknh O;oLFkk ds <kapkxr ladV] dtZ ds ladV] oSf'od i;kZoj.k ladV] loZgkjk vkSj O;kid turk ds chp ifjokj dh c<+rh vuqifLFkfr vkSj jktuhfrd ladVksa esa rks bldh vfHkO;fDr gqbZ gh gS] lkFk gh ;q) ds c<+rs vUrjjk"Vªh; [krjs] rst gksrs lkezkT;oknh vkØe.kksa rFkk lkezkT;okn dk izfrfØ;kokn vkSj Qklhokn dh vksj c<+rs vke :>ku esa Hkh ;g vfHkO;Dr gks jgk gS A**

1-10      izFke] f}rh; vkSj r`rh; vUrjjk"Vªh; tSls laxBu ds vUrjjk"Vªh; Lo:iksa ds ,sfrgkfld mnkgj.kksa ds le`) vuqHkoksa ds vk/kkj ij vkbZdksj dh LFkkiuk ekDlZoknh&ysfuuoknh rkdrksa }kjk xyr izo`fr;ksa ds f[kykQ rhu n'kd ls T;knk yEcs le; rd fd;s x;s la?k"kZ dk ifj.kke gS A ;g fo'o dE;qfuLV vkUnksyu esa oSpkfjd la?k"kZ dks xgjkbZ esa ys tkus dh fn'kk esa igyk dne gS rkfd ysfuu ds usr`Ro esa dE;qfuLV vUrjjk"Vªh; }kjk is'k vke fn'kk vkSj egku cgl ds nkSjku ekvks Rls rqax ds usr`Ro esa phu dh dE;qfuLV ikVhZ }kjk is'k fo'o dE;qfuLV vkUnksyu dh vke fn'kk ls lacaf/kr izLrko dh dM+h esa vkt dh Bksl ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds vuq:i fo'o loZgkjk lektoknh Økafr dh vke fn'kk dk fodkl fd;k tk lds A vizSy 2014 esa vkbZdksj ds f}rh; fo'o lEesyu ds lQy vk;kstu dh dM+h esa gekjk ;g drZO; gS fd ge vkbZdksj ds dk;ZHkkjksa dks vkxs ys tk;as D;ksafd Bksl vUrjjk"Vªh; ifjfLFkfr us bls t:jh cuk fn;k gS A

jk"Vªh; ifjfLFkfr

2-1       Hkkjr esa lksygoha yksd lHkk dk pquko ,sls le; esa gqvk tc gekjh ikVhZ ds ukSosa egkf/kos'ku ds ckn foxr rhu o"kksZa ds nkSjku laizx ljdkj }kjk mu uo&mnkjoknh uhfr;ksa ij T;knk rsth ls vye fd;k x;k ftls eueksguh vFkZ'kkL= dk miuke fn;k x;k gS A blds pyrs egaxkbZ] csjkstxkjh] Hkz"Vkpkj] foLFkkiu] i;kZoj.k dk fouk'k] vkthfodk ds lk/kuksa dk gj.k] vkfn [krjukd <ax ls c<+ xbZ Fkh vkSj ns'k ds dksus&dksus esa vf}rh; tukØks'k iSnk gqvk Fkk A oke&tuoknh tu fodYi ds vHkko esa] laizx ds jkt esa ftl dkjiksjsV iwath us lcls vf/kd Qk;nk mBk;k Fkk mUgha ds leFkZu ls vkSj lkFk esa vkj,l,l dh vxqokbZ esa fgUnqRooknh rkdrksa dh oSpkfjd o lkaxBfud enn ls] muds }kjk fufeZr ^lkaLd`frd jk"Vªokn*  ds okrkoj.k esa] Hkktik us [kqn dks lÙkk dh dqlhZ esa cSBkus ds fy, bl tu vkØks'k dks lQyrkiwoZd Hkquk;k] vkSj mlus bl izdkj ns'k esa ,d [krjukd ifjfLFkfr iSnk dj nh gS A

2-2       dkaxzsl ds usr`Ro okyh laizx ljdkj us vius nl lky ds 'kkludky ds nkSjku vesfjdh lkezkT;okn ds lkFk j.kuhfrd xBtksM+ ds uke ij mlds oSf'od tksM+rksM+ dk leFkZu djrs gq, ;k mlds lkFk lk>snkjh dh uhfr ij pyrs gq, Hkkjr dh fons'k uhfr ls tqM+s ldkjkRed rRoksa dks Hkh [kRe djuk 'kq# dj fn;k Fkk A vesfjdh lkezkT;okn dh ^vkradokn ls ;q)* uhfr esa mlds nqe ls fpids jg dj laizx ljdkj us if'pe ,f'k;k ds ns'kksa ds lkFk Hkkjr ds vc rd ds nksLrkuk fj'rksa dks [kjkc dj fn;k Fkk A vesfjdk ds ncko esa bjku&ikfdLrku&Hkkjr xSl ikbi ykbu ifj;kstuk dks jn~n djus ls u dsoy jk"Vªh; fgrksa dks {kfr gqbZ Fkh] cfYd bjku ds lkFk n'kdksa yEcs vPNs lEcU/k Hkh [kjkc gks x;s Fks A lkdZ ns'kksa ds lkFk Hkh ;gh gqvk A Hkkjr&ikd fj'rksa ds ekeys esa ?kVukØe nksuksa ns'kksa dh turk dh vkdka{kkvksa dks iwjk djus ds ctk;] mu vL=&'kL= fuekZrk cgqjk"Vªh; dEifu;ksa vkSj gfFk;kjksa ds lkSnkxjksa ds LokFkkZsa ls funsZf'kr gks jgk Fkk tks Hkkjr vkSj ikfdLrku nksuksa gh ns'kksa dks vius iqjkus gfFk;kjksa dks [kikus ds fy, Qyrs&Qwyrs cktkj ds :i esa ns[krs gSa A vius iM+ksfl;ksa ds lkFk ns'k dks vyx&Fkyx djus esa Hkkjrh; 'kkld oxksZa dh cM+s HkkbZ tSls joS¸;s dh cM+h Hkwfedk jgh gS A bl lkezkT;okn&ijLr fons'k uhfr dh dM+h esa] vUrjjk"Vªh; eqnzk dks"k&fo'o cSad&fo'o O;kikj laxBu ¼IMF-WB-WTO½ dh lHkh 'krksZa dks ykxw djds] Hkkjr&vesfjdk ijek.kq laf/k o vesfjdk&Hkkjr d`f"k rduhdh igy tSls le>kSrs djds rFkk ;wjksih; la?k ,oa tkiku tSls vU; lkezkT;oknh 'kfDr;ksa ds lkFk ,d ij ,d vkfFkZd ,oa O;kikfjd djkj djds vkSj lcls c<+dj fons'kh laLFkkxr fuos'k ¼FII½ o fons'kh izR;{k fuos'k ¼FDI½ ds ek/;e ls vUrjjk"Vªh; foÙk iwath ds vck/k ?kqliSB ds fy, Hkkjr ds njokts dks [kksydj eueksgu ljdkj us ladV&xzLr lkezkT;oknh vFkZO;oLFkk ds lkFk Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk ds iw.kZ ,dhdj.k dh izfØ;k dks vkxs c<+k;k Fkk A bldk ifj.kke ;g gqvk fd foxr ,d n'kd ds nkSjku Hkwe.Myhdj.k] mnkjhdj.k vkSj futhdj.k dh uhfr;kas ij vey yxkrkj rst gksrk x;k Fkk A

2-3       bldk ifj.kke ;g gqvk fd d`f"k] m|ksx] foÙk] fons'k O;kikj vkSj eqnzk {ks= esa fu;eksa esa O;kid <hy nh xbZ vkSj mnkjhdj.k fd;k x;k] VSDl rFkk Je ,oa vkS|ksfxd lEcU/kksa dk mnkjhdj.k fd;k x;k vkSj u;s <kaps esa <kyk x;k vkSj lcls c<+dj lkekftd dY;k.k ds en esa vkfFkZd [kpZ esa dVkSrh dh xbZ vkSj ljdkj blls vius dne ihNs [khaprs xbZ A vkt uo&mnkjokn vkSj eqnzkokn ds n'kZu }kjk lefFkZr jktlÙkk dk pfj= gh cny x;k gS A tgka igys jktlÙkk vkfFkZd xfrfof/k;ksa ds ^^vkjEHkdrkZ** dh dhUloknh Hkwfedk esa gksrh Fkh] vc vc lHkh {ks=ksa esa dkjiksjsV izHkqRo dk;e djus ds fy, ^^fcpkSfy;s** dh Hkwfedk esa vk xbZ gS A vkbZ,e,Q&fo'o cSad&fo'o O;kikj laxBu }kjk Fkksi nh xbZ 'krsZa orZeku le; esa gks jgs uo&mnkjoknh geyksa dk lkj gS A bUgha 'krksZa ds pyrs iwoZorhZ dY;k.kdkjh jkT; dh Hkwfedk de gksrs xbZ gS vkSj og [kqn dks lesVrs x;k gS A [kk|kUu] vkokl] f'k{kk vkSj fpfdRlk ls lEcfU/kr lkekftd dY;k.k ds [kpksZa esa dVkSrh gksrs xbZ gS A mRihfM+r vkSj detksj rcdksa ds fy, fd;s x;s fo'ks"k izko/kkuksa dks [kRe dj fn;k x;k gS A [kk|kUu lesr lHkh jktdh; vuqnkuksa dks lekIr dj fn;k x;k gS A leFkZu ewY; ,oa ljdkjh [kjhn dk;ZØeksa dks jksd fn;k x;k gS A lkoZtfud {ks= ds miØeksa dks cUn dj fn;k x;k gS vkSj ykHkizn bdkb;ksa esa dkSfM+;ksa ds Hkko fofuos'k fd;k x;k gS A ifCyd&izkbosV&ikVZuj'khi ¼futh&lkoZtfud&Hkkxhnkjh] ;k ihihih½ vkSj cukvks&pykvks&lkSaiks ¼chvksVh½ Ldhe tSls tqeyksa dh vkM+ esa vk/kkjHkwr lajpuk] lkoZtfud lsokvksa vkSj lkekftd enksa dk iquxZBu fd;k x;k gS vkSj buds uke ij Vksy dysD'ku ;k rjg&rjg ds miHkksx 'kqYd yxkdj futh {ks= ds fy, vikj lEink bdëk djus dk jkLrk cuk;k x;k gS A O;kikj] cSad vkSj foÙk cktkj dks mnkj cuk;k x;k gS A dj iz.kkyh dks mnkj fd;k x;k gS A osru tke vkSj gM+rky&fojks/kh dkuwu lesr Je cktkj dk mnkjhdj.k fd;k x;k gS A vkSj lcls c<+dj cgqjk"Vªh; dEifu;ksa ds vkokxeu dks eqDr dj fn;k x;k gS A vdsys o"kZ 2006 ls 2014 ds chp gh] dkjiksjsV VSDl esa djhc iSarhl yk[k djksM+ #i, dh NwV nh xbZ gS !

2-4       rFkkdfFkr ^f}rh; gfjr Økafr* ds tfj, d`f"k {ks= foÙk iwath ds ?kqliSB vkSj dkjiksjsVhdj.k dk cqjh rjg f'kdkj gqvk gS A blus Hkkjr ds d`f"k vkSj i;kZoj.k ladV esa ,d u;k vk;ke tksM+ fn;k gS ftls ^izFke gfjr Økafr* us igys gh cqjh fLFkfr esa igqapk fn;k Fkk A tgka ,d vksj fo'ks"k vkfFkZd {ks= ¼lst½] uo fofuekZ.k ,oa vkS|ksfxd {ks=] i;ZVu tksu] Vkmu'khi] baMLVªh;y dkWfjMksj tSlh fofHkUu uo&mifuosf'kd ifj;kstukvksa ds uke ij dkjiksjsV }kjk Hkwfe gM+ih tk jgh gS vkSj ogha nwljh vksj dkjiksjsV [ksrh ds uke ij ,xzh&fcftusl dEifu;ksa ds gkFkksa fo'kky Hkw[k.Mksa dks lkSaik tk jgk gS ftlls fdlku xjhc vkSj Hkwfeghu gksrs tk jgs gSa A dkjiksjsVhdj.k dh jkg lqxe cukus ds fy, ekStwnk Hkwfe gncanh dkuwuksa ¼yS.M flfyax ,DV½ dks [kRe fd;k tk jgk gS ftlds pyrs fdlkuksa dk cM+s iSekus ij foLFkkiu gks jgk gS A bldk urhtk gS fd ekuotkfr ds ntZ bfrgkl esa vHkwriwoZ vkarfjd iyk;u gqvk gS A foLFkkfir Hkwfeghu fdlku cM+h rknkn esa ns'k ds 'kgjh dsUnzksa esa >qXxhokfl;ksa dh drkj esa 'kkfey gks jgs gSa A

2-5       ldy ?kjsyw mRikn ¼thMhih½ esa ;ksxnku ds fygkt ls] foxr dbZ o"kksZa ds nkSjku vkS|ksfxd {ks= dekscs'k Bgjko dh voLFkk esa gS A fofuekZ.k m|ksx ds dbZ {ks=ksa esa iquxZBu ds uke ls iqdkjh tkus okyh izfØ;k 'kq: gqbZ gS vkSj blds QyLo:i jkstxkjghurk c<+ jgh gS A Åij ls Fkksi fn;k x;k fu;kZrksUeq[kh m|ksxhdj.k] ftlds pyrs twV tSls fu;kZr ij vk/kkfjr vusd ?kjsyw m|ksx [kRe gks x;s gSa] eq[;r% lLrs Je ij vk/kkfjr gS A ftrus Hkh u;s jkstxkj dk l`tu gks jgk gS og vukSipkfjd ;k vlaxfBr {ks= esa gS tgka jkstxkj dh lqj{kk fcYdqy Hkh ugha gS A vesfjdk vkSj ;wjksih; la?k esa Nk;s vkfFkZd ladV dh otg ls] tks Hkkjr ds izeq[k fu;kZr cktkj gSa] ,sls vusd ^mn;heku* ¼lujkbt½ m|ksx vkt cUn gksus ds dxkj ij gSa tks Hkwe.Myhdj.k ds vkjfEHkd nkSj esa mHkjs Fks A lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh {ks= ¼vkbZVh lsDVj½ dk vkmVlksflZax cqycqyk] tks lkezkT;oknh ns'kksa esa foÙkh; mNky ij iwjh rjg fuHkZj jgk gS] og Hkh QwVus yxk gS A fofuos'k ds tfj, lkoZtfud {ks= ds j.kuhfrd miØeksa dk ekfydkuk futh {ks= ds gkFkksa lkSaius ls rFkk fjyk;al tSls cM+s dkjiksjsV ?kjkuksa ds gkFkksa ns'k ds [kfut ,oa isVªksfy;e lalk/kuksa dks cspus ls iqu% lajpuk vkSj jkstxkghurk dh izfØ;k T;knk rst gks xbZ gS A ldy ?kjsyw mRikn ¼thMhih½ esa etnwjh dk fgLlk] tks mnkjhdj.k ds igys ds nkSj esa vkSlru 35 izfr'kr ds vklikl gqvk djrk Fkk] eueksgu ljdkj ds vkf[kjh fnuksa esa ?kVdj 20 izfr'kr ls de jgk x;k gS] tks etnwj oxZ dh vkenuh vkSj muds thouLrj eas vke rkSj ij vk jgs fxjkoV dk ladsr gS A

2-6       foÙkh; iwath ds vius [kkl pfj= ds vuq:i] dkjiksjsV cgqjk"Vªh; dEifu;ka vkSj muds Hkkjrh; tqfu;j ikVZuj mRiknu ds {ks= ls gVdj rsth ls lêsckth dh vksj dne c<+k jgs gSa ftlesa Hkw&ifjlEink] foÙk] O;kikj ,oa iSlk&drkbZ ds vU; dkjksckj 'kkfey gSa A lêk iwath us ekuo thou ds izR;sd igyw dks tSls fd tehu] [kk|kUu] nok] f'k{kk] bZa/ku] vkfn dks ,deq'r lêsckth dk f'kdkj cuk fy;k gS A vFkZO;oLFkk esa yxHkx 60 izfr'kr dh fgLlsnkjh djus okys lsok {ks= esa Qwyrs&Qyrs lêk dkjksckj dk ykHk lekt ds Åijh rcds ds eqëhHkj yksx giM+ ys jgs gSa A vfr&yksHk ls izsfjr loZxzklh Hkz"Vkpkj ds lkFk&lkFk] dkjiksjsV iwath }kjk jktuhfrd&vQlj'kkgh ra= ds lkFk feyhHkxr djds ty] taxy vkSj izkd`frd ,oa [kftu lalk/kuksa lesr izd`fr dk vf}rh; iSekus ij nksgu fd;k tk jgk gS] ftlds dkj.k ns'k esa ewyfuoklh vkfnokfl;ksa lesr fdlkuksa dk vius vkokl LFkyksa ls cM+s Lrj ij foLFkkiu gks jgk gS vkSj i;kZoj.k dk vHkwriwoZ fouk'k gks jgk gS A

2-7       d`f"k ds dkjiksjsVhdj.k vkSj vukS|ksxhdj.k ds lkFk&lkFk Hkwe.Myhdj.k ds rgr 'kq# gqbZ lêsckth us lHkh thouksi;ksxh oLrqvksa vkSj lsokvksa dh dherksa dks vkleku ij igqapk fn;k gS A blesa vukt] bZa/ku] LokLF; lsok] f'k{kk vkfn 'kkfey gSa A blus O;kid tu leqnk; dks Hk;kog xjhch vkSj fu/kZurk dh vksj /kdsy fn;k gS A ;fn vUrjjk"Vªh; xjhch js[kk ds vuqlkj 2 Mkyj izfrfnu ¼yxHkx 120 #i,½ dh vkenuh dks Hkkjr esa xjhch ekius ds ekin.M ds crkSj Lohdkj fd;k tk;s rks vkt Hkkjr dh 70 izfr'kr ¼;k 75 djksM+½ ls T;knk vkcknh dks csgn xjhc dh Js.kh eas j[kuk iM+sxk A bl lanHkZ esa] laizx 'kklu ds vkf[kjh fnuksa esa cgqizpkfjr [kk| lqj{kk dkuwu dks ykxw fd;k tkuk vk¡[kksa esa /kwy >ksadus tSlk gS] D;kasfd blds rgr dsoy 25 djksM+ Hkkjrh; yksxksa dh gh igpku xjhc ds :i esa dh xbZ gS ftudh U;wure dSyksjh ¼Hkkstu½ dh t:jr dks djhc <sM+ yk[k djksM+ #i, ds vkadfyr ykxr ls iwjk fd;k tk;sxk] tcfd eqëhHkj lEiUu dkjiksjsV ?kjkuksa dks vkSlru lkykuk djhc ikap yk[k djksM+ #i, dh VSDl fj;k;r nh tk jgh gS A ,d rjQ 'ks;j cktkj] eqnzk cktkj ,oa iSlk&drkbZ ds vU; {ks=ksa esa iwjh rjg lêsckt fons'kh laLFkkxr fuos'k ¼FII½ ds Lokxr esa yky dkyhu fcNkuk vkSj nwljh rjQ j{kk ,oa chek tSls lHkh j.kuhfrd {ks=ksa dks izR;{k fons'kh fuos'k ¼FDI½ ds fy, [kksyuk vkSj equkQs dks mnkjrk ls vius ns'k okil ys tkus dh vuqefr nsuk] ;s dne turk ds lkeus vHkwriwoZ pqukSrh gSa A blds vykok f'k{kk] LokLF; vkSj vkokl dk futhdj.k ,oa cktkjhdj.k] ikuh vkSj fctyh dk futhdj.k] isVªksfy;e inkFkksZa ds fy, iz'kkldh; ewY; fu/kkZj.k ra= dk [kkRek] [kqnjk O;kikj dks izR;{k fons'kh fuos'k ¼,QMhvkbZ½ ds [kksyuk tks d`f"k ds ckn turk dh vkthfodk dk nwljk lcls cM+k {ks= gS] vukt ,oa vU; vko';d oLrqvksa ds ok;nk dkjksckj ¼¶;wpj VsªfMax½ dh vuqefr nsuk] ns'k ds eRL; {ks= dks cgqjk"Vªh; dEifu;ksa vkSj xgjs leqnz esa eNyh idM+us okys tkyhnkj tgkt ds ekfydksa ds gkFkksa cspuk ftldk eNqvkjk leqnk; ij fouk'kdkjh izHkko gks jgk gS] vkSj etnwjksa ds lHkh tuoknh vf/kdkjksa ij dqBkjk?kkr] vkfn us tu leqnk; dks [krjukd xfr ls daxky fd;k gS A blds lkFk gh] turk ds f[kykQ uo&mnkjoknh ,ts.Mk dks ykxw djus ds fy, dkjiksjsV&ukSdj'kkg&jktusrk xBtksM+ ds chp gksus okys lkSnksa us Hkkjr dks nqfu;k ds lcls Hkz"Vre ns'kksa dh lwfp esa Mky fn;k gS A bl ywV dks fLol cSad tSls VSDl pksjksa ds fons'kh LoxksZa rd igqapkus ds fy, ekStwnk 'kklu ra= Lo;a ,d laokgd dk dke dj jgk gS A blds dkj.k ns'k esa ?kksVkyksa vkSj Hkz"Vkpkj ds f[kykQ turk dk vlarks"k c<+ jgk gS A

2-8       uo&mnkjoknh jkt esa ykxw dh tk jgh izfrfØ;koknh uhfr;ksa ds f[kykQ lM+dksa ij mrj jgh turk ij geys dk yxkrkj rst gksrs tkuk bl uo&mnkjoknh ,ts.Ms dk gh urhtk gS A ns'k esa lSU;hdj.k dk foLrkj] tSlk fd tEew&d'ehj vkSj iwoksZÙkj jkT;ksa esa ns[kk x;k Fkk] vc ekvksoknh xfrfof/k;ksa dk eqdkcyk djus ds cgkus NÙkhlx<+ tSls jkT;ksa esa Hkh gks x;k gS tgka lsuk dks rSukr fd;k fd;k tk pqdk gS vkSj bldh dkjZokb;ksa dk [kfut lEiUu lEiw.kZ e/; Hkkjr esa foLrkj gksus dk [krjk gS tgka vkcknh dk cM+k fgLlk vkfnokfl;ksa dk gS A l'kL= cy fo'ks"k 'kfDr;ka dkuwu ¼vk¶lik½ vkSj xSj&dkuwuh xfrfof/k fujks/kd dkuwu ¼;w,ih,½ tSls dkys dkuwuksa dk euekuk bLrseky fd;k x;k gS vkSj turk dks cqfu;knh ukxfjd vf/kdkjksa ls oafpr djus ds fy, u;s&u;s dkuwu cuk;s tk jgs gSa A lkezkT;okn vkSj Hkkjrh; jktlÙkk tks uo&mnkjokn ds iqNYys ds :i esa vkSj turk ds vlarks"k dks xSj&jktuhfrd jkLrs esa eksM+us ds fy, fofHkUu Qf.Mx ,tsfUl;ksa vkSj ,uthvks usVodZ dks izJ; nsrs gSa] os vkt foLFkkiu] i;kZoj.k fouk'k] jktdh; neu vkfn ds f[kykQ gks jgs tu vkUnksyuksa dks dqpyus ds fy, ,uthvks vkSj ekvksoknh gkSOos dk [kqydj bLrseky dj jgs gSa A

2-9       dkaxzsl ds usr`Ro okys laizx ds f[kykQ tu fodYi ds vHkko esa] Hkktik blds fo:) mHkjs tukØks'k dk ykHk mBkus esa dke;kc jgh gS A cM+s dkjiksjsV ?kjkuksa ls feys Hkkjh Q.M vkSj muds }kjk fu;af=r eq[;/kkjk dh ehfM;k dh enn ls] dsoy 31 izfr'kr oksV ikus ds ckotwn] Hkktik us 16oha yksdlHkk esa iw.kZ cgqer ik fy;k A eksnh ljdkj dk lÙkkjksg.k rFkk vkj,l,l dk ,ts.Mk [kqydj lkeus vkus dk [krjk crkrk gS fd mu uo&mnkj uhfr;ksa us Li"Vr% ?kksj&nf{k.kiaFkh eksM+ ys fy;k gS ftls 1990 ds vkjEHk ls lHkh ljdkjsa ykxw djrs vkbZ gSa vkSj ftls laizx ds nl o"kZ ds 'kkludky esa eueksguh vFkZ'kkL= ds :i esa rsth ls ykxw fd;k x;k Fkk A tgka bl pquko esa dkaxzsl lesr laizx ¼;wih,½ ds lHkh ?kVd nyksa dk lQk;k gks x;k] ogha jktx ¼,uMh,½ esa 'kkfey nyksa ds lkFk&lkFk rfeyukMw esa vUuknzeqd] if'pe caxky esa r`.kewy dkaxszl] vksfM+lk esa chtw turk ny ¼chtn½ vkSj rsyaxkuk esa Vhvkj,l tSls {ks=h; nyksa us Hkh] pquko esa mYys[kuh; thr gkfly dh] ftUgksaus dkaxszl fojks/kh :[k viuk;k Fkk A ysfdu os lHkh uo&mnkjoknh vFkZuhfr dk vuq'kj.k dj jgs gSa vkSj ;s ny [kqn viuk oksV cSad lqfuf'pr djus ds fy, lkEiznkf;d rq"Vhdj.k] tkfrokn vkSj va/k&jk"Vªokn ij fuHkZj gSa A ekdik ds usr`Ro okyk oke ekspkZ] tks ekDlZoknh&ysfuuoknh jkLrs dks R;kx pqdk gS vkSj og tgka Hkh lÙkk esa vk;k gS ogka mlus uo&mnkj uhfr;ksa dks ykxw fd;k gS] mls vius bfrgkl esa vc rd dk lcls djkjk /kDdk yxk gS A if'pe caxky esa vkSj dqN gn rd dsjy esa oke ekspkZ ds er izfr'kr esa tks Hkh deh vkbZ gS og Hkktik dh >ksyh esa x;k gS A ;g vf[ky Hkkjrh; :>ku ds leku gh] bu jkT;ksa dh jktuhfr esa rh[ks nf{k.kiaFkh eksM+ dk ladsr ns jgk gS A ns'k esa mHkj jgk ;g ?kksj&nf{k.kiaFk dk [krjk ml vUrjjk"Vªh; ifjfLFkfr ds gh vuq:i gS tgka Økafrdkjh okeiaFk ds detksj gksus ls vUrjjk"Vªh; foÙk iwath ds ekStwnk rh[ks ladV ls mcjus ds fy, lkezkT;oknh rkdrksa vkSj mlds vuqpjksa }kjk ?kksj nf{k.kiaFkh vkSj Qklhoknh :>kuksa dks izJ; fn;k tk jgk gS A

2-10      eksnh ds lÙkkjksg.k dks vfuok;Zr% vkØed fgUnw lkEiznkf;drk ds mHkkj ds crkSj fpf=r fd;k x;k gS] tks dbZ lkjs naxksa] /kekZUrj.k dh eqfge] laLd`fr o foKku ds jgL;e; ^fgUnwdj.k*] fgUnw jk’Vª ds fy, tksjnkj vkOgku] ukFkwjke xksMls dks vkn”kZ cukus vkSj bl izdkj dh ckrksa esa izfrfcfEcr gksrk gS A vkj-,l-,l-] ctjax ny] vkfn }kjk [kqydj lkEiznkf;d /kqzohdj.k fd;s tkus ds dke dks eksnh vkSj mlds iz”kklu dk ekSu leFkZu fey jgk gS A Hkktik ds fo/kk;d vkSj lkaln [kqys rkSj ij lkEiznkf;d c;ku nsuk vkSj ruko dks gok nsuk tkjh j[ks gq, gSa A bu lcds lkFk&lkFk eueksgu flag dh uhfr;ksa dks fu"Bqjrk ls ykxw fd;k tk jgk gS ftldh vfHkO;fDr ^^U;wure ljdkj**] ^^lq'kklu**] ^^fodkl** tSls dkjiksjsV&ijLr yqHkkous ukjksa dh vkM+ esa eksnh ds ^^xqtjkr ekWMy** dks iwjs Hkkjr esa vkjksfir fd;s tkus ds :i esa gks jgh gS A vkus okys o"kksZa ds fy, eksnh ljdkj dh vkfFkZd uhfr;ksa ds ^^jksM eSi** easa fuEu ckrksa dk lekos'k gS ^^O;kikj dh lgtrk** dks c<+kus ds fy, lq/kkj djus ds lesr dkjksckj ds fy, ikjn'khZ uhfr dk ekgkSy rS;kj cukuk] dj iz.kkyh ¼VSDl flLVe½ dks mnkj cukuk] j{kk vkSj jsyos tSls j.kuhfrd {ks=ksa esa ,QMhvkbZ jkt dk iw.kZ mnkjhdj.k djuk] gkbZ&LihM Vsªuksa ds fgjd prqHkqZt ifj;kstuk ds fuekZ.k lesr eky okgd vkSj vkS|ksfxd dkWfjMksj dk fuekZ.k djuk] fo'ks"k d`f"k&jsy usVodZ cukuk] NksVs 'kgjksa dks gokbZ ekxZ ls tksM+uk vkSj de ykxr ds gokbZ vM~Mksa dk fuekZ.k djuk] canjxkgksa dks lM+d vkSj jsy ds tfj, vUn:uh {ks=ksa ls tksM+uk] lkoZtfud {ks= ds cSadksa ds fofHkUu dkeksa dks cgqjk"Vªh; dEifu;ksa vkSj fjyk;al tSls dkjiksjsV nSR;ksa dks vkmVlkslZ djuk] futhdj.k ds fy, iz;qDr gksus okyh eksgd 'kCnkoyh ^lkoZtfud&futh& Hkkxhnkjh* ¼ihihih½ ds vk/kkj ij fo'o Lrjh; lqfo/kkvksa ls ySl 100 'kgjksa dk fuekZ.k djuk] dks;yk lsDVj esa izkbosV fuos'k dks vkdf"kZr djuk] ijek.kq ÅtkZ ifj;kstukvksa dks iwjk djuk vkSj vUrjkZ"Vªh; ijek.kq le>kSrksa dks dk;Zdkjh cukuk] d`f"k dk vk/kqfudhdj.k vkSj dkjiksjsVhdj.k djuk] ifj;kstukvksa ds fy, le;c) :i ls ou ,oa i;kZoj.k dh eatwjh iznku djuk] vkfn] vkfn A ;s lc dne ladV&xzLr vUrjjk"Vªh; foÙkh; iwath dh gqDeksa vkSj mldh t:jrksa ds iwjh rjg vuq:i gSa A lcls igys v<+kbZ yk[k ifjokjksa dks Mwc dk f'kdkj cukrs gq, ueZnk cka/k dh ÅapkbZ dks vkSj Hkh 17 ehVj c<+kus ds fu.kZ; fy;k x;k A blds ckn] ctV&iwoZ ?kks"k.kk ds tfj, Hkkjrh; jsYos ds lEiw.kZ bfrgkl esa jsy HkkM+k esa lcls cM+h o`f) djds bl ?kksj nf{k.kiaFkh ,ts.Ms dh 'kq#vkr dh xbZ] rkfd nqfu;k ds lcls cM+s jsYos esa ls ,d Hkkjrh; jsYos dks izR;{k fons'kh fuos'k ds fy, ,d vkd"kZd xarO; LFky cuk;k tk lds A

2-11      blds i'pkr izFke ctV is'k fd;k x;k ftlesa o"kZ 2014&15 ds fy, j{kk vkSj chek {ks= esa izR;{k fons'kh fuos'k dh lhek dks ,d gh >Vds esa c<+kdj 49 izfr'kr dj fn;k x;k vkSj lkFk gh bu {ks=ksa esa ,oa vU; j.kuhfrd {ks=ksa esa vkxkeh ctVksa ds tfj, 100 izfr'kr ,QMhvkbZ dh vuqefr nsus dk lkQ ladsr fn;k x;k A blds lkFk&lkFk] ctV esa djhc 60000 djksM+ #i, ds fofuos'k y{; dk ,syku fd;k x;k] bZ&dkelZ lesr fofuekZ.k ds {ks= esa fons'kh iwath ds izos'k dh vuqefr nsus dh ?kks"k.kk dh xbZ] QwM dkjiksjs'ku vkWQ bafM;k ¼,QlhvkbZ½ vkSj tu forj.k iz.kkyh ¼ihMh,l½ dks u;s <kaps esa <kyus dh ?kks"k.kk dh xbZ rkfd foÙkh; lêscktksa ds fy, [kk|kUu ,oa d`f"k oLrqvksa ds eqDr O;kikj dh jkg dks vklku cuk;k tk lds] d`f"k&O;olk;] tSo&rduhdh vkSj QkeZ ,xzhdYpj ds vk/kkj [ksrh ds dkjiksjsVhdj.k ds fy, f}rh; gfjr Økafr dk ,syku fd;k x;k] ifCyd&izkbosV&ikVZuj'khi ds tfj, canjxkg] ,;jiksVZ] jksM+ tSlh lHkh vk/kkjHkwr lajpukvksa dk fuekZ.k rFkk lst] vkS|ksfxd dkWfjMksj] 'kgjh vkokl] pqus gq, 'kgjksa esa 16 esVªks ifj;kstuk vkSj 100 LekVZ flVh ds fuekZ.k ds fy, iw.kZ futhdj.k dh ?kks"k.kk dh xbZ] dkjiksjsV VSDl esa ikap yk[k djksM+ #i, ls T;knk dh fj;k;r nh xbZ] vkfn A ;g lc ns'k dks vHkwriwoZ futhdj.k vkSj dkjiksjsVhdj.k ds ;qx esa ys tkus okys jktekxZ ij nkSM+kus ds fy, fd;k x;k gS A dkjiksjsV lsDVj dks reke rjg dh VSDl NwV vkSj vizR;{k lfClMh nsus dh ifjdYiuk dj] ctV ds tfj, ns'k ds ewY;oku lkoZtfud lEink vkSj izkd`frd lalk/kuksa dks fons'kh iwathifr;ksa vkSj muds Hkkjrh; nykyksa dks lkSaius dk fu.kZ; fy;k x;k gS A tSlk fd ge ns[k jgs gSa] ctV dk rRdky vlj ;g gqvk gS fd Hkw&ifjlEink ,oa reke fdLe ds iSlk&drkbZ dh xfrfof/k;ksa esa vHkwriwoZ mNky vk;k gS ftlds dkj.k dkjiksjsV equkQk fouk'kdkjh Lrj ij igqap x;k gS] ogha nwljh rjQ vukS|ksxhdj.k gks jgk gS] jkstxkjghurk c<+ jgh gS] eqnzkLQhfr csdkcw gks jgh gS] O;kid tu leqnk; dh Ø;'kfDr ?kV jgh gS vkSj nfjnzrk ,oa xSj&cjkcjh dk Lrj vf}rh; :i ls c<+ x;k gS A ns'k ds vUnj ls lalk/kuksa dk bartke djus ls dUuh dkVdj vkSj rktk fuos'k ds fy, ladV&xzLr lkezkT;oknh iwath ij cgqr T;knk fuHkZj jgdj] Hkz"Vkpkj vkSj lêsckth] tks eqnzkLQhfr ds cM+s lzksr gSa] ls fuiVus ds fy, dksbZ ;kstuk ugha cukdj] U;wure ljdkj ds uke ij f'k{kk] LokLF; vkfn lkekftd lsokvksa dk vkxs pdyj dkjiksjsVhdj.k djus ds fy, bu {ks=ksa ls vius dne ihNs [khapdj vkSj iwoZorhZ ljdkjksa ds cnuke uo&mnkjoknh jkLrs ij ?kksj nf{k.kiaFkh rjhds ls pydj eksnh ljdkj dkjiksjsVhdj.k ds fy, egt fcpkSfy;k cudj jg xbZ gS tks egkvehjksa ds 'ks;j vkSj lEink iksVZQksfy;ks dks c<+k jgk gS vkSj mUgsa vR;Ur fouk'kd] csjge vkSj vijkf/kd fdLe ds foÙkh; tksM+rksM+ ds fy, l{ke cuk jgk gS A bldk ifj.kke gS fu"Bqj ferO;f;rk ds dk;ZØe] lfClMh esa dVkSrh] vukt] bZa/ku ,oa vU; vko';d oLrqvksa dh Nykax ekjdj c<+rh dhersa] lkoZtfud lqfo/kkvksa ds fy, vR;Ur Hkkjh 'kqYd vkSj isU'ku lesr lHkh lkekftd lsokvksa dk uk'k rFkk etnwj oxZ] esgurd'k ,oa mRihfM+r turk ds thou Lrj esa fxjkoV A bl uo&mifuosf'kd v/khurk ds lkFk&lkFk] pwafd lÙkk dh ckxMksj lh/ks vkj,l,l ds gkFk esa gS] blfy, lEiw.kZ iz'kklu] f'k{kk] oSKkfud ,oa ,sfrgkfld 'kks/k] laLd`fr vkSj iwjs lekt dk lEiznk;hdj.k [krjukd xfr ls rst gks x;k gS A

ikVhZ ds le{k dk;ZHkkj

3-1       ns'k ds reke izxfr'khy rkdrksa] okeiaFkh turk vkSj ikVhZ ds lkeus QkSjh dk;ZHkkj gS fd os yxkrkj [kjkc gks jgh vUrjjk"Vªh; vkSj jk"Vªh; ifjfLFkfr dh i`"BHkwfe esa] tSlk fd Åij js[kkafdr fd;k x;k gS] Hkktik ds ?kksj nf{k.kiaFkh 'kklu ds f[kykQ pkSrjQk vkØked eqfge NsM+sa A blds fy, ikVhZ dks oSpkfjd] jktuhfrd ,oa lkaxBfud :i ls rRdky lqn`<+ cukus dh t:jr gS tks tu leqnk; dks xksycUn djus vkSj mudk usr`Ro djus esa l{ke gks A fofHkUu ikfVZ;ksa }kjk lapkfyr lHkh jkT; ljdkjsa uo&mnkjoknh uhfr;ksa dks rst djus ds fy, izfrc) gSa A ;s lHkh vyx&vyx ek=k esa uo&mnkj uhfr;ksa ds i{kikrh gSa A ;gh ckr ekdik vkSj mlds fe= nyksa ds fy, Hkh lgh gS ftUgksaus dsjy vkSj caxky esa lÙkk esa jgrs gq, bUgha uhfr;ksa ij vey fd;k Fkk A lkEiznkf;drk vkSj uo&mnkjoknh uhfr;ksa dk fojks/k djus okys lHkh rkdrksa dh ,drk ds fy, ekdik }kjk gky esa fd;s x;s vihy dks muds fiNys vkpj.k ds lanHkZ esa ns[kk tkuk pkfg, A pwafd Hkktik ds jkt esa lHkh izeq[k vUrjfojks/k rsth ls rh[ks gks jgk gaS] blfy, le; dh ekax gS fd bldh uhfr;ksa ds f[kykQ ns'kO;kih eqfge NsM+k tk;s A bl izdkj ekStwnk jk"Vªh; ifjfLFkfr ekax dj jgh gS fd ,d la?k"kZ'khy oke] /keZ fujis{k vkSj tuoknh fodYi dk fuekZ.k fd;k tk;s tks uo&mnkjoknh uhfr;ksa vkSj lkEiznkf;d jktuhfr dks [kkfjt djds tui{kh; fodkl uhfr dks ykxw djus ds fy, izfrc) gks A ikVhZ ds lkeus dk;ZHkkj gS fd og bl eqfge dks oSpkfjd vkSj jktuhfrd usr`Ro iznku djus ds fy, rRdky dne mBk;s A

3-2       gekjk izkFkfed dk;ZHkkj gS ekStwnk ikVhZ laxBu rFkk oxZ@tu laxBuksa dks fodflr djuk rkfd mUgsa uo&mnkj uhfr;ksa vkSj lkEiznkf;d Qklhoknh :>kuksa dks m[kkM+ Qsadus ds fy, rFkk fodkl ds tuksUeq[kh ekin.M ij vey dh 'kq#vkr djus ds fy, la?k"kZ dks rst djus esa l{ke cuk;k tk lds A blds lkFk&lkFk] lHkh oxZ ,oa tu laxBuksa esa ikVhZ ÝSD'ku ds dke dks etcwr djus rFkk bu laxBuksa ls ikVhZ lnL;ksa dh HkrhZ djus ds dke dks loksZPp egRo fn;k tkuk pkfg, A gesa ikVhZ dh oSpkfjd&jktuhfrd fn'kk ds vk/kkj ij Økafrdkjh cqf)thfo;ksa] fo|kfFkZ;ksa vkSj ukStokuksa ds chp ls ikVhZ lnL;ksa dh HkrhZ ds fy, vkstiw.kZ eqfge NsM+uk gS A dsoy turk ds chp jgdj dke djus okyh ikVhZ }kjk gh uo&mnkjoknh jkt ds f[kykQ tu izfrjks/k dks izHkko'kkyh <ax ls [kM+k fd;k tk ldrk gS A blds fy, t:jh gS fd ftu jkT;ksa esa ikVhZ desfV;ka igys ls lfØ; gS ogka laxBu dks lqn`<+ cuk;k tk;s vkSj mldk foLrkj fd;k rFkk T;knk bykdksa esa bldk QSyko fd;k tk;s A ikVhZ dks vf[ky Hkkjrh; Lrj ij ,d jktuhfrd rkdr cukus ds fy,] ikVhZ }kjk is'k oSpkfjd o jktuhfrd fn'kk ds vk/kkj ij] jktuhfrd ,oa lkaxBfud dke dks O;ofLFkr <ax ls 'kq# fd;k tkuk pkfg, vkSj mldk fodkl tkuk pkfg, A oxZ ,oa tu laxBuksa dk fuekZ.k dj o mUgsa etcwr cukdj] budh lnL;rk vkSj la?k"kksZa dk foLrkj dj vkSj bu laxBuksa ls dkejsMksa dh HkrhZ dj ,oa mUgsa jktuhfr ls ySl dj ikVhZ fuekZ.k dh izfØ;k dks vkxs ys tkus ds dke dks izkFkfedrk nh tkuh pkfg, A fopkj/kkjk o jktuhfr ls ySl is'ksoj Økafrdkfj;ksa dh HkrhZ vkSj mudk fodkl djus ds fy, fujarj iz;kl djus dh t:jr gS A

3-3       ikVhZ iquxZBu dk dke lHkh ekDlZoknh&ysfuuoknh rkdrksa dks ,d ,sls rkdroj dE;qfuLV ikVhZ esa ,drkc) djus ds dke ds lkFk vfHkUu :i ls tqM+k gqvk gS tks Økafrdkjh lkekftd cnyko ds fy, etnwj oxZ] fdlkuksa vkSj turk ds vU; lHkh 'kksf"kr o mRihfM+r oxksZa ,oa rcdksa dh vxqokbZ djus esa l{ke gks A ,sls le; esa tc Hkktik us vius ?kksj&nf{k.kiaFkh vkSj lkEiznkf;d Qklhoknh ,ts.Mk ds lkFk vHkwriwoZ geyk NsM+ j[kk gS] rks la?k"kZ'khy okeiaFkh rkdrksa dks ns'k ds lkeus ,d fodYi izLrqr djuk pkfg, rFkk lkezkT;okn ds f[kykQ] eksnh ljdkj ,oa fofHkUu jkT; ljdkjksa dh uo&mnkjoknh uhfr;ksa o dk;ZØeksa ds f[kykQ rFkk lkEiznkf;drk ds f[kykQ turk ds la?k"kksZa dks usr`Ro iznku djuk pkfg, A ysfdu tSlk fd ekdik igys gh ekDlZoknh&ysfuuoknh jkLrs dks R;kx+ pqdh gS vkSj nf{k.kiaFkh voljoknh ,oa lalnh; ckSusiu esa ifrr gks pqdh gS] blfy, mlesa cps jg x;s Økafrdkjh fgLls dks vius i{k esa ykus ds /;s; ds lkFk mlds f[kykQ le>kSrkghu oSpkfjd la?k"kZ NsM+uk pkfg, A nwljh rjQ] Hkkdik¼ekvksoknh½ vjktd jkLrs ij pyrs gq, ijks{k :i ls 'kkld oxksZa dks enn igqapk jgh gS vkSj turk ls yxkrkj vyxko esa iM+rh tk jgh gS A bl fgLls ds f[kykQ fcuk dksbZ <hy fn;s oSpkfjd la?k"kZ tkjh j[kuk pkfg, A bu :>kuksa ds f[kykQ le>kSrkghu oSpkfjd la?k"kZ pykrs gq, fofHkUu okeiaFkh laxBuksa ds lkFk LoLFk jktuhfrd lEcU/k fodflr djuk pkfg, A ,d rjQ] muds lkFk feydj dj eqn~nk&vk/kkfjr la?k"kksZa dk fodkl djks] vkSj nwljh rjQ] mUgsa ikVhZ ykbu ds i{k esa ykus dh lEHkkoukvksa dks ryk'krs gq, ^,drk vkSj la?k"kZ* ds vk/kkj ij oSpkfjd la?k"kZ esa 'kkfey djks A

3-4       uo&mnkj uhfr;ksa vkSj c<+rs Qklhoknh [krjs ds f[kykQ lEHko O;kidre tu izfrjks/k [kM+k djus ds fy, lHkh oke ,oa tuoknh rkdrksa dks ,drkc) djus dh fn'kk esa mBk;s x;s dneksa ds lkFk dE;qfuLV ikVhZ ds iquxZBu ds iz;kl dks tksM+uk pkfg, A ,d ,sls le; esa tc vkj,l,l lefFkZr dkjiksjsV vkØedrk us l?ku :i ys fy;k gS] rks 'kklu ra= ds f[kykQ lk>k U;wure dk;ZØe ds vk/kkj ij oke ,oa tuoknh rkdrksa dh ,drk dk fuekZ.k fugk;r gh t:jh gks x;k gS A lefopkjh rkdrksa ds lkFk feydj 2010 esa xfBr yksdrkaf=d tu eap ¼Mhih,Q½ us foxr ikap o"kksZa ds nkSjku uo&mnkj uhfr;ksa ds fo:) vusd eqfge pyk;k gS vkSj tu xksycanh dh gS] ftlesa uoEcj 2012 esa ^eksnh gVkvks* ukjs ds lkFk vgenkckn esa fudkyh xbZ rkdroj jSyh rFkk fnYyh eas vk;ksftr lkykuk tu xksycanh 'kkfey gS A ubZ mHkj jgh ifjfLFkfr ekax dj jgh gS fd uo&mnkjoknh uhfr;ksa vkSj mlds dqifj.kkeksa ds f[kykQ rFkk lkEiznkf;d Qklhoknh rkdrksa ds f[kykQ O;kij Lrj ij vkUnksyu NsM+us ds fy, la?k"kZ'khy oke] tuoknh vkSj /keZ fujis{k rkdrksa dk ,d eap cukus ds fy, ubZ ÅtkZ ds lkFk iz;kl fd;k tk;s] rkfd eksnh ljdkj }kjk is'k pqukSfr;ksa dk eqdkcyk djus ds fy, T;knk ls T;knk rkdrksa dks vius i{k esa yk;k tk lds A

3-5       ;fn ikVhZ ds if=dkvksa ,oa izdk'kuksa ds ek/;e ls izpkj vkSj jktuhfrd f'k{k.k dk dke rFkk ekDlZoknh lkfgR;] ikVhZ ,oa vkbZdksj ds cqfu;knh nLrkostksa vkSj oxZ ,oa tu laxBuksa ds nLrkostksa ,oa izdk'kuksa ds vk/kkj ij dSMjksa dks O;ofLFkr <ax ls f'kf{kr djus dk dke vkxs c<+rk gS rks ikVhZ fuekZ.k ds dke vkSj la;qDr ekspkZ dh igydneh dks Hkh cy feysxk A ,sls le; esa tc lkezkT;okn vkSj mlds vuqpjksa }kjk dkjiksjsV ehfM;k ds reke jkLrksa dk bLrseky dj lkE;okn vkSj Økafrdkjh rkdrksa ds f[kykQ fo'o Lrj ij vHkwriwoZ nf{k.kiaFkh vkSj cnfu;r Hkjk >wB QSykus okyk vfHk;ku vkSj izpkj pyk;k tk jgk gS] rc lekt ds u;s fgLlksa dks ikVhZ dh oSpkfjd&jktuhfrd fn'kk ds i{k esa ykus rFkk la;qDr vkUnksyu ds fy, lefopkjh rkdrksa dks ,d lkFk ykus gsrq ns'k esa Økafrdkjh okrkoj.k fufeZr djus ds fy, Økafrdkjh izpkj pykus dh furkar vko';drk gS A ,d ,sls le; esa tc lkezkT;okn ds fnekxh&rksifp;ksa vkSj lkezkT;oknh ehfM;k ra= }kjk rjg&rjg ds mÙkj&vk/kqfud vkSj mÙkj&ekDlZoknh fl)kUrksa dk rkcM+rksM+ mRiknu fd;k tk jgk gS vkSj mldk izpkj&izlkj fd;k tk jgk gS] rks mudk inkZQk'k djus ds fy, rFkk yksxksa dks Økafrdkjh fn'kk esa ykus ds fy, nqfu;k Hkj ds ekDlZoknh&ysfuuokfn;ksa }kjk oSpkfjd eqfge pyk;k tkuk vR;Ur t:jh gS A vius izdk'kuksa dks etcwr cukdj rFkk lks'ky ehfM;k lesr fizUV ,oa bysDVªkfud nksuksa rjg ds ehfM;k dk izHkkoh <ax ls mi;ksx djds gh bl dk;ZHkkj dks iwjk fd;k tk ldrk gS A ikVhZ ds lHkh jkT; desfV;ksa dks ekDlZoknh 'kkL=h; jpukvksa vkSj izxfr'khy iqLrdksa ds izdk'ku ds fy, viuh&viuh Hkk"kkvksa esa izdk'ku dsUnzksa dh 'kq#vkr djuh pkfg, A dSMjksa ds oSpkfjd Lrj vkSj le> dks fodflr djus ds fy, dsUnzh; desVh dks pkfg, fd og ekDlZokn&ysfuuokn ds fl)kUr dks Bksl ifjfLFkfr ds vuqlkj iz;ksx esa ykus ds fy, ikVhZ Ldwyksa] LVMh Dyklksa vkSj lS)kfurd ppkZvksa dk fu;fer vk;kstu djs A vUrjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij Hkh Økafrdkjh fl)kUr vkSj O;ogkj dk fodkl djus ds fy, leqfpr oSpkfjd&jktuhfrd igy rFkk izpkj dk;Z pykus dh t:jr gS A

3-6       orZeku lanHkZ esa ftu jktuhfrd vfHk;kuksa ij lcls T;knk /;ku nsus dh vko';drk gS] muesa ls ,d gS pquko lq/kkj A 2014 dk vke pquko vc rd dk lcls T;knk dkjiksjsV Q.MsM x;k pquko Fkk ftlesa ek= 31 izfr'kr oksV ds lkFk Hkktik us yksd lHkk esa iw.kZ cgqer gkfly fd;k gS A gkykafd dkaxzsl dks 19-3 izfr'kr oksV feyk gS] ysfdu bls dsoy 44 lhVsa gh izkIr gqbZ gaS] tcfd clik 4-1 izfr'kr oksV ikus ds ckotwn ,d lhV Hkh ugha ik ldh gS A Hkkdik¼ekys½ ds pquko ?kks"k.kki= esa *igys LFkku ij vkus okys izR;k'kh dks fot;h ?kksf"kr djus dh iz.kkyh* ¼QLVZ ikl nh iksLV½ dh txg vuqikfrd izfrfuf/kRo dh iz.kkyh ykxw djrs gq, QkSjh pqukoh lq/kkj djus dh ekax dh xbZ Fkh A ?kks"k.kki= esa bl ij tksj fn;k x;k Fkk fd /keZ fujis{k ewY;ksa dks etcwr djus ds fy, /keZ vkSj jktuhfr ds chp vyxko] tkfr O;oLFkk ds mUewyu] okLro esa tehu tksrus okyksa dks tehu dk caVokjk lesr vkewyxkeh Hkwfe lq/kkj vkSj d`f"k ds dkjiksjsVhdj.k dh izfØ;k dks jksdus] vkfn ds fy, lafo/kku esa cqfu;knh la'kks/ku ds fgLls ds :i esa pqukoh lq/kkj fd;k tkuk pkfg, A blds lkFk&lkFk] jktuhfr dks yksdrkaf=d cukus ds fy,] Hkz"V vkpj.k esa fyIr ljdkjh vQljksa lesr pqus gq, izfrfuf/k;ksa dks okil cqykus ds vf/kdkj dks ykxw djus ds fy,] jksVh&diM+k& edku&LokLF;&f'k{kk&jkstxkj ds vf/kdkj dks lcds fy, ekSfyd vf/kdkj ds :i esa lqfuf'pr djus ds fy, lafo/kku esa QkSjh rkSj ij egRoiw.kZ la'kks/ku djus dh t:jr gS A ,d vU; egRoiw.kZ {ks= ftlesa pquko lq/kkj djus dh t:jr gS og gS pqukoh la?k"kZ esa /kucy dk bLrseky A jkT; }kjk Qf.Mx ds fodYi dks jk"Vªh; cgl esa yk;k tkuk pkfg, A

3-7       tSlk fd ikVhZ dk;ZØe esa js[kkafdr fd;k x;k gS] dsoy etnwj oxZ ds usr`Ro esa gh 'kklu O;oLFkk ds f[kykQ ns'kO;kih tumHkkj iSnk fd;k tk ldrk gS A fdUrq v<+kbZ n'kdksa ls tkjh uo&mnkj uhfr;ksa dh dM+h esa] ?kksj nf{k.kiaFkh eksnh ljdkj] ^^U;wure ljdkj** ds ukjs ds lkFk] fofuos'k uhfr rFkk vkfFkZd ,oa lkekftd {ks=ksa ls jkT; ds ihNs gVrs tkus dh uhfr ij rst ls vkxs c<+ jgh gS] ftlds pyrs laxfBr {ks= dk jkstxkj vkSj Hkh fldqM+dj dqy jkstxkj dk ek= 7 izfr'kr jg x;k gS A jkstxkj ds tks Hkh u;s volj iSnk gks jgs gSa os vukSipkfjd {ks= esa gSa A dStqvy Jfed izFkk] Bsdk Je izFkk] ^dke djkvks fudky nks* ¼gk;j ,.M Qk;j½] vkfn dk rst foLrkj gks jgk gS A QSDVjh ,DV esa la'kks/ku lesr Je cktkj ds mnkjhdj.k dh lexz uhfr ykxw dh tk jgh gS A buds lkFk&lkFk] Hkktik ds ctV esa lHkh {ks=ksa esa izR;{k fons'kh fuos'k ¼,QMhvkbZ½ vkSj lkoZtfud&futh Hkkxhnkjh ¼ihihih½ ds vk/kkj ij dkjiksjsVhdj.k vkSj futhdj.k dh ?kks"k.kk dh xbZ gS A pwafd uo&mnkjoknh O;oLFkk esa lEink gj.k vkSj iwath lap; dk ,d egRoiw.kZ lzksr izkd`frd lalk/kuksa dh ywV gS] vkSj pawfd jkstxkj iSnk djus okys mRiknu esa dVkSrh gks jgh gS] blfy, csjkstxkjh vkSj v)Z&csjkstxkjh O;oLFkk&tfM+r izo`fr cu xbZ gS A vr% iwath vkSj Je ds chp vUrjfojks/k us vR;Ur rh[kk vk;ke xzg.k dj fy;k gS A bl fLFkfr esa uo&mnkjoknh uhfr;ksa dk izfrjks/k djuk etnwj oxZ dk loZizFke dk;ZHkkj cu x;k gS A pwafd cqtqZvk] la”kks/kuoknh] lq/kkjoknh vkSj lkEiznkf;d usr`Ro esa pyus okys VsªM ;wfu;u dsUnz bl dk;ZHkkj ds izfr xaHkhj] vfMx vkSj iw.kZ lefiZr ugha gaS] blfy, Vh;wlhvkbZ ,oa vU; VsªM ;wfu;uksa esa dk;Zjr ikVhZ dkejsMksa dks bu uhfr;ksa ds f[kykQ yM+us ds fy, etnwj oxZ dk ,d O;kid eap cukus ds edln ds lkFk bl loky dk mBkuk pkfg, A bl izfØ;k esa] etnwj oxZ dks jktuhfr ls ySl djus ij fo'ks"k tksj nsuk pkfg, A

3-8       Hkwe.Myhdj.k ls igys ds nkSj dh izFke gfjr Økafr dh dM+h esa] uo&mnkj Hkwe.Myhdj.k ds bl nkSj esa ,d ds ckn ,d vkus okyh lHkh ljdkjksa us ,xzh&fcftusl] dkjiksjsV QkfeZax vkSj ubZ d`f"k rduhd ds vk/kkj ij ftu uhfr;ksa dks ykxw fd;k gS og d`f"k {ks= dks 'kuS%&'kuS% f}rh; gfjr Økafr dh vksj ys xbZ gS] ftldk lkj :i esa vFkZ gS d`f"k {ks= dk yxkrkj c<+rk dkjiksjsVhdj.k A dkjiksjsV ?kjkukas vkSj cgqjk"Vªh; dEifu;kasa }kjk d`f"k dh vfr vk/kqfud rduhdh vkSj cktkj dh btkjsnkj 'kfDr;ksa ds leFkZu ls d`f"k Hkwfe ds fo'kky Hkw[k.Mksa ij dCtk fd;k tk jgk gS vkSj xzkeh.k vapy ds dqN bykdksa dks cM+s dkjiksjsV QkeksZa esa cnyk tk jgk gS A os ekStwnk Hkwfe gncanh dkwuuksa dk Hkh mYya?ku dj jgs gSa A ;g fdlkuksa dks Hkkjh fouk'k dh vksj ys tk jgk gS A vkapfyd Lrj ij v/;;uksa ds tfj, bldh ckfjfd;ksa dks lkeus yk;k tk ldrk gS A blds ifj.kkeLo:i gks jgs fdlkuksa ds foLFkkiu ds lkFk&lkFk lst] dkWfjMksj] [kuu ifj;kstukvksa vkfn ds fy, mUgsa vius fuokl LFkyksa ls cyiwoZd mtkM+k tkuk vkt Hk;kog vk;ke ys pqdk gS A ;s foLFkkfir fdlku] vkfnoklh vkSj nfyr dkjiksjsV QkeksaZ ;k gkM+ fupksM+ ysus okys m|ksxksa dh vksj tk jgs gSa] ;k izoklh etnwj ds :i esa >qaM ds >qaM 'kgj dh >qfXx;ksa dh vksj tk jgs gSa A foxr dbZ n”kdksa ls tkjh bl fodklØe ds QyLo:i vkt d`f’k {ks= esa iwathoknh laca/kksa dk fodkl vf[ky Hkkjrh; Lrj ij c<+rk gqvk :>ku cu gS] gkykafd blesa dkQh gn rd fofo/krk vkSj vleurk Hkh ekStwn gSA ;g fofo/krk vkSj vlekurk fofHkUu jkT;ksa ds chp] jkT; ds vUnj vkSj ;gka rd fd ftys ds vUnj Hkh fo|eku gS A ,sls bykds Hkh gSa tgka d`f’k esa iwathoknh laca/k fu;a=.kdkjh fLFkfr esa igqap x;s gSa A ogha ,sls bykds Hkh gSa tgka lkearh vkSj v)Z&lkearh laca/k dkQh etcwrh ls ekStwn gSa A iwjs ns”k esa lwn[kksj iwath vkSj tkfrxr mRihM+u dk cksyckyk gS A

3-9       fir`lÙkk vkSj oLrqdj.k ¼deksMhfQds'ku½ ds f'kdats ls efgykvksa dh foeqfDr ds fy, efgyk ekspsZ dk dke turk dh tuoknh Økafr dk egRoiw.kZ ?kVd gS A u dsoy jktuhfrd lÙkk n[ky djus ds fy,] cfYd lektoknh :ikarj.k dh fn'kk esa Økafr dks tkjh j[kus ds fy, Hkh bls Økafrdkjh vkUnksyu ds egRoiw.kZ igyw ds :i esa fy;k tkuk pkfg, A ekStwnk lanHkZ esa] efgyk,a cM+s iSekus ij ?kj dh pkjfnokjh ls ckgj vk jgh gSa rkfd os vkthfodk dek ldsa A lkFk gh bl nkSj esa efgykvksa vkSj yM+fd;ksa ij ;kSu geyk yxkrkj c<+ jgk gS A 'kklu O;oLFkk bl ij vkijkf/kd mnkflurk cuk;s gq, gS A dsoy ,d 'kfDr'kkyh efgyk vkUnksyu dk fodkl djds gh bl ccZj ifjfLFkfr dk eqdkcyk fd;k tk ldrk gS vkSj mls ijkLr fd;k tk ldrk gS A Økafrdkjh efgyk vkUnksyu bl n`f"Vdks.k ds lkFk dsoy rHkh dke ldrk gS tc og fofHkUu lkekftd Jsf.k;ksa ls cM+h la[;k esa efgyk dk;ZdrkZvksa dks vkdf"kZr djrs gq, okLro esa ,d tu vkUnksyu ds :i esa fodflr gks A gkykafd ikVhZ ds lkFk tqM+h efgyk,a cM+h la[;k esa vf[ky Hkkjrh; Økafrdkjh efgyk laxBu ¼AIRWO½ esa dke dj jgh gSa] fdUrq mls iwjs lekt ls la?k"kZ'khy efgykvksa dks vkdf"kZr djrs gq, viuh ekStwnk lhekvksa ls ckgj fudyuk gS A blls Økafrdkjh efgyk vkUnksyu ds Lora= fodkl dk jkLrk [kqysxk tks fir`lÙkk ds lHkh :iksa dks] ;gka rd fd ikVhZ esa blds izHkko dks pqukSrh nsus esa l{ke gksxk A efgyk ekspkZ ds bl rjg ds fodkl ds fy, ikVhZ dks lc izdkj dk leFkZu nsuk pkfg, A

3-10      ,slh ,d ifjfLFkfr esa tc vUrjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij vkSj Hkkjr esa okeiaFkh vkUnksyu dks xgjk /kDdk yxk gS] os ukStoku vkSj fo|kFkhZ tks uo&mnkjokn ds nkSj esa tUes vkSj iys&c<+s gSa] muds fnekx dks lkE;okn&fojks/kh izpkj ls tcjnLr :i ls nwf"kr fd;k x;k gS A ukStokuksa vkSj fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks jktuhfr ls vyx j[kus ds fy, lkezkT;okn vkSj 'kkld oxksZa }kjk reke izfrfØ;koknh rkdrksa ds lkFk feydj vjktuhfrdj.k dh lrr eqfge pykbZ tk jgh gS A ,slh ifjfLFkfr esa] ?kksj nf{k.kiaFkh eksnh ljdkj dks lÙkk esa cSBkus okys oksV esa ,d cM+k fgLlk ukStokuksa dk Fkk A pwafd csjkstxkjh] egaxkbZ] Hkz"Vkpkj] f'k{kk lesr lHkh phtksa ds cktkjhdj.k] vkfn leL;kvksa dk rRdky lek/kku ryk'k jgs ukStokuksa dh fLFkfr csgn uktqd gks xbZ gS] blfy, os fodkl vkSj jkstxkj dh tqeysckth esa vklkuh ls cg tkrs gSa A okeiaFk dh vksj ls fo'oluh; fodYi ds vHkko esa] O;fDroknh miHkksDrk laLd`fr ls izHkkfor] ukStoku vkSj fo|kFkhZ /kkfeZd ,oa tkfroknh rkdrksa ds vklku f'kdkj cu x;s gSa A ;g ifjfLFkfr ekax dj jgh gS fd ukStokuksa vkSj fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds lkeus mifLFkr okLrfod leL;kvksa ds oLrqfu"B ewY;kadu ds vk/kkj ij rFkk muds fy, Økafrdkjh fodYi izLrqr djrs gq, Økafrdkjh vkUnksyu dh vksj mUgsa vkdf"kZr djus ds fy, pkSrjQk eqfge pykbZ tk;s A bl utfj;s ds lkFk rFkk Bksl gkykr vkSj [kkl eqn~nksa dk tk;tk ysrs gq, ikVhZ dks pkfg, fd ukStoku vkSj fo|kFkhZ ekspsZ ij xfrfof/k;ksa dks etcwr cukus ds fy, jktuhfrd vkSj lkaxBfud nksuksa rjg ds leqfpr dne mBk;s A bu ekspkZsa dh lQyrk ikVhZ ds vkxs fodkl vkSj foLrkj esa ,d fu.kkZ;d ?kVd gksxk A O;kid tu vkUnksyu ds :i esa ukStoku vkSj fo|kFkh laxBuksa dh xfrfof/k;ksa dks rkdroj cukus ds fy, tksjnkj iz;kl djus dh t:jr gS rkfd os vius ToyUr eqn~nksa dks ysdj vkSj lkFk gh turk ds vke eqn~nksa dks ysdj jkT;O;kih vkSj ns'kO;kih vkUnksyu NsM+us esa l{ke gks ldsa A c<+rh csjkstxkjh] v)Z&csjkstxkjh] f'k{kk ds cktkjhdj.k] Hkz"Vkpkj] ukStokuksa ,oa fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds chp lEiznkf;rk o vijk/khdj.k] vkfn ds f[kykQ vkUnksyu NsM+ks rFkk mUgsa jktuhfr ls ySl djus vkSj cM+h la[;k esa ikVhZ esa HkrhZ djus dk fujarj iz;kl djks A

3-11      vkfnoklh tks vkcknh ds yxHkx 10 izfr'kr gSa] os Hkkjrh; lekt dk lcls T;knk 'kksf"kr vkSj mRihfM+r rcds gSa A pwafd uo&mnkjokn ds rgr izd`fr dh ywV /ku lap; dk ,d egRoiw.kZ tfj;k gS] blfy, dkjiksjsV ?kjkus vkSj cgqjk"Vªh; dEifu;ka mu [kfut lEiUu bykdksa esa izos'k dj jgh gSa tgka vkfnoklh turk jgrh gS A buesa ls dqN bykdksa esa ekvksokfn;ksa dh mifLFkfr dk bLrseky djrs gq, ljdkj }kjk ogka cM+s iSekus ij iqfyl vkSj v)Z&lSfud cyksa dh rSukrh dks tk;t Bgjk;k tkrk gS A ekvksoknh gkSOos rFkk ,uthvks ds ckjs esa [kqfQ;k C;wjks ¼vkbZch½ dh rktk fjiksVZ dk bLrseky dj ns'k dh le`) [kfut lEink dh dkjiksjsV ywV ds f[kykQ gks jgs izfrjks/k dk neu fd;k tk jgk gS A Hkktik ds ctV esa VªkbCy Iyku ds rgr tks vis{kkd`r vf/kd jkf'k dk vkoaVu fd;k x;k gS mles ls ,d cM+h jde vke rkSj ij jktusrk vkSj vQlj'kkgh xBtksM+ dh tsc esa tkus ds vykok og eq[;r% vkj,l,l }kjk iz;ksftr ,uthvks dks fn;k tk;sxk A ikVhZ dks vkfnokfl;ksa ds chp dke vkxs c<+kus ds fy, lexz ;kstuk cukuh pkfg, rFkk vkfnoklh ekspsZ esa xfrfof/k;ksa dk fodkl djus ds fy, lc rjg ls lg;ksx djuk pkfg, rFkk bls usr`Ro nsus ds fy, bu bykdkas ls dSMjksa dks xksycan djuk pkfg, vkSj mUgsa jktuhfr ls ySl djuk pkfg, A tgka Hkh vkcknh dk ,d cM+k fgLlk vkfnokfl;ksa dk gS ogka iw.kZ vf/kdkj lEiUu Lok;Ùk'kklh ifj"knksa ds fuekZ.k ds fy, ikVhZ dks fujarj la?k"kZ pykuk pkfg, A

3-12      ikVhZ ,oa lefopkjh rkdrksa dh igy ij nks lky igys tkfr mUewyu vkUnksyu dh 'kq#vkr dh xbZ Fkh vkSj rc ls ;g vf[ky Hkkjrh; Lrj ij yxkrkj fodkl dj jgk gS A ;g bl egRoiw.kZ loky ij Økafrdkjh utfj;s dk fodkl djrs gq, dE;qfuLV vkUnksyu dh detksjh dks lq/kkjus dh fn'kk esa ,d egRoiw.kZ dne gS A nfyr tks vf/kdk'kar% xjhc ,oa Hkwfeghu fdlku vkSj [ksr etnwj gSa vkSj ftUgksaus ns'k ds Økafrdkjh vkUnksyu ds bfrgkl esa ,d egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk vnk dh gS] Hkkjr dh vkcknh ds 15 izfr'kr gSa A nfyrksa ij uo&mnkjoknh uhfr;ksa ds rgr c<+rh vkfFkZd ekj ds lkFk&lkFk] mu ij tkfr vk/kkfjr lkekftd&lkaLd`frd geyk] ftldh vfHkO;fDr [kki iapk;r tSlh laLFkkvksa ds tfj, gksrh gS] fo'ks"k :i ls nfyr efgykvksa ds izfr ;kSu fgUlk rst gks jgh gS A tSlk fd tkfr mUewyu vkUnksyu ds dk;ZØe esa O;k[;k dh xbZ gS] nfyrksa ds tehu ds loky dks gy djus ds fy, tuoknh vkUnksyu NsM+rs gq, rFkk tkfroknh mRihM+u ds f[kykQ ,d tuoknh vf/kdkj ds :i eas ^vkj{k.k* dh j{kk djrs gq,] ikVhZ dks pkfg, fd tkfrxr izrhdksa ds bLrseky lesr tkfroknh HksnHkko ds lHkh :iksa ds f[kykQ le>kSrkghu yM+kbZ vkxs ys tk;s A tkfroknh mRihM+u dh izdV ?kVukvksa dks mBkus esa l{ke ,d ns'kO;kih vkUnksyu ds :i esa tkfr mUewyu vkUnksyu dk fodkl djus ds fy, ikVhZ dks igy djuh pkfg, rFkk vUrj&tkrh; fookg tSls rjhdksa ds izpkj lfgr ns'kO;kih vfHk;kuksa vkSj la?k"kksZa dks izksRlkfgr djuk pkfg, A

3-13      vUrjjk"Vªh; Lrj ij okeiaFkh vkUnksyu dks yxs oSpkfjd o jktuhfrd /kDds dk Qk;nk mBkrs gq,] foÙkh; iwath ds leFkZu ls] nqfu;k Hkj dh nf{k.kiaFkh rkdrksa us tks izfrfØ;koknh ckSf)d vkSj lkaLd`frd geyk NsM+ j[kk gS og f}rh; fo'o ;q) ds ckn uo&mifuosf'kd O;oLFkk ds nkSj esa ntZ lcls cM+s geyksa esa ,d gS A Hkkjr esa vkj,l,l vkSj fgUnqRooknh rkdrksa ds lÙkk 'kh"kZ ij mHkkj us lkezkT;okn vkSj Hkkjrh; 'kkld oxksZa ds lkearh vkSj uo&mifuosf'kd lkaLd`frd geys dks xq.kkRed :i ls u;k vk;ke ns fn;k gS A f'k{kk] ,sfrgkfld ,oa lkaLd`frd 'kks/k] oSKkfud 'kks/k] ehfM;k] lwpuk] lapkj vkSj czkMdkfLVax dks viuh tdM+ esa ysdj ?kksj nf{k.kiaFkh vkSj izfrfØ;koknh rkdrksa us dE;qfuLVksa vkSj tuoknh rkdrksa ds f[kykQ oSpkfjd&jktuhfrd geyk 'kq: fd;k gS A bl izfr&lkaLd`frd geys esa Hkkjr ds izfrfØ;kokfn;ksa dks lkezkT;oknh dsUnzksa ls rjg&rjg ds mÙkj&vk/kqfud fl)kUrdkjksa dk iwjk leFkZu izkIr gS A Økafrdkjh lkaLd`frd ekspsZ ds dk;ZØe esa ,d rjQ bfrgkl vkSj laLd`fr dks fod`r djus ds f[kykQ vFkd la?k"kZ NsM+us rFkk lkearh] lkezkT;oknh o miHkksDrk laLd`fr] vLoLFk ijEijkvksa vkSj va/k fo'oklksa ds izHkko dks m[kkM+ Qsadus vkSj nwljh rjQ] Økafrdkjh] tuoknh o lektoknh lkaLd`frd ewY;ksa ds fodkl dks lkaLd`frd ekspsZ ds ewyHkwr dk;ZHkkj crk;k x;k gS A lHkh Lrjksa ij vfoyEc rkdroj Økafrdkjh lkaLd`frd eqfge NsM+dj ubZ ifjfLFkfr ds lanHkZ esa bl le> dks iq[rk cukuk pkfg, A

3-14      dsUnz dh vc rd dh lHkh ljdkjsa tEew&d'ehj vkSj iwoksZÙkj jkT;ksa esa tu vkdka{kkvksa dk neu djus ds fy, lSU;hdj.k dh uhfr ij vey djrh jgh gSa A vc NÙkhlx<+ tSls u;s bykdksa rd bls QSyk fn;k x;k gS tgka lsuk dks rSukr fd;k tk pqdk gS A e/; Hkkjr ds [kfut lEiUu lHkh bykdksa esa] tgka vkcknh dk ,d cM+k fgLlk vkfnokfl;ksa dk gS] blds foLrkj dh ea'kk gS A l'kL= cy fo'ks"k vf/kdkj dkuwu ¼vk¶lik½ vkSj xSj&dkuwuh xfrfof/k fujks/kd dkuwu ¼;w,ih,½ tSls dkys dkuwuksa dk va/kk/kqa/k iz;ksx fd;k x;k gS rFkk turk dks muds tuoknh vkSj cqfu;knh ukxfjd vf/kdkjksa ls oafpr djus ds fy, u;s&u;s dkys dkuwu cuk;s tk jgs gSa A fgUnw&Js"Brkoknh vkSj udyh&jk"Vªoknh Hkktik ds lÙkkjksg.k ls tEew&d'ehj dh turk dk tkjh la?k"kZ T;knk xaHkhj gks x;k gS D;ksafd vkj,l,l ds yksx /kkjk 370 dks jn~n djus dh ekax djds gkykr dks vkSj Hkh lkEiznkf;d cuk jgs gSa A lÙkki{k ds izoDrkvksa us tksj nsdj dgk gS fd tEew&d'ehj vkSj iwoksZÙkj jkT;ksa esa vk¶lik dks T;knk fu"Bqj rjhds ls ykxw fd;k tk;sxk A blh lqj esa] vius igys ctV esa gh] Hkktik ljdkj us ^ekvksokn izHkkfor bykdksa* ds lSU;hdj.k ds fy, fo'ks"k ctVh; vkoaVu fd;k gS A bu bykdksa ls lsuk dh okilh vkSj dkys dkuwuksa dks [kRe djus ds fy, rFkk vkRe fu.kZ; ds vf/kdkj ds vk/kkj ij bu bykdksa ds jk"Vªh;rk ds loky dk jktuhfrd lek/kku djus ds fy, ikVhZ dks viuk vfHk;ku rst djuk pkfg, A NÙkhlx<+ ,oa vU; vkfnoklh cgqy bykdksa ls lsuk vkSj v)Z&lSfud cyksa dks gVkus ds fy, tksjnkj vfHk;ku pykus dh QkSjh t:jr gS A pwafd la?k ifjokj ls tqM+h rkdrsa tEew&d'ehj ds loky dks vkSj Hkh T;knk lkEiznkf;d cukus ds fy, fnu&jkr dke dj jgh gSa] blfy, gekjh ikVhZ dks bls pqukSrh nsrs gq, bl ukjs ds lkFk vkxs vkuk pkfg, fd /kkjk 370 dks mldh ewy “kfDr;ksa o vUroZLrq ds lkFk cgky djks] tEew&d”ehj dh turk dh vkdka{kkvksa dk lEeku djks] ogka ls lSU; dCtk gVkvks] lHkh dkys dkuwuksa dks [kkfjt djks rFkk vyx gksus ds vf/kdkj lesr vkRe fu.kZ; dk vf/kdkj nks A blh rjg] leku ukxfjd lafgrk dh fgUnqRooknh ekax dk izfrjks/k djuk pkfg, vkSj ;g vkg~oku fd;k tkuk pkfg, fd lHkh rcdksa dh lekurk lqfuf'pr djrs gq, /keZ fujis{k ukxfjd lafgrk ykxw djks A

3-15      gekjh ikVhZ us izd`fr&fe=] tui{kh; fodkl dk izfreku is'k fd;k gS tks eq[;/kkjk ds dkjiksjsV fodkl ekWMy ds Bhd foijhr gS ftlds i{k/kj 'kkld oxZ] voljoknh] vjktdoknh] mÙkj&vk/kqfudrkoknh] Q.MsM ,uthvks] vkfn gSa] pkgs mudk ?kksf"kr oSpkfjd fo'okl dqN Hkh D;ksa u gks A ge i;kZoj.k ds izfr vius utfj;s ds vk/kkj ij foxr o"kksZa ds nkSjku mu tu vkUnksyuksa ds chp leUo; dk;e djus ds fy, fujarj iz;kljr jgs gSa tks dkjiksjsV ifj;kstukvksa ls gks jgs foLFkkiu] cgqjk"Vªh; dEifu;ksa }kjk izkd`frd lalk/kuksa ds va/kk/kqa/k nksgu vkSj turk ds Åij ijek.kq la;a=ksa dks Fkksis tkus ds f[kykQ vyx&vyx LFkkuksa ij mHkj jgs Fks A oSKkfud vkSj vkfFkZd :i ls vO;ogkfjd ijek.kq ÅtkZ ij fuHkZjrk ds f[kykQ gekjh igydneh ds pyrs vf[ky Hkkjrh; ijek.kq ÅtkZ fojks/kh tu igy dk xBu gqvk gS rFkk if'pe ?kkV ds laj{k.k ds fy, tu vkUnksyuksa dh vf[ky Hkkjrh; leUo; lfefr dk xBu dj if'pe ?kkV cpkvks eqfge esa gekjh usr`Rodkjh Hkwfedk dh fofHkUu oSpkfjd fo'oklksa okys tu vkUnksyuksa] oSKkfudksa] i;kZoj.k dk;ZdrkZvksa vkSj lefopkjh yksxksa ds chp vPNh izfrfØ;k gqbZ gS A vkxkeh fnuksa esa bls vkxs ys tkuk pkfg, vkSj lqn`<+ cukuk pkfg, A blh rjg] if'pe esa tEew&d'ehj ls ysdj iwoZ esa v#.kkpy izns'k rd] fgeky; vkSj rjkbZ {ks= ds foLr`r vkSj i;kZoj.k ds fygkt ls vR;Ur laosnu'khy vapy ds vkinkxzLr i;kZoj.k dh pqukSfr;ksa ds lanHkZ esa] bl Hkaxqj vapy esa ykxw dh tk jgh ekStwnk fouk'kdkjh uhfr;ksa ds f[kykQ ,d le> fodflr djus ds fy, vkSj bl vapy ds fodkl dh oSdfYid ladYiuk is'k djus ds fy, geus fgeky; cpkvks eqfge ds cSuj rys oSKkfudksa vkSj jktuhfrd dk;ZdrkZvksa dh lfØ; Hkkxhnkjh ds lkFk ppkZvksa dh 'kq#vkr dh gS A i;kZoj.k ds vkSj Hkh xaHkhj eqn~ns lkeus vkus okys gSa D;ksafd dkjiksjsV cgqjk"Vªh; dEifu;ksa ds fgrksa dh lsod eksnh ljdkj vius uhfrxr c;kuksa vkSj ctV ds tfj;s dkjiksjsVhdj.k dh izfØ;k dks rst djus ds fy, ekStwnk i;kZoj.kh; fu;eksa esa <hy nsus dh viuh ea'kk dks tkfgj dj pqdh gS A ikVhZ dks fodkl ds izfr viuh oSKkfud le> ds vk/kkj ij bu lHkh vkUnksyuksa ds chp jkT;ksa esa vkSj vf[ky Hkkjrh; Lrj ij leUo; LFkkfir djus ij fo'ks"k /;ku nsuk pkfg, A bu iz;klksa ds vk/kkj ij turk ds O;kid fgLlksa dks xksycUn dj i;kZoj.k ds fy, fouk'kdkjh uo&mnkj uhfr;ksa ds f[kykQ ns'kO;kih vkUnksyu NsM+k tkuk pkfg, A

3-16      orZeku ifjfLFkfr esa] fgUnqRooknh rkdrksa ds gkFk esa jktlÙkk gksus ds dkj.k os vkradh xfrfof/k;ksa vkSj /keZ ifjorZu dk gkSOok [kM+k djds /kkfeZd vYila[;dksa ds izfr uQjr QSykus ds fy, dkuwu ykxw djus okyh ,tsfUl;ksa vkSj lHkh iz'kkluhd jkLrksa dk bLrseky dj jgs gSa] gkykafd] tSlk fd ckn esa lkfcr gqvk gS] bl rjg dh dkjZokb;ksa ds ihNs vkj,l,l vkSj blds fofHkUu ?kVd laxBuksa dk gkFk jgk gS A ogha nwljh rjQ] cgqla[;d /kkfeZd dêjrk ls yM+us ds uke ij fujk'k rcdksa }kjk dh tk jgh vjktd dkjZokb;kas dh iyV ekj vYila[;dksa ij gh iM+ jgh gS A dkaxzsl dk uje fgUnqRo vkSj rFkkdfFkr /keZ fujis{k nyksa dh oksV cSad dh jktuhfr Hkh fgUnqRooknh rkdrksa }kjk vkj,l,l dk ,ts.Mk Fkksius ds fy, vuqdwy ekgkSy cuk jgh gS A lkFk gh] ;g Hkh lkfcr gqvk gS fd la?k ifjokj dk rFkkdfFkr fgUnw jk"Vªokn lkezkT;oknh iwath dh lsok djus ds fy, ,d /kqa, dk inkZ ek= gS A bl lanHkZ esa] /keZ fujis{k vkSj yksdrkaf=d n`f"Vdks.k ds lkFk] gekjh ikVhZ dks pkfg, fd og cgqla[;d vkSj vYila[;d nksuksa dh lkEiznkf;drk ds f[kykQ n`<+rk ds lkFk vuojr la?k"kZ djs] ftlesa Hkkjr dh Bksl ifjfLFkfr esa igyk ¼cgqla[;d dêjiaFk½ eq[; [krjk gS A jkT; vkSj /keZ] jktuhfr vkSj /keZ rFkk f'k{kk vkSj /keZ ds chp iw.kZ vyxko djrs gq, ftlesa /keZ ukxfjdksa dk futh ekeyk gS /keZ fujis{krk ds izfr uo&tkxj.k dky ds utfj;s dks lkeus j[kdj vkstiw.kZ eqfge pykuk gS A leku ukxfjd lafgrk ds ckjs esa fgUnw Js"Brkoknh c;kuckth dk] ftlesa ges'kk gh cgqerokn dk lqj lqukbZ nsrk gS] inkZQk'k djuk pkfg, rFkk lPps vFkZ esa /keZ fujis{k o tuoknh leku ukxfjd lafgrk dh vo/kkj.kk ds lkFk] tks lHkh /keksZa dh efgykvksa ds fy, lekurk lqfuf'pr djrh gks] bldk eqdkcyk djuk pkfg, A Hkkjr tSls egk}hi ds vkdkj okys ns'k esa] tgka vusd Hkk"kkvksa vkSj cksfy;ksa dk iz;ksx gksrk gS] viuh ekr`Hkk"kk eas ;k viuh ilan dh Hkk"kk esa f'k{kk izkIr djus dk vf/kdkj turk dk ,d tuoknh vf/kdkj gS A bl ekeys esa] ikVhZ dks /kkfeZd vYila[;dksa ds vf/kdkjksa dh j{kk djus ds fy, rFkk cgqer dh Hkk"kk dks vU; Hkk"kk&Hkk"kh yksxksa ij Fkksius ds f[kykQ ges'kk vkxs jguk pkfg, A

3-17      laizx ds nl lky ds 'kklu us Hkkjr dh fons'k uhfr ds izxfr'khy rRoksa dks dkQh gn rd /oLr dj fn;k gS A jk"Vªh; vkSj vUrjjk"Vªh; egRo ds lHkh ekeyksa esa vesfjdh lkezkT;okn dh nqe idM+dj blus Hkkjr dks vesfjdh lkezkT;okn ds tqfu;j ikVZuj esa rCnhy dj fn;k gS A bl Øe dks tkjh j[krs gq, vkSj blls Hkh T;knk izfrfØ;koknh voLFkku ysrs gq,] tc ;gwnhoknh btjk;y us xktk iêh vkSj osLV cSad esa turk dk dRysvke 'kq# fd;k rks eksnh ljdkj bl ekeys ij laln esa ppkZ ds fy, Hkh rS;kj ugha Fkh A 'kiFk xzg.k lekjksg esa lkdZ ns'kksa ds usrkvksa dks vkeaf=r djus ds ckotwn] eksnh ljdkj muds izfr igys tSlk gh foLrkjoknh joS¸;k viuk;s gq, gS A HkwVku] eky}hi] Jhyadk] caXykns'k vkSj usiky tSls iM+kslh ns'kksa ds Åij viuh gqDe'kkgh yknus ds Hkkjr ds iz;kl ds pyrs os nf{k.k ,f'k;kbZ cM+s HkkbZ dks lansg dh utj ls ns[kus gSa A lkezkT;oknh vfrØe.k ds f'kdkj vU; ns'kksa ds lkFk Hkh Hkkjr dk fj'rk rsth ls [kjkc gks jgk gS A ikVhZ dks pkfg, fd og lkezkT;okn fojks/kh fons'k uhfr ds fy, tksjnkj vfHk;ku pyk;s ftlesa lkezkT;okfn;ksa] fo'ks"k :i ls vesfjdh lkezkT;okn ds vkØe.k] ywV vkSj nknkfxjh ds f'kdkj lHkh ns'kksa ds lkFk] [kkldj iM+kslh ns'kksa ds lkFk lEcU/kksa dks etcwr djus ij tksj gks A vUrjjk"Vªh; Lrj ij lefopkjh ikfVZ;ksa vkSj laxBuksa ds lkFk fcjknjkuk lEcU/kksa dks etcwr djus ds fy, rFkk turk ls turk ds chp fj'rksa ds fodkl ds fy, iwjk iz;kl fd;k tkuk pkfg, A

3-18      vksckek dh Hkkjr ;k=k rFkk ijek.kq le>kSrs ij gLrk{kj us uo&mifuosf'kd nklrk dks T;knk xgjk dj fn;k gS A fo/ks;dksa dks ikfjr djus ds fy, lalnh; izfØ;k ls gksdj xqtjus dk /kS;Z ugha j[kdj] eksnh ljdkj egRoiw.kZ eqn~nksa ij dbZ lkjs v/;kns'k ykdj ^v/;kns'k jkt* pyk jgh gS A Hkwfe vf/kxzg.k fo/ks;d fdlkuksa ds vf/kdkjksa vkSj mudh tehu ij geyk gS A pquko ds le; fons'kh cSadksa ls dkyk /ku okil ykus dk tks tqeyk mNkyk x;k Fkk] mls nQu dj fn;k x;k gS A Hkz"Vkpkj ls yM+us dh lkjh ckrsa Hkqyk nh xbZ gSa A dkjiksjsV ywV fnu&c&fnu rst gks jgk gS] tcfd vR;Ur ?k`f.kr rjhds ls lkEiznkf;d foHksn iSnk fd;k tk jgk gS A viuh foLrkjoknh uhfr dh dM+h esa Hkkjr ljdkj us jkW ds tfj, Jhyadk ds gky ds pqukoksa esa viuh ukd ?kqlkbZ gS A

3-19   bu dk;ZHkkjksa dks gkFk esa ysrs le;] ikVhZ dks pkfg, fd og lkezkT;oknh Hkwe.Myhdj.k ds rgr yxHkx iphl o"kksZa ds nkSjku ns'k esa vk;s xq.kkRed ,oa ek=kRed cnykoksa ij xaHkhrjk ls fparu&euu djs A bu cnykoksa dk oxhZ; rkdrksa ds chp ijks{k :i ls tks vkfFkZd vkSj lkaLd`frd izHkko iM+k gS rFkk etnwjksa] fdlkuksa] efgykvksa] ukStokuksa] fo|kfFkZ;ksa vkSj nfyr] vkfnoklh o vYila[;d lesr vU; lHkh mRihfM+r rcdksa ij bldk tks vlj gqvk gS] og [kkl fparu dk fo"k; gksuk pkfg, A ikVhZ fuekZ.k ds lkFk&lkFk rFkk ,d tu fodYi ds fuekZ.k ds fy, 'kklu O;oLFkk ds f[kykQ pkSrjQk oSpkfjd] jktuhfrd o lkaxBfud eqfge ls tksM+rs gq, lHkh lPps okeiaFkh vkSj tuoknh rkdrksa dh lEHkore O;kid dk;e ds iz;kl ds lkFk&lkFk bu igyqvksa dk Bksl fo'ys"k.k djus vkSj le> cukus dk dke djuk pkfg, A bl eksM+ ij] tc lkezkT;oknh foÙk iwath us izfrfØ;koknh rkdrksa ds lkFk xBtksM+ cukdj etnwj oxZ vkSj O;kid tu leqnk; ij tcjnLr geyk NsM+k j[kk gS] bl uo&mnkjoknh] uo&mifuosf'kd pj.k ds Bksl ewY;kadu ds vk/kkj ij] Hkkdik¼ekys½ jsM LVkj dks pkfg, fd og Økafrdkjh vxzxfr dks ubZ fn'kk nsus dh vxqokbZ djs A

 

Read Hindi Version of Political Resolution in PDF

[Adopted by the Tenth Congress of the CPI(ML) Red Star]

1. Presently the situation in India has changed drastically. The rightist Congress led government has given way to the ultra-rightist BJP led Government. But that is not the phenomenon only in India. The world today presents a mixed picture. On the one hand, in many Latin American countries the Left are being voted to power, and the recent success of the Syriza in Greece is quite as spectacular. On the other hand, in several countries across the globe the Right and the Ultra-Right are being returned to power with a vengeance. In Turkey, the Erdogan regime got a larger percentage of the vote after the struggle at Taksim square than before. In Nepal, the government of the UCPN (Maoist) has been replaced by the openly rightist Nepali Congress government. In Egypt, the leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood was stopped, but only by the army taking over power once again. Still, the youth in general do not appear to be attracted by the ideas put forward by the revolutionary left. Rather, their opposition to rightist regimes and policies is reflected in their gravitation towards sundry alternatives like the Aam Aadmi Party in India or the Greens, NGOs, etc., which have no radical alternatives to put forward against the reactionary ruling system which is speeding up imposition of the neo-liberal policies.

2. The situation in around 1950s was exactly the opposite. The upsurge of the international communist movement was so powerful that half of the land of the world and a third of the population were living in socialist countries. Powerful national liberation movements were challenging the vestiges of colonial domination. Strong communist parties were leading the movements of the working class and oppressed peoples in a number of countries. Since then, however, there has been a decline. It was usual for us, earlier, to blame Khruschevite revisionism for this decline. However, even the Chinese Party, even though it led the opposition to Khruschevite revisionism, itself fell prey to left deviation and, subsequently, revisionism. Many of the Marxist-Leninist parties which emerged in large number of countries all over the world finally accepted that both the USSR and China were not socialist any more but had degenerated as imperialist countries, colluding and contending for power with US and other imperialists. However, many of these Marxist-Leninist parties have simply vanished without a trace, while many have degenerated all over the world either into becoming neo revisionists or left adventurists. The problem with the international and national communist movement therefore is clearly not only the problem of Khruschevite revisionism or neo-revisionism or the left sectarianism that the Chinese leadership succumbed to. The solutions must be sought even deeper than this.

3. In 2004, fighting against a section within the party which wanted to go closer to the CPI(M), the then CPI(ML) Red Flag had reached a conclusion that it was necessary to unite all sections of the ML forces who were opposed to both right revisionism and left sectarianism. It undertook an experiment in this regard of forging a unity "with differences". It was guided by the understanding that the Communist party must have a mechanism for solving all problems of program, strategy and tactics on the basis of a democratic procedure, once the basic ideas of class struggle, dictatorship of the proletariat and democratic centralism are accepted. That our understanding and faith was misplaced is a testament of history. The section with whom the unity was forged based on the agreement that through a Conference the majority line shall be evolved and it will be accepted by all as the general line for practice rejected it, making this experiment a failure. There were gains from this experience, may not be so much in terms of membership and spread, but in terms of learning the problems that the movement faced.

4. In the subsequent All India Special Conferences in Bhopal in 2009 and in the Ninth Party Congress held at Bhubaneshwar in 2011 we have succeeded to address many questions related to problems faced by the communist movement and put forward some new developments of thought. We were able to put forward our understanding of the neo-colonial phase of imperialist domination as distinguished from the colonial phase. We accepted that there has been a growth of capitalistic type of relations even in the agricultural sector while remnants of feudal relations still existed. We accepted the reality that new classes were developing in the rural areas. We were able to clearly show that Mao himself said that the foot must not be cut to fit the shoe, but rather the path of revolution in each country must follow the concrete conditions of that country. We were able to openly and without hesitation or apology reject the path of protracted people's war for India. We have put forward the necessity to link the struggle for protection of nature with the class struggle.

5. With this new understanding also came glimpses of what was the problem with the communist movement in the world. It was no coincidence that the decline of the International Communist movement had started taking place since around 1950s, the same time as imperialism had changed from the colonial phase to the neo-colonial phase of plunder. When Marx was writing about capital, it was the stage of free competition and he naturally could not foresee that capitalism would develop into a new phase – imperialism. Around the turn of the 20th century, when capitalism was developing into imperialism and free competition was giving way to monopoly, Lenin who, having read all the literature on the subject, laid bare the machinations of the new capitalist cartels and exposed that imperialism was nothing but a higher stage of capitalism. They were talking about how the capitalists had formed cartels, about how the big banks were not only loaning money to industrialists but were entering into industrial ventures on their own thus forming "finance capital". They were talking about how war was inevitable in such a scenario where groups and sections of capitalists, backed by certain states would have to fight it out for the raw materials and markets of the world. Lenin in around 200 pithy pages laid bare the machinations of the new capitalist cartels and exposed that imperialism was none other than a higher stage of capitalism. In continuation to this the basic contradictions of this era were then put forward by the Communist International as: (1) between imperialism and the oppressed nations and peoples of the world; (2) between capital and labour; (3) between socialism and imperialism; and (4) among the various imperialist countries.

6. It was Lenin who extended the theory of the workers in the imperialist countries uniting to liberate themselves from their wage-slavery to the peoples of the exploited countries liberating themselves from imperialism. It was the Bolshevik party under the leadership of Lenin which put forward the thesis of turning the world war into civil war in Russia and of the essential link between the movement of the workers for socialism in the imperialist countries and the movement of the peoples of the oppressed nations for national liberation. It was on the basis of this understanding that the original slogan of the Communist Manifesto, "Workers of the world unite" was subsequently developed to "Workers and Oppressed Peoples of the World, unite!"

7. We may well criticize this understanding of the world, in retrospect, as being inadequate. It did not say anything about the environment and "sustainable development". It did not put forward a new paradigm of "development". It did not give a clear enough understanding of the problem of women's liberation. It did not even have a whiff of the need for fighting against caste, colour, "race", etc. However, such a judgement would clearly partake of idealism. We would be trying to judge the leaderships and movements of those times on the anvil of today's social structure and understanding.

8. Based on this General Line the international communist movement grew from strength to strength till the 1950s. The main thrust behind this growth was the basis line laid down by the understanding of imperialism put forward by Lenin. No doubt, this understanding had to develop – and it was developed to a very great extent. This understanding was also able to grip the masses and become a social force. Even, till after 1950s, when many countries of the world had come under neo-colonial domination, even the ruling classes in the countries under neo-colonial domination had agreed, at least in words, that colonialism and neo-colonialism must be opposed. The writings of Nkrumah on neo-colonialism, the acceptance of the Bandung Declaration and the starting of the Non-Aligned Movement were all testaments to this felt need. There was a profound change in the situation in the world around 1950s. Bretton Woods Conference had given rise to a new economic system of which the WB and the IMF were the pillars. There was a massive proliferation of MNCs. Green revolutions started taking place all over the world. Connected to this was the political system put in place. Not only the formation of the United Nations Organization as a world body, but also the acceptance of the UN Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 which then became the basis for most of the Constitutions written during that period (though each Constitution did have its particularities). New blocs were formed like SEATO, CENTO, NATO, Warsaw Bloc, etc. Soon discussions started on the GATT and finally in 1995 the WTO was formed. On the philosophical front, post modernism took on an ever growing role and became the theoretical backbone for the proliferation of reactionary schools of thought and became the basis of formations like NGOs.

9. The International Communist Movement responded to these changes in two ways. Firstly, under Khruschev, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union took the line that with the disappearance of colonies, imperialism itself had become very weak and that there was now no more need of revolutionary change. The Socialist camp and the imperialist camp would now peacefully coexist, compete peacefully on the market and finally, seeing the innate superiority of the socialist system, the newly independent colonies would peacefully transform themselves to socialism. The Chinese Communist Party opposed this analysis and put forward that the disappearance of colonies did not herald the disappearance of imperialism. They put forward that the old colonial system had given way to a new neo-colonial system, which, they emphasized, was more pernicious than the earlier colonial system. However, beyond this short analysis made in "Apologists of neo-colonialism", the CPC did not take this further forward. The General Line document made an attempt to put forward a strategy for the communist movement in the new situation. Though it was not developed further, its contents are relevant in today's communist movement too.

10. This clearly outlines the need for a theoretical offensive. At the international level we are one of the few parties which are now willing to see the real concrete situation. We are willing to make a self-criticism of our past and are also willing to make an attempt to rectify these mistakes. We are therefore in a stronger and more advantageous situation for undertaking such a theoretical offensive. What does such an offensive entail? a) We have to undertake a thorough study and analysis to identify the causes of the collapse of the erstwhile socialist countries, especially Soviet Union and China; b) We have to launch a vigorous ideological struggle to establish across society the superiority of communism over the present ruling system as well as over various alien trends; c) We have to develop Marxism-Leninism on the basis of a concrete analysis of the concrete situation.

11. We have already made certain theoretical gains. We have a deeper understanding today of the neo-colonial system. We have found that in India and in many other countries under neo-colonial domination, there has been an ever more capitalistic system being introduced in agriculture. We have understood the importance of the environmental question and given it the importance it deserves. Many more questions still face us such as further studies on the nature of imperialism today, the meaning of a new paradigm of development and the building of socialism with greater democracy .We have to face such questions fearlessly and study them.

12. We must take up a clear, unsparing and scientific analysis of our past! Without this we cannot make a correct objective analysis of the present. This will mean asking a lot of uncomfortable questions and shedding some of our dearly held conceptions. This is necessary even to begin a theoretical offensive. Even during such an offensive we may, many times come to the conclusion that many of the positions put forward by us in the past were wrong. We must be able to boldly put forward a clear and pointed self-criticism including how and why we went wrong. This requires that we must build up an atmosphere of trust, openness and frankness within the party. We must not be scared of analyzing the situation of ours and of others around us and must go, in practice, to wherever such an analysis takes us.

13. We must develop a system of propagating our ideas to the masses. To do that requires not only a good development of our publications but also a more systematic use of the social media. We have to develop such a style of writing which will help the people to clearly understand what we stand for in the concrete situation of today.

14. A party does not consist of a few thinkers and a mass of doers. Today there is a great gap in the consciousness of a few leading cadres and of the rest of the cadres in the party. A systematic method of developing the party study schools etc must be undertaken to build up the party as a whole.

15. Even with party study schools, etc we will not be able to propagate the ideas for a theoretical offensive on our own. We have to take the help of mass organizations like cultural organizations, anti-caste organizations, trade unions, peasants' organizations, etc for this purpose. We must involve all such organizations into the debate on the real questions which are facing the people today and must use their resources to propagate radical solutions for such questions.

16. The task before us is to take up the building of the communist movement in India and to play active role in doing so in the rest of the world. A major part of this task is to take such a theoretical offensive as we have outlined above. We must boldly seize the real questions of the people in today's situation and must scientifically search out the solutions. We must unsparingly lay bare our own history, the history of the communists in India and all over the world. We must make a base for combining with all sections of the people who are fighting against the injustice caused by the present imperialist-capitalist system – whether in intensifying the human labour, in all forms of environmental damage, gender injustice, caste and racial injustice, persecution of minorities, etc. We must fervently organize the workers and peasants to face the new situation. Students, youth etc must be rallied on the basis of the new understanding. It is precisely if we develop the correct theory, that we will not have to go behind the workers, peasants, youth, women, dalits, etc – they will be drawn forward to the correct theory. This true measure of the theoretical offensive has to be grasped and carried forward.

Central Committee,

CPI(ML) Red Star.

Dated 28th April, 2015.

 

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The Communist movement in India has a history of almost a century after the salvos of October Revolution in Russia brought Marxism-Leninism to the people of India who were engaged in the national liberation struggle against the British colonialists. It is a complex and chequered history.